(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Notes, critical and practical, on the book of Judges: designed as a general help to Biblical reading and instruction"

NOTES 



ON 



DUELS AND DUELLING, 



ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED, 



WITH A 



PRELIMINARY HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



BY LORENZO SABINE. 



BOSTON: 

CROSBY, NICHOLS, AND COMPANY, 

111 WASHINGTON STREET. 
1855. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by 

LORENZO S ABINE, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



CAMBRIDGE: 
STEREOTYPED AND FEINTED BY METCALF AND COMPANY. 




PREFACE. 



THIS page the last to be written is the author's own. 
Here he may speak to his reader without restraint, and, if he 
will, as to a friend. The writer, in availing himself of the privi- 
lege accorded to all, would remark, in the first place, that who- 
ever opens this volume in the expectation of finding mention of 
every challenge given and of every duel fought, in the United 
States or elsewhere, will be disappointed. The work, in its 
claims as a record, is sufficiently moderate. 

Bred to active business, and employed nearly the whole of his 
life in commercial or kindred pursuits, the author's leisure hours 
only have been devoted to books. In order to make the most of 
these hours, the plan of taking and filing away for use, as occa- 
sion might admit, memoranda of incidents and facts of interest, 
was adopted in early youth, and has been continued until the 
present moment. These NOTES are, then, simply the results of 
common and every-day reading, observation, and conversation, 
for a series of years, in this particular direction. 

As, in preparing the "American Loyalists " for the press, the 
author was cheered in seasons of discouragement by the reflec- 
tion, that his labors would at least diminish the hate which had 
existed for two generations between the inhabitants of the British 
Colonies and those of his native country, between the losers 
and the winners in the Revolutionary strife, and their children, 
and thus hasten the period of a peaceful and permanent 

252632 



IV PREFACE. 

union : so now, he would humbly cherish the belief that the 
influence of these tales of blood and crime will be to lessen the 
number of single combats between persons who may rightfully 
claim the appellation of gentlemen, and so do something to ad- 
vance the great cause of human brotherhood. 

The account of a single hostile meeting, however sad the 
details, seldom leaves a deep and lasting impression : but, unless 
the author much mistakes the nature of the human mind, the 
effect upon the votaries of the duello of the reading at one 
time, and in course, of several hundred challenges and duels, 
which embrace accounts of almost every imaginable form of 
injury and affront, and of almost every possible variety of result 
to the parties and to their friends and families, must be far dif- 
ferent. Certain it is, that, but for this thought, the task now 
completed would never have been undertaken. 

There are many in New England who will object, because 
terms of unconditional, indiscriminate condemnation of the duel- 
list have been withheld. /With all respect, be it so. Yet let it 
be said in reply, that the sympathy manifested in these pages 
is in no case for the crime, but always for the unhappy social 
position of the duellist. Most persons, it is apprehended, who 
calmly consider the subject as it actually is, will assent to and 
fully appreciate the duellist's plea ; namely, that, if wronged or 
insulted, he is required to choose between a violation of human 
and divine laws on the one hand, and the loss of his place in so- 
ciety- on the other ; and that of consequence, and do what he 
may, he falls a helpless sacrifice. While, then, there is a grave 
sin to condemn, there is also a feeling of commiseration to in- 
dulge. 

During my investigations, I have been convinced of the 
entire justice of the remark of the great British novelist of mod- 
ern times, that "few successful duellists (if the word successful 
can be applied to a superiority so fatal) have beheld their dead 
antagonist stretched on the earth at their feet, without wishing 
they could redeem with their own blood that which it has been 



PREFACE. V 

their fate to spill." The scene in the Monastery, between Sir 
Piercie Shafton and Halbert Glendinning, where the passage 
above cited occurs, is drawn from real life : and this volume 
contains more than one instance in which the fallen duellist liter- 
ally tendered his unharmed adversary his purse, and counselled 
him to fly and save himself; in which the latter "tore his hair 
for very sorrow, as he looked on the pale countenance of his 
victim " ; and in which he exclaimed, in vain penitence, like Hal- 
bert, " Why did I provoke him to an issue so fatal ! Would to 
God I had submitted to the worst insult man could receive from 
man, rather than be the bloody instrument of this bloody deed." 

Such are the general reasons that have induced the author, 
except in particular cases, to spare the individual man ; but to 
spare him only that the Public Opinion, the Fashion around 
him and enslaving him, and which, inexorable in their demands, 
impose upon him alternatives so appallingly cruel, so utterly 
unworthy of the civilization of the age, might be assailed with 
the greater force. 

Again : the author, during his researches, has been much im- 
pressed with the fact that most duels grow out of trifles ; or, as 
Scott states it, out of " the taking of the wall, or the gentle rub of 
the shoulder in passing each other, or a hasty word, or a mis- 
conceived gesture." And the reader of these NOTES will find 
ample illustrations of the sentiment of Sir Henry Lee, that in- 
veterate quoter of Shakespeare, and stout old adherent of the 
Stuarts, in Woodstock, that " The mother of mischief is no 
bigger than a gnat's wing ; and I have known fifty instances in 
my own day, when, as Will says, 

' Gallants have been confronted hardily 
In single opposition, hand to hand,' 

in which, after the field was fought, no one could remember the 
cause of quarrel." 

To assume, as may be done without violence to the general 
truth, that a large proportion of the cartels are given for trivial 



VI PREFACE. 

causes, and to assume, also, that REMORSE is wellnigh the uni- 
versal companion of the " successful " duellist, may not gentle- 
men in duelling communities be kindly asked, Whether the 
CODE OF HONOR ought not now to le abolished ? In view of 
the latter proposition especially, may they not be gently remind- 
ed ere resolving to appeal to the pistol of the long roll of 
those, who, once the pride and hope of the country, went to 
untimely graves, and of those who, " successful " enough to sur- 
vive, lived on with wan and haggard face, seeming to say to all 
observers : " BE WARNED ! " We 

" Eat our meal in fear, and sleep 
In the affliction of these terrible dreams 
That shake us nightly." 

One word more. Entire accuracy, in a work of this descrip- 
tion, is not perhaps possible, and for reasons which every stu- 
dent of history will understand without explanation. Yet it may 
be proper to observe, that, as authorities often differ, and some- 
times, indeed, absolutely contradict one another in material cir- 
cumstances, the writer has been compelled in several cases to 
select the account which appeared the most probable, and in 
others, to omit every detail beyond the simple facts of a hostile 
meeting and its result to the parties. The assurance needs only 
to be added, that he has designed to arrive at the truth, and to 
state it in all singleness of purpose. 

Framingham, November, 1854. 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 
CHAPTER I. 

PAGK 

Judicial Duel, or Wager of Battle. General Remarks. France. 
England ... 1 

CHAPTER H. 

Duelling. Antiquity. France. Great Britain. United States. 

Sweden. Germany. Prussia. Naples. Malta ... 5 

CHAPTER III. 

Tournament, or Mock Duel. Joust. Championship of England. 
Prize Fight. Boxing 15 

CHAPTER IV. 

Challenges and Duels of Kings, Generals, Naval ^TSesimanders, and 
Knights. Duelling in the Church ; among Authors, Artists, 
and Women v 25 

CHAPTER V. 

. 29 



CHAPTER VI. 
Trivial Causes of Duels. Disgraceful and Ridiculous Duels . . 35 



Vi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 
Opinions of Eminent Men. Public Sentiment 38 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Reflections on the Eve of a Duel. Sin and Absurdity of Duelling. 
Remorse of Duellists 45 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS . . . . . . .49 

ADDENDA ... 317 



APPENDIX. 

No. I. Efforts of General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to suppress 

Duelling 321 

No. II. Sentiments of the Hon. Robert Barnwell Rhett, late Senator 

in Congress from South Carolina, on the Subject of Duelling . 326 
No. III. Sentiments of Eliphalet Nott, D.D., on Duelling . . 330 
No. IV. The Law of England relative to Challenges and Duels . 337 

No. V. Extract from the Spectator, No. 99 340 

No. VI. From the Tatler 341 

No. VII. Extracts from the Spectator . . . . . . 348 

No. VIII. From the Guardian 354 

No/ IX. Ridiculous Quarrels 355 

No. X. Death of Hon. Jonathan Cilley . . . ... .359 

No. XL Duelling in the District of Columbia .... 363 

No. XII. Judge Pirtle on Duelling . . . - . . . .371 

No. XIII. Duelling Customs . . . * 371 

No. XIV. The Sword-Players of the Last Century . . . .372 

No. XV. The Duellist 376 

No. XVI. Trifles to amuse, and yet with a Lesson .... 379 
No. XVII. Duelling: a Tale of Woe 384 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



CHAPTER I. 



JUDICIAL DUEL, OR WAGER OF BATTLE. GENERAL REMARKS. 
FRANCE. ENGLAND. 



THIS form of combat is of great antiquity. It was authorized, 
says Blackstone, in the laws of Gundebald, A. D. 501, which are 
preserved in the Burgundian code. It was founded on the pre- 
sumption that a brave man did not deserve to suffer, and that a 
coward did not deserve to live. Confined at first to some tribes 
of Germany, it was established, finally, in all the, monarchies of 
Europe. The appeal was directly to God, in the unfaltering 
faith that he would protect the party whose quarrel was just. 
If the person accused was victorious, he was acquitted as inno- 
cent ; if he was def6ated, he was pronounced guilty, and sub- 
jected to the punishment prescribed by law for his offence. I( 
the accuser was vanquished, he was liable to the penalties that 
would have fallen upon the accused. In civil cases, also, this 
combat was the common arbiter between disputants to landed 
estates, and the various kinds of personal property ; and even in 
suits commenced before the tribunals, a party dissatisfied with 
the proceedings might throw down his glove and challenge a 
judge to defend himself in the field. Several descriptions of 
persons were, however, exempted from the necessity of entering 
the lists to maintain their innocence, or to protect their property, 
and among them were women, ecclesiastics, young men under 
twenty and old men above sixty years of age, and men who 
were sick, infirm, or maimed ; but all these could employ cham- 
pions to fight in their vindication. Such are the general out- 
lines of the judicial duel, as it existed in Europe for a consider- 
able period. Essential modifications were' made from age to 
1 



2 JUDICIAL DUEL. 

age, until at last it was limited in most nations to accusations of 
a criminal nature, and in some, to those which were punished 
with death. 

The forms of preparation, and the combat itself, were solemn 
and imposing. No person, whatever was his wrong, could take 
vengeance in his own right, and during his first emotions of an- 
ger, as in the modern duel. There were judges, or other magis- 
trates, before whom the injured party was required to relate his 
injuries, and of whom he was compelled to ask permission to 
prove, in duel, that his accusation was true. The accused was 
summoned before the same functionaries, and made answer to 
the charges preferred against him ; and days, and even months, 
elapsed before the judges pronounced an opinion. Meantime, 
ecclesiastics and friends were commonly employed to persuade 
the parties to adjust their difficulty without a conflict. Overtures 
of reconciliation failing, and the accuser and the accused swear- 
ing to the truth of their original statements, they were conducted 
to a spot appointed, and allowed to try the issue between them 
in mortal strife. 

In theory, as will be seen, the combatants always fought in a 
just cause. But it could not have been so in fact, nor was it so 
in many cases, even in the belief of the parties themselves, and 
those who in passion, or from unworthy motives, took up an 
unrighteous quarrel, resorted to various expedients to relieve 
their consciences, and to put themselves in the right. These 
evasive shifts are well illustrated in the story of a knight who 
entered the lists upon a case which he knew was wrong, and 
who, to change the issue, fled at the first onset. " Turn, cow- 
ard !" exclaimed his antagonist. "Thou liest!" retorted the 
knight : " coward I am none, and in this quarrel will I fight to 
the death ; but my first cause of combat was unjust, and I 
abandon it." 

Under such an institution, duels upon mere points of honor, 
and in which gentlemen defended their words and acts with 
their swprds, were sure to follow : and it is historically tfue, 
I am led to conclude, that modern Duelling had its origin in 
the Wager of Battle. 

FRANCE. 

As in England, the Judicial Duel was, at one period, the uni- 
versal umpire in disputes between individual subjects. All 



FRANCE. ENGLAND. 3 

X/ U 

cases, whether civil or criminal, were submitted to its decision, 
and the proceedings were conducted gravely, and in accordance 
with established rules. Parties were finally allowed, as else- 
where in Europe, to fight by champion, both to secure the rights 
of the aged and infirm, and to prevent the frequent risk of life 
by persons of rank. Thus sons often fought in the disputes of 
fathers, and nobles or gentlemen appeared in the lists in behalf 
of their sovereigns. A memorable instance of the latter occurred 
about the close of the twelfth century. A French champion 
went over to England to fight any one who should assert that 
Philip, king of France, had done wrong to King John, but fled 
ingloriously when confronted by his adversary ; and, not daring 
to return to his native country after such proof of his cowardice, 
took shelter in Spain. The last case of judicial combat in France, 
authorized by the magistrates, was in the year 1547, between 
M. Jarnac and M. de la Chestaigne$ie. 

ENGLAND. 

The Anglo-Saxons, according to some writers, " allowed an 
appeal to the judgment of God " by single combat ; l but others 
state that the Judicial Duel, or Wager of Battle, was unknown in 
England until the Norman Conquest, when it soon became a reg- 
ular part of the jurisprudence of the country, and was regulated 
by certain fixed and solemn forms. 

Henry the Second disliked the custom, and though he did not 
venture to abolish it in criminal cases, he still introduced a change 
which gave the right to either party in civil actions to choose 
between it and a trial by grand assize or jury. In the reign of 
John the judicial duel was revived ; and that monarch kept a 
number of bravos to determine his disputes with his barons. In 
the time of Edward the Third this mode of adjusting controver- 
sies had attained its original influence over the public mind, and 
was generally preferred to any other form of judicial procedure. 

But it became obsolete in the reign of Elizabeth. The last 
trial, in 1571, was a mere sham. Upon a dispute relative to the 
title to some manorial lands, the defendant claimed to maintain 
his possession by duel. The adverse party accepted the chal- 
lenge, and the ordinary arrangements were made ; but the 
Queen, to avoid bloodshed, procured a settlement between the 
disputants, permitting a mock combat only, in observance of the 
formalities of the law. There was a memorable attempt to ap- 



4 JUDICIAL DUEL. 

peal to the Wager of Battle in the year 1699, upon the acquittal 
of Spencer Covvper (brother of Lord Cowper), who was charged 
with the murder of Sarah Stout. Her heir at law moved to set 
the verdict aside, and after various solemn hearings the motion 
was allowed ; but the proceedings were finally quashed in con- 
sequence of informality, and the law officers, disinclined to allow 
the first writ, refused to issue another ; and the matter was thus 
quietly disposed of without a combat. 

Strangely enough, we hear of the judicial duel in connection 
with the controversies which preceded and caused the American 
Revolution. The bill introduced into Parliament in 1774 for the 
improved " administration of justice in the Province of Massa- 
chusetts Bay," disallowed or abrogated the duel in cases of mur- 
der ; and Dunning, Burke, and others, in their opposition to the 
measure, commented upon this clause of the bill with severity. 
The former was much displeased. " I rise," he said, " to sup- 
port the great pillar of the constitution, the appeal for murder ; 

it is called a remnant of barbarism and Gothicism ; the 

whole of our constitution, for aught I know, is Gothic" And 
remarked Burke : " This is apart of a system of jurisprudence 
which ought to be viewed as a whole." The ministry allowed the 
obnoxious clause to be stricken out, with an understanding that 
the subject should be considered in a general law at an early 
day. 

In 1818 we hear again of the judicial duel in England. Wil- 
liam Ashford accused Abraham Thornton of the murder of his 
sister. Thornton threw down his glove, according to ancient 
custom, and claimed to disprove his innocence by combat. A 
case so remarkable in the nineteenth century attracted universal 
attention, and in due time it was carried before Lord Chief Jus- 
tice Ellenborough, and the other judges of the highest tribunal of 
the realm, for decision. At the hearing, the judges were in their 
robes, the lawyers in their gowns and wigs. The court affirmed 
Thornton's right; but Ashford was a boy, and declined the chal- 
lenge. The year following (1819) the WAGER OF BATTLE was 
abolished by an act of Parliament. 



DUELLING AMONG NATIONS OF ANTIQUITY. 



CHAPTER II. 



DUELLING. ANTIQUITY. FRANCE. GREAT BRITAIN. UNITED 
STATES. SWEDEN. GERMANY. PRUSSIA. NAPLES. MALTA. 



DUELLING AMONG NATIONS OF ANTIQUITY. 

IN the course of my reading I have often met the remark that 
duels were unknown in Greece and Rome, and, indeed, in any 
nation of antiquity. If a duel be " a combat between two" and 
if a duellist be " a single combatant," then the writers who make 
the statement are mistaken, since the practice of adjusting public 
and private quarrels by single combat has prevailed in every age 
and among every people. 

The meeting between David and Goliath, as recorded in sacred 
history ; the mortal strife between Jonathan and Pudens, men- 
tioned by Josephus ; the many combats of Homer's heroes ; 
the memorable combat between the three Horatii and the three 
Curiatii ; the combats between Artebarus, the noble Roman, 
and the barbarian, and of Sloza with his antagonist, were all 
duels ; and show conclusively that duelling was not unknown to 
the Hebrews and to the people of the ancient, republics. Among 
the Arabs traces of the custom are to be found as early as the 
middle of the seventh century, when Ali, son-in-law of Moham- 
med, and one of his successors, challenged Moawiyah " to 
appeal to the decision of God," and in a duel to end their dis- 
putes. 

Duelling in Europe was introduced by the nations of the North, 
and soon became universal. But it is said that no instance oc-' 
curred for the redress of private wrongs, or for the gratification 
of private hate, prior to the year 1528, and to the celebrated 
cartel of Francis ^the First of France to the Emperor Charles 
the Fifth. Such, however, is not the fact. Previous to this chal- 
lenge duels were fought by individuals, and for causes not recog- 
nized or allowed under the system of judicial combat which 
formed a part of the jurisprudence of the time. That the course 
of the two monarchs gave a sanction to the duello, and that their 
example induced gentlemen of rank, upon affronts and injuries, 
to resort to the sword more than ever before, is undoubtedly true ; 
and it may be admitted, also, that modern duelling, as far as it 



6 DUELLING. 

relates to mortal combat upon a mere point of honor, dates from 
this period. 

FRANCE. 

Duels for private injuries became common after the cartel of . 
defiance of Francis the First of France to his rival, the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth, in 1528. From that period every man of 
rank thought himself entitled to draw his sword for every affront 
which seemed to touch his honor. A look of disdain, a word 
of disrespect or slight, a haughty step, sufficed to provoke a 
challenge. 

In 1547, Henry the Second gave permission to two noblemen, 
who had been intimate friends, and who became involved in a 
quarrel in a matter of gallantry, to adjust their difference in a 
duel, and in his presence. One of the nobles fell dangerously 
wounded, and the victor desired the king to accept the life of 
the vanquished at his hands. Henry complied, but the wounded 
and defeated noble, who was a great favorite of the monarch, 
died of shame and grief at his discomfiture soon afterwards. 
Henry was so deeply moved at the result of the affair, as to 
prohibit, with an oath, any further practice of the duel in his 
dominions, while he should occupy the throne. 

Whatever the success of the edict for the moment, the sword 
was soon the universal arbiter. In the time of Henry the Fourth 
duelling was carried to an extent which appears actually incredi- 
ble. No less than four thousand French gentlemen were slain 
in ten years, upon the very lowest computation ; and some writ- 
ers state the number of victims at two thousand more. Paris 
swarmed with professed duellists, who gloried in their exploits, 
and counted up their killed with the same exultation that a sports- 
man counts his game. In fine, war itself could hardly have 
swept off more of the privileged classes than fell in private and 
frivolous quarrels. Beside the number slain, it is said that four- 
teen thousand who survived the combats in which they were 
engaged received the royal pardon, during the reign of Henry 
and his immediate successor. The combats were generally on 
Sunday morning ; and four, six, and ten young nobles would 
often engage on a side, and fight until most, seconds as well as 
principals, were mortally wounded or disabled ; and simply be- 
cause a mistress had been offended, some obeisance had been 
forgotten, or some glance had been construed into contempt. 



FRANCE. 



" All France went mad upon the duel." Attempts to suppress 
it were ineffectual. The edicts of popes, bishops, and of civil 
functionaries, were alike unheeded. At last, says Lord Herbert, 
the English ambassador, " there was scarcely any Frenchman, 
deemed worth looking on, who had not slain his man." 

In time, the fashion changed and the mania abated ; but 
France has maintained a reputation for personal combat until 
the present moment. During the political revolutions of the 
closing part of the last century duels were frequent. The re- 
mark is true of the political changes of 1830, and of those of 
subsequent dates. So, too, the sword and pistol, were freely 
used (1831) by those who assailed, and those who defended, the 
honor of the Duchesse de Berri. 

Quarrels and hostile meetings between members of the legis- 
lative assembly, since 1849, have been numerous ; while the 
fashionable young men of Paris have continued to fight about 
their mistresses with great bravery, and to the delight of their 
respective companions of the cafe and hotel. 

A brief record of the measures to suppress duelling remains. 
The edict of Henry the Second has been mentioned. Henry^ 
the Fourth ordained punishments to all persons who should in 
any way be concerned, whether as principals or seconds, or as 
carriers of challenges or of provoking and offensive messages, 
or as spectators without endeavoring to prevent the effusion of 
blood ; meting out confiscation of estate, loss or suspension of 
official employments, fines, imprisonment, degradation of rank, 
and even death, according to the guilt of each one who should 
engage in, or become witness of, the duel. Sully, his great 
minister, did not approve of this " excess of severity," and the 
measure failed, as he predicted it would ; because of the " ob- 
stacles to its execution," and because of the many pardons which 
would be granted to persons of quality, " the example and hope 
of which affording sufficient encouragement to others to infringe 
the law." 

Quite as unavailing were the edicts and efforts of Louis the 
Thirteenth, " though it was something to see a Montmorenci 
formally executed for fighting a duel." The ordinances of 
Louis the Fourteenth, in 1643, in 1651, and in 1670, were alike 
futile. But an edict of 1679, which created Courts of Honor 
with the marshals of France and the governors of provinces 
as supreme judges in differences between gentlemen ; which 
prohibited private combats within and without the kingdom ; and 



8 DUELLING. 

which declared that " those who, doubting of their own courage, 
shall have called in the aid of seconds, thirds, or a greater num- 
ber of persons, shall, besides the punishment of death and con- 
fiscation, be degraded from their nobility, and have their coat 
of arms publicly blackened and broken by the hangman," had 
,a salutary effect, and, as is said, gave the first considerable and 
permanent check to the custom. 

M. Dupin, the distinguished advocate, stated, considerately, 
a few years ago, that, in France, to kill another in single combat 
is murder ; yet, says one who wrote in 1832, " duels are not 
severely punished by the present French code." 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

The Norman Conquest introduced the institution of chivalry. 
Under the feudal system, duelling became general. The barons 
and gentlemen of rank appealed to the sword to redress their 
real or imaginary wrongs, at pleasure, and almost with impunity. 
Nobles who could neither read nor write cared nothing for the 
tribunals of justice ; and, fierce and ungovernable as they were 
ignorant, they indulged in animosities towards one another to an 
extent hardly now, in the progress of civilization, to be believed. 
In fine, the aristocracy, arrogant, turbulent, and powerful, not 
only assumed the right to avenge their own quarrels, but at times 
to determine the claims of rival aspirants to the throne by per- 
sonal combat. 

There seems to have been no change of moment until the 
reigns of Elizabeth and of her immediate successor. In truth, 
duels were more frequent at the succession of James the First, 
than at any former period. That monarch, however deficient 
in firmness of purpose, gave no countenance to the duello ; and 
though he neglected to enforce the laws, his loquacity in his 
closet and his course with particular courtiers had some influ- 
ence upon individual and the public sentiment. But the check 
was temporary. Towards the close of the reign of Anne 
(1711), " duelling," says Addison, " had become honorable, and 
the refusul to engage in it ignominious." 

The first political or party challenge was given by the great 
Duke of Marlborough to Lord Paulett, in the year 1712. The 
precedent was disastrous. Messages and combats for words 
uttered in debate succeeded, and to a degree which spread alarm. 
After the meeting between Mr. Fullarton and Lord Shelburne, 



GREAT BRITAIN. 9 

in 1780, Sir James Lovvther declared, in the House of Commons, 
that the " custom of fighting duels in consequence of parliamen- 
tary business, or of expressions dropped in either house, seemed 
growing into such a custom, that it was necessary for them to 
interpose their authority, before it acquired the force of a settled 
habit, otherwise there must be an end of all freedom of debate, 
and consequently of all business in Parliament." But members 
of both houses continued to meet with sword and pistol as 
before. 

In Ireland, the period of the union with England was prolific 
in political duels. The debates upon that measure were per- 
sonal beyond all example, and beyond alt decency. And so, 
at one time, during the last century, a mania for duelling seized 
the Irish lawyers. " A duel was an indispensable diploma, quite 
essential to success at the bar, and sometimes leading even to 
the bench." 

Details may be found elsewhere in these pages. It will suffice 
to remark here, that during the reign of George the Third (nearly 
sixty years), about one hundred and seventy duels are known to 
have been fought in the British Isles, or by British subjects who 
were absent in, or repaired to, other countries. Barrington 
numbers two hundred and twenty-seven " during his grand 
climacteric" Our English brethren arc very careful to remind 
us of our sins in this behalf, and are constantly commenting 
upon the quarrels of our statesmen in Congress and elsewhere ; 
forgetting, in their anxiety to reproach us, that the Dukes of 
York. Norfolk, Richmond, and Wellington, Lords Shelburne, Tal- 
bot, Lauderdale, Townshcnd, Camelford, Maiden, Paget, Lon- 
donderry, Castlereagh, Belgrave, and Thurlow, and Fox, Pitt, 
Sheridan, Canning, Wyndham, Tierney, Hastings, Francis, 
Grattan, Curran, Burditt, and many other orators and statesmen, , 
are among their own duellists. 

The measures of the British government claim a passing no- 
tice. Queen Elizabeth attacked duelling by restricting fencing- 
schools. James, her successor, relied principally upon procla- 
mations. Cromwell's Parliament, proceeding a step on parch- 
ment, enacted a law. Charles the Second proclaimed that the 
survivor of a duel should not receive the royal pardon. And 
Queen Anne mentioned the " impious practice of duelling" in 
a speech from the throne. In 1719, or the following year, Sir 
Joseph Jekyll made an effort to procure efficient legislation, but 
was opposed in the House of Lords, and failed. 



10 DUELLING. 

To kill in a duel has been a capital offence for centuries ; but, 
with two or three exceptions, the penalty has never been en- 
forced. 

In 1844, Mr. Turner moved a resolution in the House of Com- 
mons, in the hope of inducing the repeal of the existing enact- 
ments, which are practically obsolete, and substituting a provision 
that the survivor of a duel should be liable to pay the debts of a 
deceased antagonist. He was opposed by several members of 
influence, and the movement was unsuccessful. Sir Robert 
Peel, according to Wade, distrusted the efficacy of legislative 
changes, relied rather on the state of public opinion, and 
especially objected at that moment, in consequence of the recent 
formation of an association of distinguished naval and military 
officers to discountenance duelling ; while Sir Henry Hardinge 
would not disturb the statute-book, because, a few days previ- 
ously, the articles of war had been amended in a manner to pro- 
vide a remedy in the military arms of the service. 

UNITED STATES. 

Edward Doty and Edward Lester, two servingmen among 
the Puritans, were the first duellists in New England, and pos- 
sibly in the United States, as will be seen by reference to the 
notice under their names. We hear little of duels at the North 
for a long period afterwards. There is a tradition, however, that 
Castle Island (now Fort Independence), in Boston harbor, was 
once celebrated as duelling-ground for " the hot-headed sons of 
Old England." 

The public documents, the private correspondence, and the 
newspapers of the Revolutionary era, contain but few cases of 
challenge or actual combat in the Whig service ; while my per- 
sonal inquiries of Loyalist officers in the service of the crown, 
who remembered almost every incident of the kind, lead me to 
the conclusion that duelling was not frequent during the war on 
either side. Nor do I find that the practice in the American 
army excited apprehension until the year 1799, when it was 
" carried to an extreme in every point of view reprehensible and 
injurious," and drew from the general second in rank an order 
or a letter, in which he said that, although it was not his intention 
to "contravene military prejudices," yet interposition to arrest 
the progress of the evil was not only proper, but a duty. 

Early in the war with Tripoli, many of our officers becamo 



UNITED STATES. 11 

involved in quarrels among themselves, and with officers of the 
British navy on service in the Mediterranean, and several fatal 
duels followed ; but Commodore Preble, who, with the third 
American squadron, succeeded Dale and Morris in that sea, put 
an end to these controversies, and not a single hostile meeting 
occurred while he was in command. But in 1819 officers of our 
flag, and British officers in garrison at Gibraltar, indulged in dis- 
putes and duels so freely, that the governor finally issued an order 
forbidding the ships of our navy to enter the port. The attention 
of the two governments was attracted to the subject ; and after 
several conferences between our Minister in London- and Lords 
Castlereagh and Bathurst, and orders from the President to the 
American Commodore in the Mediterranean, harmony was re- 
stored. 

These general remarks will suffice. The number and fatality 
of hostile meetings in the United States are to be deplored. 
These pages are filled wrth accounts which are disreputable to 
us as a people, and which may well cause us to hang our heads 
in utter shame. If the custom were principally confined to the 
new States, we might find some reason to hope that, in the rapid 
changes in American society, the evil would soon diminish, and 
in the end disappear ; but Arkansas and California, unfortunately, 
are not alone. 

We pass, to notice the measures that have been attempted or 
adopted to suppress duelling. In Congress, as early as 1802, 
Mr. Gray of Virginia moved (in the House) to appoint a com- 
mittee to inquire into the expediency of a law to disqualify any 
person from holding an office under the government of the United 
States, who should thereafter be concerned in a duel, or in send- 
ing or carrying a challenge ; but the House refused to consider 
the subject. 

In 1806, however, an act was passed for the regulation of the 
army, which provides, that "no officer or soldier shall send a 
challenge to another officer or soldier to fight a duel, or accept 
a challenge, if sent, upon pain, if a commissioned officer, of being 
cashiered ; if a non-commissioned officer or soldier, of suffering 
corporal punishment, at the discretion of a court-martial." In 
1820, after the fall of Decatur, a resolution was submitted to the 
Committee on Military Affairs, with a design to provide by law 
a more effectual remedy to prevent duelling in the army and 
navy, and in the District of Columbia ; but the Committee re- 
ported, that the existing law, " if executed" was " amply suffi- 



12 DUELLING. 

cicnt," and asked, therefore, to be discharged from further duty. 
In 1824, Mr. Wright of Ohio offered a resolution embracing sub- 
stantially the objects of Mr. Gray's resolve in 1802 ; which, 
though referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, was hardly 
heard of afterwards. In the Senate, in 1831, Mr. Livingston 
attempted, by means of a special committee of that body, to call 
tlu; attention of Congress to the subject of duelling in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, but without success. The fatal result of the 
meeting between Cilley and Graves, in 1838, induced renewed 
efforts to suppress the barbarous custom at the seat of govern- 
ment ; and a bill " to prohibit the giving or accepting, within 
the District of Columbia, a challenge to fght a duel, and for the 
punishment thereof" after protracted and violent opposition, be- 
came a law, February 20, 1839. In 1843, at the instance of 
Mr. Stratton, the Committee on Naval Affairs were instructed by 
the House " to inquire into the expediency of reporting a bill for 
the suppression of duelling in the navy"; but, as in the previ- 
ous inquiries relative to that branch of the public service, to the 
army, and to the civil departments of the government, above 
mentioned, no legislation followed. 

In turning to the individual States, we find that statute pro- 
visions against single combats exist in all of them. In some the 
punishment is death, in others imprisonment, in still others dis- 
qualification to hold office. Nay, more. TJie Constitutions of 
Maryland, Virginia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Texas, Iowa, Wis- 
consin, Michigan, Connecticut, Missouri, and California, contain 
stipulations on the subject which seem ample. The degree of 
respect paid to both statute and constitutional law, in many of 
the States of the Union, fully appears in these pages, and need 
not be discussed here. 



SWEDEN. 

My notes relate to the reign of Gustavus Adolphus exclusively. 
About the year 1627, when duelling had become an evil of 
alarming magnitude throughout Europe, the king determined to 
suppress it entirely in his dominions. He accordingly established 
a Court of Honor, composed of the principal officers of his army, 
to try such offences as usually, in the estimation of gentlemen, 
required an appeal to the duello; and ordained that the sending 
or the accepting of a challenge should be punished with death. 



SWEDEN. GERMANY. 13 

But military men were not content with the arrangement, and 
preferred, at every hazard, to redress their own wrongs ; and to 
some extent continued to do so. A memorable instance of this 
preference has been preserved. Two of his officers, who had 
served him long and faithfully, and who desired to fight, but 
were unwilling to displease him or incur the penalty of the edict, 
urged, in a petition to the throne, that in their case liberty for a 
duel might be granted. Gustavus. consented. The two officers, 
attended by their friends, repaired to the appointed ground, 
where the king, with a body of troops, soon also appeared, and 
formed a circle around them. The combatants finished their 
preparations in the royal presence, took their places, and drew 
their weapons, when their attention was attracted to a personage 
within the ring, who, with a sabre, seemed ready to become a 
party to the combat. " Do not be surprised, gentlemen," said the 
king ; " according to the laws of your country, your lives are 

already forfeited You will therefore take notice, that, the 

instant either of you falls by the sword of his antagonist, the ex- 
ecutioner, whom you perceive yonder, has orders to strike off 
the head of the survivor." The officers, ashamed and con- 
founded, fell at the feet of their sovereign and implored his 
forgiveness, which was granted, on the condition of their recon- 
ciliation, and a solemn engagement to obedience in the future. 

The biographer of Gustavus adds, that he declared that he 
would on no other occasion forgive those who offended in like 
manner. " It is my wish," he said, " to have soldiers under my 
command, and not gladiators. If any man is desirous of freeing 
his character from the imputation of cowardice in the eyes of his 
fellow-countrymen, let him do so at the expense of the common 
enemy." All honor to the great king of Sweden ; but I derive 
an incident from another source, which affords proof that his 
course was governed by reasons of state alone ; since, in the 
height of his glory, we find him passing the frontier of his do- 
minions for the sole purpose of u offering the satisfaction of a 
gentleman " to one of his own officers whom he had offended. 

(See Gustavus the Second and Colonel Seaton.) 

GERMANY. 

In ancient times duels could be fought in Witzbourg, Uspach, 
and Halle, but nowhere else in the German dominions. Got- 
tingen, in later days, has been famous for the combats between 

2 



14 DUELLING. 

students of its University. About the year 1816, especially, the 
number of duels became alarming, and rigid measures were 
adopted to suppress them. At present, the government of the 
empire seems disposed to perform its duty. In 1851 the sur- 
vivor of a duel was compelled by the authorities to be present at 
the post-mortem examination of the body of his victim, and to 
pay strict attention to the proceedings of the surgeons. 

PRUSSIA. 

Charles Frederic was the determined foe of duelling, and 
exerted his power to suppress it. But he often lamented his 
failure. 

His successor, in 1786, established a Court of Honor for the 
trial of personal differences, and ordained that the duellists should 
be subject to the following penalties : 

" Any officer or gentleman striking his equal, in any manner whatso- 
ever, to be declared infamous, and be confined in a fortress for life. 

" If the person who received the blow should happen to be the ag- 
gressor, by any sort of outrage, he shall be confined for three or six 
years, according to the aggravation of his offence ; and if an officer, 
he shall be struck off, besides the imprisonment. Persons sending or 
accepting a challenge, instead of applying to this Court, to be confined 
in a fortress for three or six years. 

" A duel taking place, and one of the parties being killed, the sur- 
vivor to be considered as an assassin, and punished with death ; and if 
none of the parties should fall, both shall be imprisoned in a fortress 
for ten years, and even for life. 

" Persons laying hold of a weapon in a private quarrel, though mak- 
ing no use of it, to be confined for three years. 

" Any person threatening another with a duel, or some material in- 
jury, to be considered as a violator of the public peace, and confined 
for one or two years. 

" Any person flying his country, after fighting a duel, to forfeit his 
estate during his life, and his effigy to be stuck to the pillory. 

" Any person acting in a duel as second, to be punished with five 
years' imprisonment in a fortress ; and a life being lost, the confinement 
of the second to extend to ten years. 

" Any person abetting or enticing another to demand satisfaction 
by means of a duel, to be punished with one or several years' imprison- 
ment. The same punishment to be inflicted on any one casting a re- 
flection on, or showing a pointed disrespect for, a person applying to 
this Court. The offender, in this case, to be likewise deprived of his 
employments and titles of honor. 

" Any dispute attended with extraordinary circumstances, to be re- 
ferred to the throne." 



TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUEL. 15 

These regulations had some influence in checking the evil for 
a time ; but in the lapse of a few years, duellists in Prussia were 
as numerous as elsewhere in Europe, and were as seldom pun- 
ished. The penalty in that kingdom, in 1842, was imprisonment, 
except in " foul fighting," whe"n it was death. That the laws 
upon the subject were sometimes enforced, appears from the 
fact, that, a few years previous (1828), a nobleman, who slew 
his antagonist, was deprived of alt his honors, and that those 
concerned in the affair were committed to close prison. 

NAPLES. 

The Neapolitans have been regarded as the best swordsmen 
in Europe. Perhaps they are so. They have unfaltering faith 
in the duello ; but, contenting themselves with inflicting a wound, 
or with merely drawing blood, their affairs of honor are seldom 
serious or terminate fatally. 

MALTA. 

As late, certainly, as the year 1832, duelling was allowed by 
law. But the parties were required to meet in a certain desig- 
nated street, and to put up their swords at the request or com- 
mand of a woman, an ecclesiastic, or a knight. It was the cus- 
tom to commemorate a death by duel by painting a cross on the 
wall opposite to the spot where the victim was slain. A travel- 
ler counted some twenty of these mementos. 



CHAPTER III. 

TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUEL. JOUST. CHAMPIONSHIP OF ENG- 
LAND. PRIZE FIGHT. BOXING. 

TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUEL. 

SOME writers are disposed to find the germ of the tournament 
in the public games and contests of Greece and Rome, while 
others, anxious to find no resemblance between it and any cus- 
tom of antiquity, treat it as an institution purely Gothic, and as 



16 TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUEL. 

belonging to the era of chivalry. Our first certain knowledge 
upon the subject is about the year 918, when we hear of " regu- 
lations " ordained by Henry the Fowler, king of Germany ; and 
in 1066, when Geoffrey de Priuli collected the rules and Cus- 
toms of the tournament into a code ; and from this period it was 
regulated by distinct laws. It was reserved by kings and queens 
originally to commemorate some important event, either in the 
royal family or in national affairs ; but it soon became common 
among private gentlemen who were skilled in the use of the 
lance or sword. Heralds were sent throughout the land, and 
sometimes to foreign countries, to announce to all noblemen and 
ladies, that on a certain day, and near a certain castle or abbey, 
the king, or a body of knights, (as the case might be,) would hold 
a grand tournament, at which all brave knights and gallant gentle- 
men might appear and try their prowess. At first the weap- 
ons were blunt, and the contests commonly harmless ; but sharp 
weapons were finally introduced, and combats occurred that 
hardly differed from the modern duel. The tournament pre- 
vailed in most of the countries of Europe, and no efforts were 
made to suppress it until a number of princes and other persons of 
distinction had either lost their lives or been seriously injured ; 
when the Church and several monarchs issued their mandates of 
prohibition. 

We have an account of a grand tournament exhibited by 
Philip of France, in the year 1344," which contains details of a 
serious nature. Among the nobles present were several who, 
in the difficulties with England, had taken part with Edward, 
and who, lured to the scene, were secured and put to death. 
The English monarch, in revenge, sent Philip a defiance to meet 
in personal combat, and made immediate and extensive prepara- 
tions for renewing hostilities between the two countries. 

In 1520, there was a famous pageant near the castle of 
Guisnes, in France, which continued some two weeks, and at 
which the kings and queens of France and England were pres- 
ent. The whole time was devoted to feats of arms and gay 
carousals. The monarchs themselves entered the lists, and, with 
their chosen knights, tilted with spears against all comers for six 
days ; the tourney with the broadsword on horseback occupied 
two days more ; and combats on foot at the barriers concluded 
the affair. "Two unfortunate accidents put,an end in France to an 
amusement which, as was pithily said, was "too much for a jest, 
and too little for earnest." In 1559, Henry the Second held a 



TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUEL. 17 

tournament in honor of the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth 
to Philip, king of Spain, and entered the lists in person. After 
breaking the lances of several antagonists, he desired to run a 
tilt with a young officer of the Scottish guards (who became sub- 
sequently the Count Montgomery), and was mortally wounded in 
the encounter. From this period we date a decline ; but the 
tournament was not entirely prohibited and abolished until the 
year 1605, when, at the last in the kingdom, Francis de Bassom- 
pierre, of the princely house of Cleves, was dangerously hurt by 
the lance of his antagonist, the Duke of Guise. 

The tournament was introduced into England by the Normans, 
soon after the conquest. We hear of it in the reign of Stephen, 
as early as the year 1136; and we find that in 1215, immedi- 
ately after King John had conceded to the barons at Runnymead 
the great charter of English liberties, a great tournament pro- 
posed to be held by the barons at Stamford, in commemoration 
of their triumph, was postponed in consequence of their distrust 
of the king's sincerity. But as Geoffrey, son of Henry the Sec- 
ond, was slain in a tilt at Paris, and as the Pope had formally 
and unconditionally prohibited all martial meetings of the kind 
under severe penalties, we hear little of the savage amusement 
until the reign of Richard the First. That monarch, while 
abroad in the Crusades, had observed that the French knights, 
in the management of the horse and the lance, were much supe- 
rior to his own ; and attributing the difference principally to the 
tournament, which prevailed in France, he determined to re- 
move the inferiority by the same course of training. Tilts, 
under the royal sanction, soon became popular. 

Five of the tournaments in the reign of Edward the Third 
are of sufficient interest to claim a passing notice. The first 
was in London in 1330, to commen^prate the birth of E.dward 
the Black Prince, with thirteen knights on a side ; a tempo- 
rary tower was erected for the accommodation of the queen and 
her ladies, but so slight and insecure as to break down, to the 
great terror of all present. No one was hurt ; but the king, in 
a tempest of rage, vowed instant death to the careless workmen, 
but was appeased by the queen, who threw herself at his feet 
and implored his clemency. The next was in 1338, when the 
Earl of Derby, who had distinguished himself both at home and 
in the Holy Land, invited Sir Alexander Ramsay to meet him 
at Berwick with twenty knights and gentlemen, to tilt with an 
equal number of Englishmen. Ramsay accepted. The encounter 



18 TOURNAMENT, OR BIOCK DUEL. 

was without shields and with sharp spears ; and two of the, 
English and one of the Scotch knights were slain. The third was 
at Windsor, in 1344; and, to avoid distinction of rank, the king 
built a circular hall two hundred feet in diameter, where he 
feasted all the knights who attended at one table. The fourth 
was in honor of the wedding day of the Earl of Pembroke, who 
was accidentally killed ; the Countess led a life of retirement 
ever afterwards, devoted her fortune to public and private chari- 
ties, and founded Pembroke College. The last was at Smith- 
field in 1374, when Edward, having fallen in love with Alice 
Perrers, a married woman of great beauty, who had been a lady 
of the queen's bed-chamber, appeared with the adulteress by 
his side in a magnificent chariot, under the title of the " Lady 
of the Sun." It may not be amiss to add, that three years later, 
when the monarch was on his death-bed, he was forsaken by all, 
and that even Alice Perrers robbed him of his jewels and of the 
rings on his fingers, and abandoned him to his fate. 

Richard the Second, towards the close of his reign, and proba- 
bly the very year of his abdication (1399), after making procla- 
mation throughout the realm, held a grand tournament at Windsor. 
Forty knights and forty squires, dressed in green, and bearing 
the device of the young queen, entered the lists and maintained 
her beauty against all comers. Isabella herself, attended by the 
highest-born dames and damsels of England, was present, and 
dispensed the prizes to the successful combatants. 

Among the other courtly pageants at the coronation of Joanna 
of Navarre, queen of Henry the Fourth, in the year 1403, was 
a tournament, in which the Earl of Warwick appeared as cham- 
pion of the royal bride, and " so notably and knightly behaved 
himself, as redounded to his noble fame and perpetual worship." 

We find record of another celebrated tilt in the reign of Henry 
the Sixth, after his marriage with Margaret of Anjou, which was 
attended by throngs of princely knights and gallant men-at-arms, 
who wore garlands of daisies in the lists, in compliment to the 
Queen, who had selected this flower for her emblem. Charles 
the Seventh, a kinsman, and Charles of Anjou, an uncle of Mar- 
garet, were among the distinguished personages who displayed 
their skill in the encounters on this occasion. 

So again in the time of Edward the Fourth, in 1468, when 
the king gave his sister Margaret to the Duke of Burgundy, we 
have a wedding tourney, in which the Prince of Orange, with 
twenty knights and noblemen, met the same nunfber under the 



TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUP:L. 19 

profligate Adolf of Clevcs, and upon his challenge ; and in which 
the combats, though " with arms of courtesy," were so very 
fierce as to require interference, and the separation of the tilters 
by main force. 

The most memorable tournament at the opening of the six- 
teenth century (1506) was that given by James the Fourth of 
Scotland in honor of a Moorish or black lady who had been cap- 
tured in a Portuguese ship and carried to his court! The sable 
lady was introduced in a triumphal chariot, and gallant knights 
contended for the prizes which, by royal appointment, she was 
to adjudge. It is said, indeed, that, all the arrangements were 
on a princely scale, and that, in answer to articles of defiance to 
the chivalry of the, French court, to come over and "try con- 
clusions " with the champions of the " black ladye," several 
valiant gentlemen appeared, and that one, Sir Anthony D'Arsy, 
gained much distinction. 

As differing from any of the preceding, I select the case of 
an individual tilter of the reign of Henry the Eighth. Henry 
Howard, Earl of Surrey, was not only an accomplished noble- 
man, but the best English poet of his time. While at Florence, 
on a tour of Europe, he published a challenge to all comers, 
whether Christians, Jews, Saracens, Turks, or Cannibals, that he 
would tilt in defence of his mistress ; and in a tournament insti- 
tuted in consequence by the Grand Duke, he was victorious. 
Equally successful was the chivalrous poet at a tourney at home, 
in 1540, when the whole court assembled to witness his feats in 
arms. 

The last in England which was attended by royal and noble ; 
foreigners, was in 1554, in honor of the nuptials of Mary, who 
distributed the prizes with her own hand. The chivalry of Eng- 
land, Spain, and Flanders were present, attired in their national 
costume. Two hundred spears were broken by the combatants, 
and many of the prizes were of curious device and of consider- 
able value. The Queen's husband, Philip of Spain, entered the 
lists, and received the second prize " for the best .armor and the 
most gallant entry." Sir George Howard, brother of the Queen 
Katharine Howard, and Thomas Percy, afterwards Earl of 
Northumberland, and Lord William Howard, the high-admiral, 
won very general commendation. 

Our record of the ancient tourney will close with the mention 
of 9ne in 1572, in the reign of Elizabeth. While the Queen 
was at supper, late at night, an old man entered the palace with 



20 TOURNAMENT, OR MOCK DUEL. 

two damsels, and implored succor. In a moment, by previ- 
ous arrangement of course, ten knights in white, led by the 
Earl of Essex, and ten in blue, under the Earl of Rutland, com- 
menced a contest on horseback, with swords, which continued 
until morning, when the Queen, by the advice of the umpires, 
declared that the maidens were delivered, and put an end to the 
affair. 

An attempt was made in England in 1839 to revive the tour- 
nament according to the forms of the Middle Ages. The task 
was undertaken by the Earl of Eglintoun, who made preparation 
for a grand exhibition at Eglintoun Castle ; " but the unpropitious 
weather, with the obsolete style of the -performances, rendered it 
a failure." 

Much better success seems to have attended the recent move- 
ment in the United States. The first tourney of which I have 
any note was on the domain of the Carroll family, in Maryland, in 
1849, when sixteen knights entered the field, among whom were 
several officers of the army. Lieutenant Rhett, a recent grad- 
uate of the Military Academy at West Point, was declared victor 
of the day, and selected Miss Poultney of Baltimore " Queen of 
Beauty." Three other knights won the privilege of choosing 
Maids of Honor, namely, Messrs. Charles Howard, William Key 
Howard, and Henry Scott, all of Maryland, who several'y made 
choice of Misses Lydia Morris, Louisa Carroll, and Julia Howard. 

There was another in Virginia, near Winchester, the same 
year. The number of persons present was large, and the per- 
formances were pronounced highly honorable to those who took 
part in them. Mr. O'Bannon, of Jefferson County, was the vic- 
tor, and named Miss Bettie Taylor, of Maryland, as the " Queen 
of Love and Beauty." One of the knights wore a costume 
which was brought from the Dead Sea by Lieutenant Lynch. 

In 1851 there was a third tournament, in South Carolina. 
Twenty-six knights, magnificently dressed, rode into the lists, at 
the sound of the trumpet, and saluted the ladies. The Knight of 
St. John won the first prize, and selected the Belle of St. John for 
the Queen. She was crowned with white roses. 

In 1852 we note a fourth, which was exhibited near the Ork- 
ney Springs, Virginia. Mr. George B. Swift, who appeared as 
Richard Coeur de Lion, was victorious ; and Miss Emily Moffit 
was crowned " Queen of Love and Beauty." There was still 
another in Virginia in 1853 ; which afforded great satisfaction 
to a numerous company. 



JOUST, OR JUST. 21 

From the accounts before me, I suppose that all of these tilts 
at the South differed in several essential particulars from the 
tournaments of olden time. * 



JOUST, OR JUST. 

This was a combat between two persons, and in this was un- 
like the tournament ; and it differed in the further particular, that, 
by agreement, it might be a mortal fight, or common duel. In 
a joust to the death, the knights generally belonged to different 
countries ; in that of courtesy, they met at the close of a tourney, 
though sometimes at a place specially designated for the 'pur- 
pose. 

Two instances of the latter form will- answer the purpose in- 
tended by these notes. 

In honor of the coronation of the queen of Edward the Fourth 
of England, in 1465, a challenge for a joust of courtesy was sent 
by Sir Anthony Woodville, her Majesty's brother, to the Count 
de la Roche, the most renowned champion in Europe. The 
Count accepted the invitation, but failed- to appear. Two years 
afterwards, however, the knights met in England, and Woodville 
vanquished the French noble. 

The most celebrated joust of the sixteenth century was, I sup- 
pose, in 1590, between David Lindesay, Earl of Crawford, and 
the Lord Wells, ambassador of Richard the Second to the court 
of Scotland. Richard, by letter of Privy Seal, gave " safe- 
conduct for David de Lindesy, knight, for the duel to be fought 
with John de Welles," with his retinue of twenty-nine persons 
in armor, and twelve other knights, with their esquires, varlets, 
and pages. The combat was on London Bridge, on horseback, 
with square ground spears. The king, the nobles, and a vast 
throng, were spectators. At the signal, the joustcrs " rushed 
hastily together with a mighty force," and splintered their weap- 
ons. At the second encounter, the spears were again shivered. 
At the third, the English knight was dismounted, and fell breath- 
less to the ground, amid the cry of the multitude that he was 
killed. Lindesay, proclaimed victor, suddenly leaped from his 
horse, and, casting himself upon the neck of his antagonist, ten- 
derly embraced him until he revived, and the surgeon came to 
attend him. 

Among the distinguished jousters of a later period, Sir Philip 
Sidney, an accomplished writer and statesman of Queen Eliza- 



22 CHAMPIONSHIP OF ENGLAND. 

beth's time, deserves respectful mention. The joust was assailed 
by vigorous pens, even in the reign of Henry the Eighth ; the 
" Lyon king at arms " of the Court of James the Fifth of Scot- 
land, in a satirical poem entitled " The Justing between James 
Watson and John Barbour " ; and an English writer in an essay 
ridiculed the splendid solemnities and unnecessary bloodshed of 
the joust and the tourney, and with effect upon the public mind. 

CHAMPIONSHIP OF ENGLAND. 

The crown of England is, in theory at least, put in issue by 
appeal to the Judicial Duel, or Wager of Battle, at every demise 
of the sovereign. The custom was introduced by William the 
Conqueror. At the coronation of himself and his queen, in the 
year 1068, a cavalier completely armed rode into the hall, and, 
interrupting the festivities, uttered this challenge three times : 

" If any person denies that our most gracious sovereign, Lord William, 
and his spouse Matilda, are not king and queen of England, he is a false- 
hearted traitor and a liar ; and here I, as champion, do challenge him to 
single combat" 

This challenge has been continued to the present day. Omit- 
ting notice of the coronation of William the Second, of the 
Henrys, of Stephen and John, the Richards, the Edwards, and 
of Mary, the first that claims particular attention is that of 
Elizabeth, in 1559, when the champion, Sir Edward Dymock, 
cast down his gauntlet, and offered to defend the 

" Most high and mighty princess, our dread sovereign, Lady Eliza- 
beth, by the grace of God Queen of England, France, Ireland, defender 
of the true, ancient, and Catholic faith, most worthy empress from the 
Orcade Isles to the Mountains Pyrenee." 

The words in italics are singular, inasmuch as the Bishop of 
Carlisle was the only bishop who would consent to crown her, 
because she had declared against the " Catholic faith," and had 
become a Protestant or heretic. This was an era in the Church. 

We pass to a change in the state, and in the royal family. 
A curious incident, according to tradition, occurred at the coro- 
nation of William and Mary, in 1689. 

The substance of the story is, that after Sir Charles Dymock 
had thrown his gauntlet, and pronounced his defiance in the 
name of " our sovereign lord and lady," an unknown female 



PRIZE FIGHTS. 23 

stepped from the crowd and lifted the glove, dropped her gage, 
with a paper containing an acceptance of the challenge in behalf 
of a champion of rank and birth, who, if fair field were allowed, 
would appear in Hyde Park to defend the rights of another 
claimant to the throne ; and further, that at the time appointed 
a stalwart man repaired to the Park, and paced the ground for 
some hours as if expecting an antagonist. The legend is used 
in " Redgauntlet," but Sir Walter Scott relates it as having hap- 
pened at the coronation of George the Third, or at a time when 
the cause of the Stuarts was hopeless. 

At the coronation of George the Fourth, in 1821, Mr. Dymock 
entered Westminster Abbey on horseback, during the royal ban- 
quet, and said : 

" If any person shall deny that [his Majesty, &c., &c.] is heir to the 
imperial crown of this United Kingdom, or that he ought not to enjoy 
the same, here is his champion ; who saith he lieth, and is a false traitor, 
being ready in person to combat with him, and in this quarrel will ad- 
venture his life against him on what day soever he shall appoint." 

The championship is hereditary in the family of Dymock. 
The official champion at -the coronation of William the Fourth 
being in holy orders, a debate arose in the courts, whether the 
challenge could be given by deputy. The decision finally was, 
that the clergyman's eldest son might be allowed to appear as 
his father's representative. 



PRIZE FIGHTS. 

The term " barbarous ages " falls flippantly from our tongues. 
As we read of the strange filial piety of the Brutus who intro- 
duced the gladiatorial fight to solemnize the funeral of his father, 
we are amazed ; as we reflect upon the custom, even while the 
combatants were prisoners of war, and domestic slaves, and 
convicts, who used neither sword nor buckler, we denounce 
it as brutal ; as we pursue its history, and find free citizens of 
Rome fighting from inclination or for pay, and the greatest 
of the Caesars personally arranging a show in which three hun- 
dred pairs of gladiators were to be let loose upon one another 
to maim and slay, that he might win the plaudits of the peo- 
ple ; as we find the combat reduced to a science with professors 
to teach the wounded to fall in the most graceful postures, 
and to die in the finest attitudes ; as at last we conclude the 



24 PRIZE FIGHTS. 

record with the knowledge that hundreds, probably thousands, 
of victims were annually slaughtered in the great cities of the 
empire, merely to gratify the spectators of the amphitheatres, 
wo are shocked, and, forgetting his many crimes, eulogize the 
emperor whose edict stayed the desolating amusement. 

l>tit why deplore the past to the neglect of the present ? Why 
speak of Roman gladiators, or of the gymnastic combats of 
other ancient republics, when the same " barbarous " custom 
exists among ourselves, and among the people from whom we 
proudly claim descent ? 

There died in England, in the last century, a gladiator by 
profession, who had visited the principal parts of Europe, and 
had fought at home and abroad no less than three hundred and 
fifty times " with honor and applause." Nay, in the year 1825, 
the son of an English earl and the nephew of a British marquis, 
plied with brandy " between the rounds," and, cheered on by 
other noble youths, shamed the plebeian pugilists of the realm 
who are generally content to maim and disfigure by a contest 
with their noble fists, which ended only at the fall and death of 
one of them. 

In the United States, prize fights are by no means rare. A 
year has barely elapsed since one which would have disgraced 
Rome, at the worst period of her history, occurred near the 
boundary between Massachusetts and New York ; the gathered 
mass of human beings overawed the inhabitants, indulged in 
every excess, and retired sated with every abomination. 

In some parts of the country, the prize-fighter or modern 
gladiator is hailed as a hero ; the newspapers contain his biog- 
raphy, his portrait, and a description of his person and propor- 
tions, and wondering thousands read and comment upon the ac- 
count of the " rounds " and " hits," the wounds and bruises, 
the amount of strength exhausted, and the quantity of " claret " 
lost during his latest fight. In fine, we may spare declamation 
about the " barbarous ages," until the magistrates, high and low, 
have courage to execute the laws, and the " barbarous " cus- 
toms of duelling and boxing cease among ourselves. 



DUELS OF KINGS, GENERALS, AND NAVAL OFFICERS. 25 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHALLENGES AND DUELS OP KINGS, GENERALS, NAVAL COMMANDERS, 
AND KNIGHTS. DUELLING IN THE CHURCH; AMONG AUTHORS, 
ARTISTS, AND WOMEN. 

KINGS, GENERALS, AND NAVAL OFFICERS. 

SOVEREIGNS, heroes, the commanders of fleets and armies, 
have frequently offered to decide personal or national differences 
by duel. 

Several instances occur prior to the Christian era. Thus, 
whatever were the motives of David, the challenge on Goliah's 
part, according to Josephus, was to "determine the war" be- 
tween the Hebrews and the Philistines. In poetry, we have the 
duel between Menelaus and Paris, two of Homer's heroes, who, 
by consent of the adverse kings, and in behalf of their respective 
armies, were to decide the war. In returning to history, we 
have the cartel of Cyrus to the king of Assyria ; that of Pittacus 
to Phyrnon ; and that of Antony to Caesar. 

In later times, we have the challenges of William the Con- 
queror to King Harold, before the decisive battle of Hastings, 
and of Philip of France to Richard the First of England ; the 
combat by champions arranged between John of England and 
Philip of France ; and the cartels of defiance of Richard the 
Second and of Edward the Third of England, to the French 
monarchs with whom they had private and national disputes. 
So, again, we find that Ferdinand of Spain sent a herald to the 
camp of Alfonso, king of Portugal, to defy him to a fair field of 
fight with his whole army, or, declining that, to invite him to 
decide their differences by personal combat. In Scottish history 
we have the message of Haco, king of Norway, to Alexander 
the Third ; of Bothwell to his adversaries generally ; and, pre- 
vious to the calamitous battle of Flodden, the overture to settle 
the fate of contending parties without a conflict between the 
armies. In naval warfare, the challenge of Marshal Boucicault 
to Carlo Zeno, the commander of the fleet of Venice, at the 
commencement of the fifteenth century, and the proposition of 
our own Decatur, in the war of 1812, are examples of chivalry 
worthy of mention. And, last, the manifesto of Paul of Russia, 
3 



26 DUELLING IN THE CHURCH. 

inviting the sovereigns of Europe to settle their quarrels by 
duel at St. Petersburg, with their ministers, Pitt, BernstofF, and 
Talleyrand, as seconds, which, though conceived by a mad- 
man, deserves serious thought; for there is something grand, 
even just, in the idea of demanding kings and cabinets to meet 
in person, and in the field, the questions which can be, and ought 
to be, adjusted in council and by diplomacy. 

KNIGHTS: THEIR FEATS AND ENCOUNTERS. 

Knighthood is to be traced to Greece, and to the period when 
men of rank and wealth served in war, on horseback, at their 
private expense. 

In Europe generally, under the feudal system, the era of chiv- 
alry was one of giants and enchanters, of dragons and spells, of 
forlorn damsels and wonderful rescues, and of a thousand other 
marvels. Knighthood was designed to " direct and control the 
torrent of unprincipled courage and military violence " ; but 
whatever it may have accomplished in this respect, it certainly 
increased the practice of duelling, and " sowed the first seeds of 
that fantastic honor, the bitterness of whose fruits is still manifest 
in the modern duel." The young knight went forth without a 
quarrel, but with the determined purpose of provoking one, and 
seldom failed ; while such was the refinement of the code estab- 
lished for knightly bearing and demeanor, that visits of courtesy 
at the different courts often terminated in affairs of honor, of 
which sovereigns and courtiers were spectators. At times, not 
content with single combats, as many as ten, twenty, and even 
thirty knights would enter the lists on a side, and fight to the 
maiming or death of several of their nnmber, upon a challenge 
or boast that the reigning beauty of a certain neighborhood was 
the beauty of a kingdom or province. In a word, every young 
man of rank was trained to consider military fame and personal 
valor as paramount to religion, justice, and humanity, and to be 
the great prizes of human life. 

i 

DUELLING IN THE CHURCH. 

Among the Germans, the Danes, and the Franks, the clergy 
were compelled to maintain their controversies by the judicial 
duel, though the liberty of appearing in the lists by champion 
was allowed them. In the eleventh century, we are informed 



DUELS OF WRITERS AND ARTISTS. 27 

that, in a dispute relative to two Liturgies, two knights, clad 
in complete armor, were selected as critics to determine, in 
single combat, the true from the false form of public prayer. 
By a statute of William the Conqueror, the inferior orders of 
ecclesiastics in England were forbidden an appeal to the duel, 
without the consent of their bishop ; but questions concerning 
the property of churches and monasteries were decided, and 
the priests accompanied their champions to bless their weapons, 
on the field, there, as elsewhere in Europe, for a long period. 
In the fourteenth century, we hear of one poem in which Pi- 
late is represented as challenging our Saviour to a duel, and 
of another in which the person who pierced the side of Christ 
on the cross is described as a knight with whom he had 
jousted. Still later, we hear of challenges given and accepted 
by officiating priests at the altar; of archbishops clattering in 
armor ; of gauntlets of defiance hung up in churches ; and of 
men in holy orders who fought in quarrels which others refused 
to espouse. Such, in general terms, was the condition of the 
Church for hundreds of years ; and as far down as Shakespeare's 
time the duel arranged by the bard, in the Meny Wives of 
Windsor, between a Welsh parson and a French physician, 
serves to remind us that men in gown and surplice continued to 
use the sword until the accession of Queen Elizabeth. Indeed, 
Walpole, in 1758, speaks of a reverend doctor of divinity who 
indulged in profane swearing, and who endeavored to intimidate 
a person whom he feared would give publicity to the fact, by the 
threat that he had a kinsman in the army who would call him to 
an account ; which incident, as well as the notices of the duels 
actually fought by Murat, Allen, Bate, and others, who were 
either students of theology or ordained clergymen, affords us 
evidence that duelling in the Church did not disappear on the 
Continent or in England until near the close of the last century. 

DUELS OF WRITERS AND ARTISTS. 

Two or three centuries ago, quarrels which commenced with 
pens often ended with poniards. There was a class of writers 
who enjoyed the reputation of " fighting authors," who drew the 
sword on the reviewer that condemned a play, who offered to 
fight any of the audience that hissed, who began a work by 
challenging the critics, and who were in perpetual difficulty with 
somebody. The duels between Scott and Christie, Jeffrey and 



28 DUELLING AMONG FEMALES. 

Moore, Lamartine and Pepe, Blanc and Lacombe, Angler and 
Moncelet, and between the Baron Gourgaud and the Count 
Segur, in our own day, show that the custom has not entirely 
passed away. 

Among musicians, we have the affairs of Handel with Mathe- 
son, and of Ole Bull with a fellow-artist. Painters seem to have 
been as prone to quarrels as other men of like nice sensibilities, 
but have seldom, I conclude, resorted to the field. The inimita- 
ble Hogarth had a host of enemies, but he disposed of them all 
with his brush. Traduced by Wilkes, in the North Briton, he 
painted the demagogue's portrait, and showed up with terrible 
effect his personal and moral deformities ; embroiled with Pope, 
he drew a picture of the poet standing on a scaffold, employed 
as a whitewasher, with Lord Burlington as a fellow-laborer and 
Lord Chandos besprinkled in passing by ; angry with Churchill, 
he appeared on canvas in the character of a bear ; and displeased 
with the course of the statesmen Pitt and Temple, both were 
scourged by his unrelenting and awful pencil. 

DUELLING AMONG FEMALES. 

As the Helen of Homer was the chief cause of the Trojan 
war, and of consequence responsible for the duels between its 
heroes, as the Roman maids and matrons went in throngs to 
witness the fights of the gladiators, as the women of Greece 
were competitors for the prize in the Olympic games, as the 
Turkish ladies crowded upon the ramparts of Regal to witness 
the combats between Smith and their own champions, as the 
wives and daughters of Denmark were once compelled by cus- 
tom personally to avenge their wrongs, and fight, according to 
prescribed rules, those x>f the other sex who attempted to assail 
their honor, as the high-born dames and maidens of all Eu- 
rope, in the ages of chivalry, instigated and honored the tourna- 
ment and the joust, so have the women of France, and Eng- 
land, and America, given countenance to the modern duel. 

In the time of Henry the Fourth of France, relates Lord 
Herbert, the English ambassador, the ladies of the French 
court, at a mask under the auspices of the queen, invited the 
attentions of a duellist who had slain eight or nine adversaries, 
and each one of them, anxious to enjoy his society, would not 
allow any particular lady to engross more than a certain share 
of his time. And in the reign of another Bourbon, we are told 



WEAPONS AND RULES. 29 

of countesses contending with pistols for the possession of a cour- 
tier whose amours and affairs of honor were so numerous as to 
excite our astonishment. 

In England, Elizabeth created Mary, the high-toned wife of 
Sir Hugh Cholmondely, a knight; and she was known through- 
out the realm as " The Bold Lady of Cheshire." The queen 
herself possessed a most chivalrous spirit. When the negotia- 
tions for a matrimonial alliance between her and the Archduke 
Charles were finally broken off, by his marriage to a princess of 
Austria, the imperial daughter of Henry is said to have ex- 
claimed, that, " So great an insult had been offered to her, that, 
if she were a man instead of a woman, she would have defied 
him to single combat ! " These illustrations will suffice, since 
others will be found under the heads of Polignap, of Moussin, of 
Shrewsbury, and of Hall ; and the boast of Lola Montes, in 
1846, that she was a " better shot " than her lover, and would 
have fought his antagonist, appears in the notice of the affair be- 
tween Dujarier and Bouvallen. 



CHAPTER V. 

WEAPONS AND KULES. 

THE challenged party, it may be assumed, has always selected 
the place, distance, time, and weapons, and has thus, by a choice 
designed to be least dangerous to himself, and most hazardous 
to his opponent, possessed an advantage. The assistance of sec- 
onds, both in the preliminary arrangements and on the ground, 
was probably unknown, or at least uncommon, under the Judicial 
Duel or Wager of Battle. The practice of seconds fighting one 
another in behalf of their principals, once frequent in some coun- 
tries, has now nearly disappeared. Duels on horseback, which 
a century ago were not unusual, are rare at the present time. 
The challenging by glove was formerly universal, and in the 
history of that article of dress, its use, to throw at the feet of an 
offender as a defiance, is stated with some minuteness. Heavy 
swords, axes, and spears or lances, with bucklers, were used by 
the ancient duellists, whether mounted or on foot. The rapier 
3* 



30 WEAPONS AND RULES. 

succeeded ; and, having been approved in Continental Europe, 
was introduced into England in the year 1588, and, as it would 
seem, by a personage of the name of Rowland Yorke, who is 
called a " desperate traitor " for the innovation. Sir Walter 
Scott cites from the " Two Angry Women of Abington," a 
comedy printed in 1599, a pathetic complaint upon the sub- 
ject : 

" Sword and buckler fight begins to grow out of use. I am sorry for 
it. I shall never see good manhood again. If it be once gone, this pok- 
ing fight of rapier and dagger will come up, then a tall man, and a good 
sword and buckler man, will be spitted like a cat or rabbit." 

The pistol followed the rapier, and has become the favorite 
weapon ; though the sword is still in fashion in France, and the 
gun and rifle are occasionally selected in the United States. 

I am not aware that American duellists have ever adopted a 
written code, or that the rules among them are entirely uniform. 
Certain points, however, are well established. I suppose, for 
example, that, in a duel upon a mere question of honor, an ex- 
change of shots, whether with or without effect, is sufficient ; 
while a combat for positive wrong or deep injury may be, and 
ordinarily should be, continued until the aggressor offers satisfac- 
tory explanation or apology, or until the fall or disability of one 
of the parties. 

Again, it seems to be well settled that the challenged, in the 
matters of weapon, time, and distance, shall be governed by 
usage between gentlemen ; and that propositions to sit across a 
cask of powder, to jump from a precipice or a building, to meet 
at midnight, at a lone or distant spot, without friends or surgeons, 
may be rejected by the challenger. 

Sir Jonah Barrington, in the " Personal Sketches of his Own 
Times," gives part of a code of laws for the government of 
duellists, as ordained at Clonmel Summer Assizes, 1777, by the 
gentlemen delegates of Tipperary, Galway, Mayo, Sligo, and 
Roscommon, and prescribed for general adoption throughout Ire- 
land. And he observes, that " these Rules brought the whole 
business of duelling to a focus, ami have been much acted upon 
down to the present day." They were called in Galway " the 
thirty-six commandments." 

1 insert twenty-five of these curious " commandments," with 
two " Additional Galway Articles," for the eye of those who 
cannot consult his work. It will be seen that some are still 



WEAPONS AND RULES. 31 

partially observed, by both principals and seconds, in our own 
day. 

"RULE 1. 

" The first offence requires the first apology, though the retort may 
have been more offensive than the insult. Example : A tells B he is 
impertinent, &c. ; B retorts that he lies; yet A must make the first 
apology, because he gave the first offence, and then (after one fire) B 
may explain away the retort by subsequent apology. 

"RULE 2. 

" But if the parties would rather fight on, then, after two shots each 
(but in no case before), B may explain first, and A apologizes after- 
wards. 

" N. B. The above rules apply to all cases of offences in retort not 
of a stronger class than the example. 

"RULE 3. 

" If a doubt exists who gave the first offence, the decision rests with 
the seconds ; if they will not decide, or cannot agree, the matter must 
proceed to two shots, or to a hit if the challenger require it. 

"RULE 4. 

" When the lie direct is theirs/ offence, the aggressor must either beg 
pardon in express terms, exchange two shots previous to an apology, or 
three shots followed up by explanation, or fire on till a severe hit be 
received by one party or the other. 

"RULE 5. 

" As a blow is strictly prohibited under any circumstances amongst 
gentlemen, no verbal apology can be received for such an insult. The < 
alternatives, therefore, are, the offender handing a cane to the injured 
party, to be used on his own back, at the same time begging pardon ; 
firing on until one or both is disabled ; or exchanging three shots and 
then asking pardon without the proffer of the cane. If swords are used', 
the parties engage till one is well blooded, disabled, or disarmed ; or 
until, after receiving a wound, and blood being drawn, the aggressor 
asks pardon. 

" N. B. A disarm is considered the same as a disable. The disarmer 
may (strictly) break his adversary's sword, but if it be the challenger 
who is disarmed it is considered as ungenerous to do so. In case the 
challenged be disarmed and refuses to ask pardon or atone, he must not 
be killed, as formerly ; but the challenger may lay his own sword on the 
aggressor's shoulder, then break the aggressor's sword, and say, " I spare 
your life ! " The challenged can never revive that quarrel, the chal- 
lenger mav. 



32 WEAPONS AND RULES. 

"RULE 6. 

" If A gives B the lie, and B retorts by a blow (being the two great- 
est offences) no reconciliation can take place till after two discharges 
each, or a severe hit ; after which B may ask A's pardon for the blow, 
and then A may explain simply for the lie, because a blow is never al- 
lowable, and the offence of the lie therefore merges in it. (See preced- 
ing rule.) 

" N. B. Challenges for undivulged causes may be reconciled on the 
ground, after one shot. An explanation or the slightest hit should be 
sufficient in such cases, because no personal offence transpired. 

"RULE 7. 

" But no apology can be received, in any case, after the parties have 
actually taken their ground, without exchange of fires. 

"RULE 8. 

" In the above case, no challenger is obliged to divulge his cause of 
challenge (if private) unless required by the challenged so to do before 
the meeting. 

"RULE 9. 

" All imputations of cheating at play, races, &c. to be considered 
equivalent to a blow, but may be reconciled after one shot, on admitting 
their falsehood and begging pardon publicly. 

"RULE 10. 

" Any insult to a lady under a gentleman's care or protection to be 
considered as, by one degree, a greater offence than if given to the gen- 
tleman personally, and to be regulated accordingly. 

"RULE 11. 

" Offences originating or accruing from the support of ladies' reputa- 
tions to be considered as less unjustifiable than any others of the same 
class, and as admitting of slighter apologies by the aggressor. This to 
be determined by the circumstances of the case, but always favorably 
to the lady. 

"RULE 12. 

" In simple unpremeditated rencontres with the small-sword, or couteau- 
de-chasse, the rule is, first draw, first sheathe, unless blood be drawn ; 
then both sheathe and proceed to investigate. 

"RULE 13. 

" No dumb-shooting or firing in the air admissible in any case. The 
challenger ought not to have challenged without receiving offence, and 
the challenged ought, if he gave offence, to have made an apology be- 
fore he came on the ground ; therefore children's play must be dishon- 
orable on one side or the other, and is accordingly prohibited. 



WEAPONS AND RULES. 33 

"RULE 14. 

Seconds to be of equal rank in society with the principals they attend, 
inasmuch as a second may either choose or chance to become a princi- 
pal, and equality is indispensable. 

"RULE 15. 

" Challenges are never to be delivered at night, unless the party to 
be challenged intend leaving the place of offence before morning ; for 
it is desirable to avoid all hot-headed proceedings. 

"RULE 16. 

" The challenged has the right to choose his own weapon, unless the 
challenger gives his honor he is no swordsman ; after which, however, 
he cannot decline any second species of weapon proposed by the chal- 
lenged. 

"RULE 17. 

" The challenged chooses the ground ; the challenger chooses his dis- 
tance ; the seconds fix the time and terms of firing. 

"RULE 18. 

" The seconds load in presence of each other, unless they give their 
mutual honors that they have charged smooth and single, which should 
be held sufficient. 

"RULE 19. 

" Firing may be regulated, first, by signal ; secondly, by word of com- 
mand ; or thirdly, at pleasure, as may be agreeable to the parties. In 
the latter case, the parties may fire at their reasonable leisure, but sec- 
ond presents and rests are strictly prohibited. 

"RULE 20. 

" In all cases a misfire is equivalent to a shot, and a snap or a non- 
cock is to be considered as a misfire. 

"RULE 21. 

" Seconds are bound to attempt a reconciliation before the meeting 
takes place, or after sufficient firing or hits, as specified. 

"RULE 22. 

" Any wound sufficient to agitate the nerves and necessarily make 
the hand shake, must end the business for that day. 

"RULE 23. 

" If the cause of meeting be of such a nature that no apology or ex- 
planation can or will be received, the challenged takes his ground, and 
calls on the challenger to proceed as he chooses. In such cases, firing 
at pleasure is the usual practice, but may be varied by agreement. 



34 WEAPONS AND RULES. 

"RULE 24. 

" In slight cases, the second hands his principal but one pistol ; but in 
gross cases two, holding another case ready charged in reserve. 

" RULE 25. 

" Where seconds disagree, and resolve to exchange shots themselves, 
it must be at the same time and at right angles with their principals, 
thus : 

S. 



P. 



-P. 



S. 

If with swords, side by side, with five paces interval. 

" N. B. All matters and doubts not herein mentioned will be ex- 
plained and cleared up by application to the Committee, who meet 
alternately at Clonmel and Galway, at the Quarter Sessions, for that 
purpose. 

"CROW RYAN, Preside/if. 
JAMES KEOGH, ) . 

AMBY BODKIN; j & c ta s ' 

Additional Galway Articles. 

"RULE 1. 

" No party can be allowed to bend his knee or cover his side with his 
left hand ; but may present at any level from the hip to the eye. 

"RULE 2. 

" None can either advance or retreat if the ground be measured. If 
no 'ground be measured, either party may advance at his pleasure, even 
to touch muzzle ; but neither can advance on his adversary after the 
fire, unless the adversary steps forward on him. 

" N. B. The seconds on both sides stand responsible for this last 
rule being strictly observed, bad cases having occurred from neglecting 
of it." 



TRIVIAL CAUSES OF DUELS. 35 

CHAPTER VI. 
TRIVIAL CAUSES or DUELS. DISGRACEFUL AND EIDICULOUS DUELS. 

TRIVIAL CAUSES OF DUELS. 

WHOEVER considers the trivial disputes that have ended in 
hostile meetings between gentlemen, will recall the story told of 
a Neapolitan nobleman, who fought fourteen duels to prove that 
Dante was a greater poet than Ariosto, and who, on his death-bed, 
admitted to his confessor that he had never read the works of 
either. These pages contain details that, were not life and death 
involved, would excite ridicule and contempt. 

Thus, a French knight cried aloud that his mistress was more 
beautiful than any Englishwoman, and was slain by an English- 
man for the speech : two French nobles could not agree whether 
a certain letter on some embroidery was an X, or a Y, and so got 
up a duel of six against six, to determine their difference : 
one marquis owed another marquis the sum of fifteen shillings, and 
settled the score with his sword : a royal duke, curious to see 
the features of a lady at a masked ball, lifted the disguise from 
the fair one's face, and atoned for the act by a combat with an- 
other royal duke : two men of fashion who entertained a pas- 
sion for a married lady who cared for neither, fought because 
one crushed the card of the other in her presence : a member 
of Parliament was called " a Jacobite," and lost his life " in sat- 
isfaction " for the affront : a great statesman, whose father was 
a manufacturer, was pertly spoken of as " the son of a cotton- 
jenny" and should have smiled at the wit of his lawless accuser, 
but, though despising him, acknowledged equality by sending Q./L 
challenge : a lovely and accomplished wife became a widow 
and a maniac, because her husband, in conversation with a 
brother officer, defended our countrymen from the charge of 
cowardice in the war of the Revolution: an English gentle- 
man of noble family, and heir to a dukedom, met a man in mor- 
tal strife whom he had never so much as seen or heard of, 
merely because he had " a call " : a nobleman and a member 
of the House of Commons " tried conclusions " with pistols, be- 
cause the horse of the former, on coronation-day, approached the 
royal presence tail-forernost, and the latter made sport of the 



00 TRIVIAL CAUSES OF DUELS. 

circumstance in the columns of a newspaper : a brother, so- 
licitous for the honor of a sister who boarded at a house in which 
a man lived in open adultery with the wife of another, was killed 
for his " impertinent interference" : a nobleman addressed an 
intimate friend by a nickname, as he had done for years, 
gave offence, was called out, and slain: a gentleman, as was 
" imagined," cast an " impertinent look " towards one of his asso- 
ciates in a ball-room, and satisfied the ideal wrong with his life : 

an earl and an officer in the army fought about debt incurred 
at the gaming-table : two barristers met who had never spoken 
in their lives, the challenged party accepting the call solely be- 
cause public sentiment would not allow him to decline without 
disgrace : two persons, who at the bar and elsewhere obtained 
enviable distinction, engaged in a duel upon the issue, whether 
" Ireland was a nation easily roused and easily appeased " : 
a celebrated traveller who listened to, and endeavored to recon- 
cile, a quarrel between two strangers whom he accidentally met, 
relieved himself from difficulty only by measuring swords with 
one of them : a member of a city government, offended with 
a public speaker who said the corporation was " a beggarly cor- 
poration," would not listen to explanation, insisted upon a meet- 
ing, was gratified, and was a victim to his sensibility : two 
statesmen, who subsequently became prime-ministers, placed 
themselves on the roll of duellists for a cause which, in the judg- 
ment of their friends, involved the honor of neither, and which 
exposed both to censure : the manner of saying, " Yes, I do" 
in answer to a question, was the sole offence which cost one of- 
ficer his life in a duel, and the survivor his life upon a gallows : 

a gallant marquis challenged a noble earl for general but dis- 
respectful mention of his country : a naval officer who cap- 
tured an enemy's fleet "met one who had served under him, 
" entirely," he said, " as an atonement for the violated rules of 
the service " : - a witness in a court of justice gave testimony 
which offended a party in interest, and was slain on the " field of 
honor " : the dog of an officer of rank who was the pride of the 
army, and the dog of a captain in the navy who had proved his 
courage in many hard-fought battles, snarled and growled, and 
so the two gentlemen, to settle the quarrel between their curs, 
quarrelled themselves, and would not be appeased until one of 
them fell by the hand of the other : a gentleman remarked 
that " he believed " an associate had " a personal pique against 
him," was challenged, and slew his adversary : two military 



DISGRACEFUL AND RIDICULOUS DUELS. 37 

men engaged in mortal combat, because a third person thought 
he could recall some " light words " which one of them had 
spoken against his fellow : and last of all, and more absurd 
than all, an aid of the illustrious Commander-in-chief chal- 
lenged and fought the general second in rank in the army of the 
Revolution, upon no difference of his own, but simply solely 
to prove to the generation to which they belonged, and to pos- 
terity, that Washington as an officer was equal to the station 
which he filled, and as a private gentleman was entitled to 
consideration and respect ! 

DISGRACEFUL AND RIDICULOUS DUELS. 

An agreement to fight to the death, and a challenge from a 
father to a son, or the converse, were denounced three centuries 
ago, as disgraceful to knighthood. To fight with one loaded and 
one empty-pistol, at one pace distance, the parties drawing lots 
for a choice between the weapons ; to kiss the lips of a person 
mortally ill of an infectious disease, instead of meeting death in 
the field ; to fight naked, or in the lower garments only ; to fight 
when principals, or seconds, or both, are drunk ; to curse and 
swear on the ground, or taunt an antagonist with illegitimacy, or 
domestic or pecuniary misfortune ; to fight with pistols over- 
lapping each other ; to prepare a sumptuous feast, and invite 
friends far and near to partake of it, at the close of a combat in 
which it has been resolved that the adverse party shall be slain ; 
to fight in utter darkness, whether in the open air, or in a room, 
or with lamps or lanterns ; to purposely meet in a lone spot, where 
it is known that no assistance can be obtained ; to reject the 
opinion of friends to whom an affair has been intrusted ; to in- 
sist upon fighting after the aggressor has made usual, and in the 
judgment of seconds satisfactory atonement, are all practices 
equally disgraceful to knighthood, and, though discountenanced 
by true gentlemen, are not wholly unknown in modern duelling. 

On the other hand, we have duels which excite a smile ; as, 
for example, that between Sir Jonah Barrington and Richard 
Daly, and that between Somerset Butler and Peter Burrowes. 
Nor are mock-combats at the present day of rare occurrence, 
either in the British Isles or in America. It was stated by a 
member of Parliament, at a vast assemblage of the friends of 
peace, in 1853, that, from facts in his possession, he had not the 
least reason to doubt that the " practice had become common " 
4 



38 OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 

for the seconds to load the pistols of the principals with an arti- 
cle which deceives the eye, but which, when the ram-rod is used, 
is pressed to pieces and into a sort of dust. Perhaps the honorable 
member, in employing the term " common," overstated the ex- 
act truth, but there cannot be a doubt, that friends sometimes sol- 
emnly arrange for bloodless contests. Omitting details, and the 
mention of particular cases, I will barely add, that several well- 
authenticated accounts are before me, and that one instance ri- 
diculous to the last degree occurred under my own personal 
observation, between a British officer and a gentleman who is 
now in holy orders. 



CHAPTER VII. 

OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. PUBLIC SENTIMENT. 

OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 

DUELLING is not without its advocates, both on the ground of 
expediency and of right. But it is to be remarked, that very 
many men of distinguished consideration utter their approval in 
terms of qualification and with conditions. Addison and Steele 
were, I think, personally opposed to the custom, and most read- 
ers of the Spectator and Taller will agree with me in the conclu- 
sion ; but yet, in a joint essay in the latter paper, they state that, 
as the practice had " become a law," they did not " know how 
a gentleman could avoid a duel, if he were provoked to it." 
Oglethorpe, the founder of the State of Georgia, and a military 
officer of great merit, in reply to a question upon the subject, 
said, " Undoubtedly a man has a right to defend his honor": 
but we find that he was slow to take offence, and that, during a 
long life of public service, no occasion occurred which required 
him " to defend his honor." Adam Ferguson, Professor of 
Morals in the University of Edinburgh, allows that a duel may be 
innocently fought in certain cases, but calls them " exceptions " 
to the common rule ; and illustrates his views by the extreme 
wrongs of " a woman who is forcibly attacked in her chastity," 
or of " a man who is put to the trial of personal estimation or 
honor," and whose injuries " the utmost power of the magistrate 



OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 39 

cannot afterward repair." Lord Kaimes was unable to discover 
any crime on either side in a duel \vhen no " satisfaction," or 
" proper satisfaction," is offered to an affronted party, on the one 
hand, and when the " person who gave the affront has offered 
what he thinks full satisfaction," on the other ; but, as will be 
admitted on a moment's reflection, a combat under such circum- 
stances can rarely take place. Sir James Mackintosh remarks, 
that " duelling is among us a disputed case, though the improve- 
ment of manners has rendered it so much more infrequent, that 
it is likely in time to lose its support from opinion " ; and allow- 
ing us at least to infer, that the class of gentlemen with whom he 
mingled were divided in sentiment, while he himself belonged to 
the party that hoped for an entire abolition of it. The views of 
Dr. Johnson are far less equivocal than either of the preceding 
writers, since, according to Boswell, he defended duelling in re- 
peated conversations. It has been contended that the learned 
critic and lexicographer did not utter his real convictions, but 
talked to his listeners to please, and as the humor moved him at 
the moment. With all deference, I shall take no pains to ascer- 
tain whether his sober thought was in agreement with his words, 
or the converse ; for I have frankly to declare, that, upon a ques- 
tion of morals, I entertain no respect whatever for the opinion of 
the man, who, in answer to the memorable Resolutions and Ad- 
dress of the Continental Congress of 1775, wrote that infamous 
tract, " Taxation no Tyranny" 

We turn to other eminent personages who have borne testi- 
mony against the custom. Passing the flippant speech of Dean 
Swift, that all duellists are " fools," we may pause in admiration 
at the conduct of the historian Gibbon, who, when informed that 
two of his friends had agreed to repair to the field, interposed, on 
the noble principle that the acknowledgment of a real fault is 
never injurious to one's honor, and that an offender who offers 
an apology or explanation is a true gentleman ; and succeeded 
in adjusting the difficulty between them. Franklin, compressing 
the wKole argument into a single expression, said that " A DUEL 
DECIDES NOTHING," and that a person appealing to it " makes 
himself judge in his own cause, condemns the offender without 
a jury, and undertakes himself to be the executioner." 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, already mentioned as one of the 
great statesmen of the United States, after the fall of Hamilton, 
endeavored to induce the Cincinnati of the different States, in a 
body, to speak their " abhorrence of the practice," and to deter- 



40 OPINIONS OF EMINENT MEN. 

mine " on no account either to send or accept a challenge," as 
the best means to u abolish it throughout the Union" ; and not 
content with this, he drafted and circulated in his own State a 
memorial to the Legislature for the passage of a restraining 
statute, and invoked the clergy of South Carolina, " as a particu- 
lar favor, at some convenient early day, to preach a sermon on 
the sin and folly of duelling." 

The notes of similar testimony before me, stated in the brief- 
est form, would fill a long chapter ; but a proposition to which 
most reasonable men assent, needs only to be suggested. I can- 
not forbear, however, in concluding the topic, to ask the reader's 
attention to the declarations of Hamilton, of Graham, Hillas, 
Decatur, and Thomas, which are to be found in the appropriate 
places, as the solemn averments of men who, while they could 
not boast, with the great Earl of Huntly, that " they never drew a 
sword in their own quarrel," yet went to their doom the victims 
of circumstances which, unfortunately, they did not dare to resist, 
at the loss of their professional and social position. Nor can I 
forbear to mention, that, whatever the example and opinion of 
Mr. Clay at one period of his life, we have the sentiment of his 
old age, in the remark in the Senate, that " no man would be 
happier than himself to see the whole barbarous system for ver 
eradicated." Nor would it be just to other members of the Sen- 
ate to forget the fact, that, in 1838, the bill to prevent and punish 
duelling in the District of Columbia passed that body with a sin- 
gle dissenting vote ; or just to the memory of the late President 
Taylor to omit to record his emphatic refusal to restore two 
officers of the Navy who had been dismissed the service for 
an offence under the duello, accompanied with the statement to 
his Cabinet, that he had served in- the Army forty years without 
fighting, that duels were unnecessary, that he vyould discoun- 
tenance them on every occasion, and that " he would ha've no 
duelling men about him if he could help it." Nor ought I to 
overlook the hopeful circumstance, that, in 1849, a Professor oL 
Law in Kentucky, in his valedictory address to a graduating 
class, denounced the practice in the strongest terms, u as rude 
and coarse, and full of horrid crime " ; and least of all should I 
fail to remember the lofty stand of Mr. Rhett, who, in 1852, in 
the Senate of the United States, in answer to the defiance of a 
Senator from another State, avowed that he was a member of a 
Christian church, that he would not dishonor his religious pro- 
fession by going to the field to avenge an insult, that " he feared 



PUBLIC SENTIMENT. 41 

God more than man," and that " true courage is best evinced by 
the firm maintenance of our principles amidst all temptations 
and all trials. 1 ' There was a time in Athens when a Senator 
was arraigned and punished for stifling a little bird that had taken 
refuge in his bosom, because the act was a crime against human- 
ity ; but in the nineteenth century of the Christian era there were 
gentlemen of high consideration who sneered at sentiments so in 
unison with the principles of the heathen Court of Areopagus, as 
pronounced by the distinguished Senator from South Carolina, 
in the presence of his peers ; yet there were thousands who, as 
the press bore his words over the country, forgetting their want 
of sympathy in his political doctrines, felt to say : 

" Honor to him, who, self-complete and brave 
In scorn, can carve his pathway to the grave ; 
And, heeding naught of what men think or say, 
Make his own heart his world upon the way." 



PUBLIC SENTIMENT. 

Duelling, -as everybody knows, is a relic of the Dark Ages. 
Among the ignorant and superstitious people with whom it origi- 
nated, and even under the institutions of chivalry, there may have ' 
been some excuse for it. But in the present state of civilization 
it cannot be justified ; and this is the common remark. Yet it is 
still prevalent to an alarming extent, and simply bfecause- war- 
worn veterans who are covered with scars, and judges in robes, 
and cfergymen in surplices, and statesmen who lead legislative 
bodies" or preside in cabinet councils, continue to afford it either 
their example or countenance. Such men form and direct pub- 
lic opinion, and can -put an end to duelling at once and for ever. 
Gentlemen in other walks in life, of lofty sense of honor and of 
nice sensibility, feel compelled to send and accept hostile mes- 
sages, contrary to their OM(n judgment and sense of right, to avoid 
disgrace, and because they dare not reveal their abhorrence of 
the custom, in opposition to persons of superior rank or influence. 
I shall not soon forget a conversation with a friend who had 
fought to save himself from ruin. He was the challenged party, 
he said, and was ,too poor to decline ; he must fight, starve, or 
remove to the North ; the alternatives were dreadful ; he ac- 
cepted the call, horror-stricken, for he sinned against his own 
conscience, and with the eye of God fixed, as it seemed to him, 
intently upon him. The account of others is that this gen- 
/ '4* > 



42 ' PUBLIC SENTIMENT. 

tleman when on the ground bore himself most gallantly. His 
name is often spoken in New England, and I have heard him 
stigmatized as " a duellist," and as thus " unworthy of respect." 
It is not so. I know him intimately, and bear willing witness 
that, in the circle of my friends, there is not one more exem- 
plary in his daily life, or who, in my judgment, strives more 
earnestly to conform to the rules of Christian duty. In another 
instance, I recall the remark of a personage of high rank in 
one of the planting States, who, in reply to an observation 
touching the two marked distinctions between Northern and 
Southern institutions, rejoined, " True, but. which do you think 
the worst, black men in bondage to white men, or white men in 
bondage to the pistol ? " We of the non-duelling States plume 
ourselves upon our freedom from the barbarous practice, and 
claim that we are so in consequence of our superior morality ; 
but I have yet to be convinced that we owe our exemption to any 
such difference. Let Northern members of Congress degree in a 
body that personalities in debate, let husbands, and fathers, 
and brothers, associate, that the seduction of wives, and daugh- 
ters, and sisters, let gentlemen, generally, resolve that slan- 
derous or impertinent words, shall hereafter be avenged in 
^private combat, and duels would become as frequent among us 
as anywhere else. Public sentiment is omnipotent ; and, to use 
a homely expression, is " manufactured to order " by a few 
prominent men in every community. The Roundheads of Eng- 
land, from whom we are descended, could justly plead religious 
scruples in answer to cartels from the Cavaliers, for they con- 
formed to no customs, indulged in no fashions, inconsistent with 
an austere, with a self-denying faith. But it is sheer hypocrisy 
in us, as a people, to aver that we are restrained from the use of 
the pistol by principle. At home it is honorable to appeal to the 
tribunals to redress every wrong, and judges and jurres are our 
common arbiters. Abroad, we forget law and appeal to lead, as 
often as others ; and some of the most desperate duels mentioned 
in this volume were fought by New England men, in obedience 
to the sentiment around them. 

Public opinion, it hardly nee'd be said to the well-informed 
reader, rules the statute-book. In England, killing in a duel, 
whether by peer or commoner, is murder. These pages contain 
the names of many noble duellists who slew their antagonists ; 
but though three of them Lords Mohun, Warwick, and By- 
ron were tried, not one was punished. For a period of nearly 



PUBLIC SENTIMENT. 43 

seventy years succeeding the last of these attempted examples, 
not a single peer was so much as put upon trial ; and the case 
of Lord Cardigan, in 1841, who was arraigned for shooting at 
Captain Tuckett, embraces the whole account of judicial pro- 
ceedings against noblemen who have been engaged in affairs of 
honor. Commoners have escaped with the same impunity. In 
Scotland, there has not been a single conviction for a century 
and a half. In England, during the last two hundred years, there 
may have been twelve or fifteen verdicts of murder by juries, 
but there has not been one execution of a survivor who killed his 
adversary in accordance with usage, or under the duello ; while 
in the cases of unfair fighting, Major Campbell, and two or three 
others, have alone suffered the extreme penalty of the law. In 
fine, the courts have been mere umpires to interfere in " foul 
play." The judges have not always commenced life, as did 
Lord Norbury, " with fifty pounds and a pair of hair-trigger pis- 
tols " ; nor have they always provided seconds, as did one of 
them in the fatal combat between Boswell and Stuart ; nor have 
twelve magistrates always been passive spectators of a fight, as 
were that exact number in the savage duel between Colclough 
and Alcock ; nor have the presiding judges always told juries, as 
did Fletcher, "Gentlemen, it is my business to lay down the law 
to you, and I shall do so : where two persons go out to fight a 
duel, and one of them falls, the law says it is murder, and I tell 
you by law it is murder, but at the same time a fairer duel I 
never heard of in the whole course of my life " ; but still I fear 
that these instances illustrate, with some approach to truth, the 
general feeling of the Bench of the British Isles in all past time ; 
and it is scarcely an exaggeration to add, that witnesses, judges, 
juries, prosecuting officers, and the higher advisers of the crown, 
have united to prevent punishments under the laws against duel- 
ling. The consolation is, that duels in these isles are now rare 
between persons who give a direction to public sentiment. 

In the United States, as in England, killing in a duel is mur- 
der ; but here, as there, OPINION is superior to LAW. Bennett, 
as far as I have been able to ascertain, is the only person who 
has been executed for taking the life of a fellow-man in single 
combat since we became a free people. In some States, the 
parties have seldom been held even to answer ; in others, the 
inquiry in the courts has been confined to the single question of 
the " fairness of the fight " ; and this point determined in favor 
of the survivor, acquittal has followed as a matter of course. 



44 PUBLIC SENTIMENT. 

In one State, we find the judge of a court on the duelling 
ground as a principal ; in another, an ex-governor is there as a 
second ; in a third, we read of principals and seconds, attended 
by an immense concourse in carriages, on horseback, and on 
foot, passing through one of the largest cities, on their way to 
the appointed spot, without hindrance on the part of the magis- 
trates ; in a fourth, we are told of the deafening shout of the 
assembled crowd at the fall of both the combatants ; and in a. 
fifth, the judicial record shows the mockery of a sentence, against 
the parties who had completed their arrangements for a mortal 
strife, of a fine of one dollar and an imprisonment of one minute. 
Yet in these five States there are not only statute laws but con- 
stitutional provisions in the books adverse to this relic of the 
Dark Ages. We of the North denounce individual gentlemen, 
who meet one another to adjust their personal or political differ- 
ences, in terms measured only by our respective powers of 
anathema, and we do wrong ; for we forget that, if a gentleman 
at the South refuses to send or accept a challenge, he loses his 
position in society, and is sometimes shunned and hunted down. 
We should be just, even in our maledictions. It is not the indi- 
vidual man whom we should assail, but the PUBLIC OPINION 
which with its imperative voice demands him to hold his weapon 
at the breast of his fellow. It is not from choice, but in obedi- 
ence to the tyrant CUSTOM, that persons who, until some trivial 
dispute severed, had ever loved one another, meet to maim and 
slay. Nor is duelling a criterion of bravery. Charles Cotes- 
worth Pinckney, of South Carolina, and one of the first charac- 
ters of his time in America, said that he had u seen " cowards 
fight duels ; and Curran, in the exuberance of his wit, speaks of 
one of his antagonists who died in three weeks after their meet- 
ing, " of the report of his own pistol." 



SIN AND ABSURDITY OF DUELLING. 45 



CHAPTER VIII. 

REFLECTIONS ON THE EVE OP A DUEL. SIN AND ABSURDITY OB- 
DUELLING. REMORSE OF DUELLISTS. 

REFLECTIONS ON THE EVE OF A DUEL. 

I HAVE somewhere read that Moreau made, and Wellington 
assented to, the remark, that commanders of large armies, how- 
ever brave, weighed down by moral anxiety and reasonings upon 
the uncertainties of the result, hesitate, after all their combina- 
tions and arrangements have been completed, to make the final 
movement to bring on a battle. How similar the condition of 
statesmen and military men of distinction, when on the eve of 
private battle, the parting line to the unconscious wife sealed ; 
the will executed and concealed from curious eyes ; the thought 
of the dread event of the morrow and its issue ; the resolution 
taken to reserve fire, or not to wound in a mortal part ; and the 
last conversation for the night with the only friends intrusted 
with the momentous secret ! What were the emotions of Thur- 
low, rapidly advancing at the bar, and with the vision of the Great 
Seal and the Wool-sack before him ! of Canning, struggling for 
the premiership, but scorned by the aristocracy for the lowly 
position in life of his true-hearted and exemplary mother ! of 
Pitt, whose ambitious policy grasped at bounding and balancing 
the kingdoms of all Europe ! of Hamilton, the pride and hope of 
a hemisphere, and the " disciple on whose bosom " Washington 
had " leaned " ! of Clay, as chivalrous as the ancient Bayard him- 
self, and taunted to madness by the ferocity and malignity of party 
calumny ! of Decatur, gallant and generous to knight-errantry, 
yet pushed by malign influences to wrong a professional brother 
already crushed by an administration to conceal its own indo- 
lence and remissness ! 

SIN AND ABSURDITY OF DUELLING. 

An elaborate argument to prove the WICKEDNESS of the cus- 
tom is unnecessary, for that is admitted everywhere, and quite 
as often and as frankly among its unfortunate victims as among 
others. Nor, in omitting a discussion on the point thus generally 
conceded, shall I so far yield to the popular voice in some sec- 



46 SIN AND ABSURDITY OF DUELLING. 

tions of the country, as to say that, as a class, " duellists are 
murderers " ; since it were as just, in my judgment, to pronounce 
the sentence of self-murder against those of the other sex who, 
by their course of life, produce consumption and premature de- 
cease. Both are the victims of FASHION. Society in the former 
case loads, presents, and fires pistols, to shoot husbands and fa- 
thers and brothers ; and in the latter, by its imperative laws to 
regulate the form and materials of dress, the hours of visiting, 
the articles of food or entertainment, and the manner of employ- 
ing time, commits wives and daughters and sisters to untimely 
graves. Is it not so ? 

The unconditional ABSURDITY of duelling, as a means of re- 
dress, may be shown in a passing word. If, under the commer- 
cial code, a rich but unprincipled merchant owes me a debt 
which he refuses to pay, and I propose to give him an acquit- 
tance on his consenting that, attended by our clerks, we meet 
and shoot at one another, or if, under the crimnal code, I should 
agree not to arrest the man who had entered my dwelling, and 
robbed me of my family plate and pictures, on condition that he 
would fight me, everybody would see and exclaim against the 
foolishness of my conduct. Yet I should act on the precise rule* 
of the code of honor. 

Without dwelling on the minor offences, we will take for an 
illustration the crime of female seduction, which wounds the 
friends of the victim to madness, and which is sometimes com- 
mitted under circumstances that almost justify the most summary 
punishment. But how is it possible to efface the family stigma, 
in a combat with the seducer ? Could the fallen daughter or sis- 
ter be restored, or were it certain that the aggressor would be 
shot, then something might be gained ; but as it is, and in the 
nature of things ever must be, a male protector, if he send a 
challenge which is accepted, not only places himself on an equal' 
ity with a scoundrel, but may himself be slain, and thus cause 
fresh anguish at the fireside already polluted by lust. 

Again, if the father or chief protector of a single family is 
bound to " demand satisfaction " of the betrayer of his hearth- 
stone, why may not the father or chief protector of all the fam- 
ilies of a nation be held to challenge the betrayer of his coun- 
try ? and why, hence, ought not Washington to have risked the 
most valuable life of the last century against Benedict Arnold, 
one of the most worthless lives of all centuries ? The principle 
in the two cases is the same, beyond all denial ; for the question 



x REMORSE OF DUELLISTS. 47 

is not whether the infamous betrayer of confiding woman or the 
infamous political traitor shall escape from the " deep damna- 
tion" of mankind, but whether, after the wrong be perpetrated, 
a mode of punishment shall be selected which gives no redress 
to the sufferers, and which puts the innocent and the guilty on an 
equal footing. 

REMORSE OF DUELLISTS. 

This is a painful theme. In the notices entitled Camelford, 
William Barrington, O'Connell, and Colclough, the reader will 
find details to move his feelings. But these are only examples. 
A gentleman of wide observation, who has always lived in a du- 
elling section of the United States, and who has taken much 
pains to inquire into the mental condition of every person who 
had slain an adversary, remarked, that not a single instance had 
come to his knowledge which did not afford him proof, that 
peace of mind was for ever destroyed. The same sad intelli- 
gence has been derived from others ; and as the result of my in- 
quiries, I can truly say, that the narratives which I have read and 
to which I have listened have uniformly reminded me of the 
words of the Psalmist : " Turn thee unto me, and have mercy 
upon me : for I am desolate and in misery." 

Addison, in the Spectator, refers to Thornhill (who slew Sir 
Cholmly Bering) under the translated name of Spinamont, and 
possibly gives us the substance of what fell from the lips of 
the unhappy survivor in an address to the imaginary King Phar- 
amond : " I come not," he says, " O excellent prince, to im- 
plore your pardon ; I come not to relate my sorrow, a sorrow 
too great for human life to support" ; and again, " Know, then, 
that I have this morning killed in a duel the man whom of all 
men living I most loved." Dante, in his Hell, describes the suf- 
ferings of the damned in words that cause us to shudder ; but 
unless we doubt the veracity of some of the first characters in 
the country, the poet's inexhaustible imagination fails to express 
the wretchedness of most of the living men whose u feet have 
slipped in gore." Some utter unceasingly, 

" My own life wearied me ! 
And but for the imperative voice within, 
With mine own hand I had thrown off the burden." 

Others, men of gentle and affectionate nature, who had often 



48 REMORSE OF DUELLISTS. 

grieved at the wanton killing of a bird, and on whose bosom wife 
and children nestled, with the blood of a husband and a father 
upon their hands, dwell, in their woe, upon the thought that 

" Not all the blessings of a host of angels 
Can blow away a desolate widow's curse ! 
And though thou spill thy heart's blood for atonement, 
It will not weigh against an orphan's tear ! " 

Still others, the nervous system shattered, the whole of the phys- 
ical or intellectual powers weakened or destroyed, see and hear 
their victim in every passing object, or whisper of the wind ; and, 
as time wears on, sink into hopeless imbecility or raving madness. 
I forbear the mention of particular names and instances of 
either class, for obvious reasons ; but such has been the fate of 
many pure and highly gifted men who have passed away, of 
many who yet survive. For, say what we will, facts show that 
persons of the most eminent worth, and most hopeful talents, are 
oftenest involved in duels. There are, indeed, fiends who howl 
for blood like ravening wolves, who, because national peace pre- 
vents its flow in streams' seek their life long to lap it in drops 
from the breast of individuals. But let no one believe that even 
such men are strangers to remorse. The fire is lighted, and 
slowly consuming them ; nor can the shout which these men 
send up at the midnight carouse, from brothels and drinking and 
gambling hells, conceal its progress from keen and searching 
eyes. 

" Remorse is as the heart in which it grows ; 
If that be gentle, it drops balmy dews 
Of true repentance ; but if proud and gloomy, 
It is a poison tree, that, pierced to the inmost, 
Weeps only tears of poison." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 



ACCORAMBONI, Marquis of. See Bruce, James. 

ACKLAND and LLOYD. In England, during the 

American Revolution. Both were officers in the British army ; 
the first, a major, the latter, a lieutenant. Ackland was shot 
through the head, and Lady Harriet, his wife, was bereft of 
her reason for two years. Ackland, in defending the Ameri- 
cans from the charge of cowardice, gave Lloyd the lie direct ; 
hence the meeting. 

ADAIR, a general in the war of the Revolution. The 

following story is related in Graydon's Memoirs. Every gen- 
tleman of Adair's standing may, if he have the COURAGE to 
do so, adopt the same course. 

" A young officer, conceiving himself aggrieved, challenged the vet- 
eran, who took no notice of the matter. A second note was the con- 
sequence, in which Adair was informed, that, if ' satisfaction ' were 
not accorded, he would * post ' him as a coward ! The General 
then replied, in substance, that he might proceed, but assuredly in so 
doing he would 'post' himself a 'fool and a liar,' as certainly no 
man would believe him." 

ADAM, Member of Parliament. See Fox, Charles James. 

ADOLPHUS, son of Duke of Guelderland. See Guelderland, 
Duke of. 

AGAR, JAMES, and HENRY FLOOD. In Ireland, in the year 

1770. One account is, that the duel grew out of an election 

contest, and that Flood was not to blame ; that there had been 

a previous duel between them, in which Agar was slightly 

5 



50 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

wounded in the arm ; and that A gar thought proper to revive 
the quairel. In this (the second duel) Agar was shot through 
the heart. He seems to have been a very intemperate man, 
and even on the ground could not refrain from language the 
most insulting and unwarrantable. Flood was tried for murder 
at the Kilkenny assizes : the jury found a verdict of " man- 
slaughter in his own defence." In the Life and Times of Grat- 
tan, the affair is thus stated : 

"My dear Harry, I must postpone every other topic to inform you, 
that on Friday last a duel was fought between Harry Flood and Mr. 
Agar the elder, in Dunmore Park, near Kilkenny, in which Mr. Agar 
was unfortunately killed. As Mr. Flood was not the challenger, and as 
it was out of his power to avoid it, lie has nothing to reproach himself 
with. The cause was a case of pistols belonging to Mr. Agar, which 
one Keogh lost at Burn Church, in the riot about ten months ago. I 
hear that the unfortunate gentleman had often asked Mr. Flood about 
them, who always said ' that he had them not, and was not accountable 
for them/ But on Friday they produced a challenge, to my great sur- 
prise ; for if there were any offence, it was as much an offence any day 
these ten months as it was on that day. They stood at about fourteen 
yards asunder. Before they fired, Mr. Agar questioned Mr. Flood 
about the pistols, in a threatening and offensive manner. Mr. Flood 
answered very deliberately, ' You know I will not answer you while 
you ask me in that manner.' Mr. G. Bushe, who was Mr. Flood's friend, 
said something to Mr. Agar to induce him to ask in another manner, 
and not to bring such an affair upon himself so needlessly ; but without 
effect. He laid down one pistol, and rested the other upon his arm to 
take his aim. Both Mr. G. B. and Mr. Roth, his own friend, called to 
him to fire fairly. (N. B. Besides the unfairness of using a rest, it 
was particularly unfair at that time, for Mr. A. had proposed they 
should stand alongside a quickset hedge, but Mr. Roth declared ' there 
should be no levelling.' Upon their calling out he desisted, and took 
another posture, and fired first and missed. He then took up his other 
pistol, and then said to Mr. Flood, ' Fire, you scoundrel !' Mr. Flood 
thereupon presented his pistol, which he held all this time with the muz- 
zle turned upwards, and shot Mr. A. through the heart. Mr. A.'s left 
breast was towards him, Mr. A. being left-handed. He expired in a 
few minutes without speaking anything articulate. The coroners have 
found the verdict specially, ' That he came to his death by a pistol- 
bullet.'" 

AGOULT, Count of. See Conde, Prince of. 

AGUESSEAU, Mons. SEGTJR D', and Mons. BKRTHOLON. In 
France, in 1849, with pistols The seconds of the first were 
M. Piscatory and M. St. Jean d'Angely : of Bertholon, M. Vas- 
seur and M. Cholat. The parties escaped without harm ; but 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 51 

Bertholon's pistol was broken by his adversary's ball. The two 
principals immediately appeared in the Assembly as if nothing 
had occurred. The meeting was caused by an angry discussion 
in the Legislative Assembly, of which the following is presumed 
to be a correct account. Words spoken in debate often occasion 
duels in France, at the present time, and as notice of several 
will be found in this volume, the scene of November 521, 1849, 
is here related to serve for all. Premising that, on the 16th, a 
bill granting an additional salary to a high functionary was re- 
jected, and that the debate on that day was conducted with much 
acrimony, we come at once to the proceedings five days after- 
wards. 

M. Cremieux asked the Minister of the Interior if the Government 
contemplated to make a provision for the wounded of February, their 
widows and orphans. M: Ferdinand Barrot replied, that in the course 
of two or three days he would present to the Assembly two projects of 
law, one relative to the wounded of February, and the other relative 
to those of June. M. Segur d'Aguesseau then rose, and asked the 
Minister if the brave Municipal Guards, the only combatants of Feb- 
ruary, were entitled to national sympathy, were included in the 
distribution of the relief fund ? This interpolation produced a fearful 
storm. The whole of the Left cried with one voice to the President, to 
call M. d'Aguesseau to order. M. Beaune ascended the tribune, but 
was unable to obtain a hearing. The President violently rang 1 the bell 
without being able to restore silence. Several voices of the Mountain 
cried, "Down with the Royalist; he insulted the Republic. Call him 
to order." The President, however, refused to obey the injunction, 
insisting on M. Segur d'Aguesseau's right to address questions to the 
Minister. The greatest agitation continued on the Left, most of whose 
members stood up gesticulating and shouting, whilst others descended 
into the hemicycle. Silence-having been at last restored, the President 
said that M. d'Aguesseau had taken him by surprise. He should have 
previously apprised him of his intentions, as M. Fauchcr had done. 
This explanation did not satisfy the Left, who, with redoubled vehe- 
mence, urged the President to call M. d'Aguesseau to order. M. 
Beaune, having ascended the tribune, personally assailed M. d'Agues- 
seau, whom he denounced as a tool of the contemptible government 
of Louis Philippe. Interrupted at every word by cries of " Order " 
from the Right, he was called to order for an expression which escaped 
us amidst the noise and confusion. M. Beaune, then turning round 
toAvards M. Dupin, exclaimed, " You are the Procureur-General of the 
majority, and not the President of the Assembly." M. Dupin called 
him a second time to order, but on this occasion with censure, when the 
whole of the Left clamorously demanded to be included in the censure. 
The President, however, having put the order of the day to the vote, it 
was adopted by a considerable majority, and the Left saluted the decision 



52 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

with cries of " Down with the conspirators ! Vive la Republique ! " The 
tumult here reached its highest pitch, when the President (turning to- 
wards the extremity of the Montagne) called thirty of the most turbu- 
lent to order. M. Bertholon, one of them, then rose and objected to 
that irregular mode of proceeding of the President. Those, he said, 
whom he ought to call to order, were the men who disturbed the delib- 
erations of the Assembly by their Royalist manifestations, their factious 
language, and their appeal to civil war. (" Bravo " on the Left.) M. 
Segur d'Aguesseau, who had hitherto quietly remained seated during 
the whole tumult, here ascended the tribune, and said that, having come 
to the Assembly with the honest and serious intention of founding a 
regular republic, he considered as calumniators those who had ascribed 
to his words a Royalist character. He had, on the contrary, acted as a 
true republican. (Expostulations on the Left.) " My interrupters," 
continued M. d'Aguesseau, " or rather my calumniators, forget that it 
was on my motion the entire Assembly rose on the 28th of May last, 
and joined in the cry of 'Vive la Republique!' The majority desires a 
republic different from the one dreamed of by another portion of the 
Assembly (pointing to the Left), and I glory in the sentiments which ex- 
cited their displeasure." (Loud cries on the Left.) M. d'Aguesseau, 
having descended from the tribune, was succeeded by M. Lagrange, who 
declared that, for his part, he would not accept the opprobrious epithet 
of calumniator ; that it was an insult offered the Assembly and the en- 
tire of France. 

AGUILAR, DON ALFONSO, a Spanish noble. Intended duel, in 
1470, with another Castilian nobleman, in presence of the king 
of Granada. Aguilar failed to appear. His adversary fastened 
his portrait to the tail of the horse on which he was mounted, 
and rode round the lists in triumph. 

AIGNAN, ST., Mons. See Frettes, La. 

ALABAMA. Constitutional provision : 

" The General Assembly shall have power to pass such penal laws to 
suppress the evil practice of duelling, extending to disqualification from 
office, or the terror thereof, as they may deem expedient." 

ALBA, Duke of. See Soule, Neville. 

ALBEMARLE, Lord. SeeTownshend, George. 

ALCOCK, . See Coldough. 

ALDWORTH, WILLIAM. See Buckingham, Owen. 

ALDWORTH, , Member of Parliament, and Colonel CHUD- 

WORTH. In England, 1714. At "a great court at St. James," 
Chudworth called Aldworth " a Jacobite " ; a quarrel ensued, 
and it was agreed to repair to Marylebone fields in a coach, and 
there adjust the matter. Aldworth was killed. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 53 

ALFIERI, VITTORTO, Count, a noble poet of Piedmont, and 
Lord LIGONIER, a British peer. Some time previous to 1784. 
Lady Ligonier, a beautiful but licentious woman, became Alfieri's 
mistress. The duel was in consequence of the intrigue. The 
Count was wounded in the arm. A divorce followed, and the 
adulterer returned to Italy ; but again saw the adulteress twenty 
years afterwards, when she was the wife of a commoner, and 
expressed herself as " perfectly happy." 

Alfieri, subsequently, is supposed to have enjoyed the favors 
of Louisa Maria Caroline, Princess of Stolberg and Countess of 
Albany, and wife of Charles Stuart, "the Pretender" to the 
British throne, from whom she was separated. After the death 
of the Pretender, the Count and Countess were married. Alfieri 
died in 1803, the Countess in 1824. Their ashes now min- 
gle under the same monument, at Florence, between the tombs 
of Machiavelli and Michael Angelo. The Count was an author 
of much celebrity. His works, consisting of six comedies, 
twenty-one tragedies, and various other writings, were published 
in thirty-seven volumes, a few years after his decease. It was 
owing to the Countess, he said, that he was able to achieve any- 
thing worthy of preservation. 

ALFONSO, King of Portugal. See Ferdinand, King of Spctin. 

ALI, son-in-law of Mohammed, and his fourth successor. 
Challenge to Moawiyah, in the year 657. In the wars of the 
Saracens. 

" Ali called out to Moawiyah, ' How lon^ shall the people lose their 
lives between us ? Come hither. I challenge you to appeal to the 
decision of God. And which of us two kills his man, let him have the 
whole himself.' Whereupon, Amrou said to Moawiyah, ' Your cousin 
has made you a fair proffer.' Moawiyah said it was not fair, because that 
Ali knew that no man had ever yet come out against him but he had 
killed him. Amrou told him that his refusal would look dishonorable. 
Moawiyah answered, ' You have, I see, a mind to enjoy the government 
yourself, after I am gone.' " 

A battle followed. Moawiyah proposed to Ali to submit the 
difference between them to two arbiters, who might determine it 
according to the Koran and the tradition of the people. Ali de- 
clined the proposition at first, but finally acceded to it. 

ALLAIN, Mons. See Cournet. 

ALLEN, (an eccentric, half-insane Irish lawyer, of some 

note in his time), and a brother of the bar, whose name does not 
5* 



54 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

appear. It is related in Curran and his Contemporaries, that 
Allen dashed his bar-wig in the face of his brother lawyer, and 
nearly blinded him with the powder, and that a meeting was the 
consequence. 

The attorney fired and missed ; Allen, who had purposely 
reserved his fire, brandishing his pistol furiously about, to the 
imminent danger of all within its range, wildly demanded of his 
awe-struck second, in whose mind's eye the gallows largely 
loomed, " Shall I rush on him with a shout, after the manner of' 
the ancients 1 " 

ALLEN, Rev. BENNET. See Dulany, Lloyd. 

ALLSTONS, and General REED. In Texas, in 1841 or early in 
1842. A New Orleans paper of January of the latter year has 
the following chapter of blood : 

" We learn the end of Willis Allston, who shot General Reed, of Flor- 
ida. Mr. Allston, of Tallahassee, challenged General Reed. They fought 
and the General shot him. Willis Allston, brother of the deceased, and 
the General had a recontre subsequently, when the former shot the lat- 
ter. Allston then went to Texas. About the 10th of last month, he 
met Dr. John McNeil Stewart in the woods near Brazoria. An alter- 
cation arose between them relative to a friend of Mr. Stewart. Allston 
drew his knife to stab him, but Stewart, perceiving his intention, fired 
three shots at him with one of Colt's pistols. Allston, though severely 
wounded, fired a rifle and shot-gun at his opponent, which instantly 
killed him. The citizens of Brazoria arrested Allston, took him out, 
and shot him." 

ALPHONSE, Mons. See Isidore, Mons. 

ALVANLEY, Lord, and MORGAN O'CONNELL, Member of Par- 
liament. In the year 1835. The parties fired several times, 
but without injury to either. The quarrel was political, com- 
mencing between his lordship and the celebrated Daniel O'Con- 
nell, and terminating with his son Morgan, who assumed it for 
reasons which probably appear in the account of the duel of the 
great " Agitator," in this work. 

ALVARADO, DON DIEGO. Challenge to HERNANDO PIZARRO, 
in Spain, in 1539. Hernando had condemned and executed 
Diego de Almagro while in South America. The act was un- 
necessary and unjust. Alvarado was Almagro's friend and 
executor, and denounced Hernando as a base and ungrateful 
tyrant, wherever he went. At last, he challenged the object of 
his hate to single combat, pledging himself " to prove, by his 
good sword, that Hernando, in his treatment of the Adelantado, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 55 

had acted with cruelty and ingratitude, that he was a bad servant 
to his king, and an unworthy knight." Alvarado died five days 
after sending this challenge. Dark surmises were entertained 
as to the cause of his sudden decease, much to the injury of 
Hernando ; who, for his misdeeds in Peru, generally, was soon 
after loaded with chains and imprisoned ; nor was he released 
until the lapse of twenty years, when, bowed by sorrow and in- 
firmity, life was a burden. 

AMBOISE, BUSSY D\ See Bouteville, Count Charles. 

AMELUNG, FERDINAND Louis, of Louisiana. He entered the 
military service, as captain of volunteers, in 1812 ; was retained 
at the peace, when he had the same rank in the regular army. 
fie resigned in 1819, and was killed in a duel at Baton Rouge 
the following year. 

ANGE, ST. JEAN D', Mons. See Aguesseau, Mons. Segur d\ 

ANGIER, M. EMILE, and M. CHARLES MONCELET. In France, 
in 1853. Neither harmed. Honor satisfied by a single shot. 
Both literary men, and the duel caused by an article of Monce- 
let, in which he criticized Philiberte, the last work of Angier. 

ANGOULEME, CHARLES OF VALOIS, Duke. He was a son 
of Charles IX. ; was admitted a knight of Malta, and became 
Grand Prior of France. While known as Count of Auvergne, 
in the reign of Henry IV., and about the year 1604, he became 
involved in plans which were treasonable, and, apprehending de- 
tection, sent a challenge to the Count of Soissons, in order to be 
banished from court. Soissons complained, and Henry, to sat- 
isfy him, exiled the challenger. But the king soon recalled 
Auvergne, and he was committed to the Bastile. In 1605, 
Auvergne was condemned to death ; but his sentence was com- 
muted to imprisonment in the Bastile, where he remained more 
than eleven years. He was created Duke of Angouleme in 
1619, and died in 1650. 

ANGUS, Earl of. See Spens of Kilspindy. 

ANNANDALE, noble house of. William, son of the second 
Earl of Annandale, was slain in a duel in 1721. Antagonist 
unknown. 

ANTONY, MARC. Challenge to JULIUS CAESAR, about the year 
30 B. C. Antony's fortunes were on the wane : indeed, his 
case had become desperate. In his extremity he resolved to 



56 . CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

perform some extraordinary act of valor, and accordingly chal- 
lenged Caesar to single combat. In Shakespeare, as Cresar reads 
a letter, he speaks thus : 

" He calls me boy : and chides, as he had power 
To beat me out of Egypt ; my messenger 
He hath whipped with rods ; dares me to personal combat. 
Caesar to Antony. Let the old ruffian know 
I have many other ways to die ; meantime, 
Laugh at his challenge." Ant. Sf Cleo., Act 4, Sc. 1. 

ANTRAGUET, , and QUELUS, a minion of Henry III. of 

France. They fought with two seconds on each side, and with 
swords. Antraguet, however, used both sword ; and dagger, 
which Quelus said was unfair; whereupon Anlraguet replied, 
" Thou hast done wrong to forget thy dagger at home ; we are 
here to fight, and not to settle punctilios of arms." 

ANTIN, D', Mons. See Frettes, La. 

ARGENLIEU, Mons. See Frettes, La. 

ARNOLD, BENEDICT. See Lauderdale, Lord. 

ARMSTRONG, SIR THOMAS : a man of some notoriety in the 
time of the Stuarts. In his youth, he was known especially for 
his duels, and his drunken exploits. Scott introduces him in 
Peveril of the Peak as Bully Tom Armstrong. He was ex- 
ecuted without trial, in 1684, for his concern in Monmouth's 
conspiracy. 

ARMSTRONG, CHARLES. Time and antagonist unknown. He 
was of the family of Armstrong of Garry Castle. Engaged in 
a duel, a relative of his own, of the name of Eyre, who acted 
as second to his opponent, treacherously murdered him. 

ARRAN, CHARLES HAMILTON, Count of. Challenge to General 
Macartney, in the reign of Queen Anne. Macartney (second 
of Lord Mohun) slew the Count's father in a duel, and fled to 
Antwerp. The Count followed him, and invited a meeting. 
The General declined. Arran was the son of the Duke of 
Hamilton "by the injured lady, Barbara Fitzroy." (See Hamil- 
ton and Mohun for a particular account of the cause of Arran's 
cartel.) 

ASHFORD, WILLIAM. See Thornton, Abraham. 
ASSYRIA, King of. See Cyrus, King of Persia. 
AUBANYE, a member of the noble house of Angouleme, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 57 

France. Duel with swords ; but Aubanye used a dagger in ad- 
dition to the weapon agreed upon. His antagonist accused him 
with having an undue advantage, whereupon he threw away his 
dagger. This case, and that of Antraguet, show the dishonor- 
able means resorted to by some duellists of former periods. 

AUGENT, JOHN S. See Jones, William H. 

AUGERO, Mons. Challenge to General Lemery, in New York, 
in 1852. The Spanish Consul of that city published an official 
statement of the facts in the case. He said, 

"I visited General Lemery at the New York Hotel. As soon as I 
entered, the General handed me a challenge, addressed to him by Mr. 
Augero. I observed without hesitation that he could not accept it ; 
that his official acts were not amenable on individual appeals for satis- 
faction, and that it would be a violation of his military rank arid official 
position, as well as of the laws of the State of New York, to enter into 
a personal rencontre." 

The combat, according to the Consul's account, was declined. 
BACOT, Colonel. See Duleng, Mons. 
BAGNESI, Marquis of. See Strozzi, Marquis. 

BAINBRIDGE, WILLIAM, Captain in the Navy of the United 
States. See Decatur, Stephen, duel with Barron. 

BAINBRIDGE, JOSEPH. See Cochran. 
BAIRD, OLIVER T. See Wright, C. J. 
BALCARRAS, Lord. See Shelburne, Earl of. 
BALL, . See Kilkenny, Earl of. 

BANISTER, JOHN, of Virginia, Midshipman in the Navy of the 
United States, in 1835. Antagonist unknown. Banister was 
slain. 

BARBAGON, J. M. See Carroll, E. T. 

BARNAVE, ANT. PIERRE Jos. MARIE, a French barrister, and 
deputy to the States-General. The hero of two duels. The 
earliest, with Viscount de Noailles, in which he fired first and 
missed his adversary, who discharged his pistol in the air ; when 
the friends of both interfered. The second was in August, 
1790, with Mons. de Cazales, with pistols. Cazales was wound- 
ed. Barnave was condemned to death by the revolutionary 
tribunal of Paris, in 1793. He was a man of fine powers of 
elocution ; and as good a judge as Mirabeau was astonished 



58 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

"that one so young- should speak so long, so rapidly, and so 
eloquently." 

BARNE, BENJAMIN, of England. Antagonist unknown. The 
duel in Ireland, in 1772. Barne killed. He was an officer of 
dragoons, and a descendant of Sir George Barne, knight, who 
was Lord Mayor of London in 1552. 

BARNES, , Captain. See Welch, Lieutenant. 

BARNETT, . See Sheridan, Richard Brinsley. 

BARNEY, HON. JOHN, ex-Member of Congress, Maryland. 
Challenge, in 1852, to Mons. Sartiges, Minister of France to the 
United States. The message was in the following terms : 
" To MONS. SARTIGES, Ministre de France. 

" Baltimore, May 3, 1852. 

" SIR, I inclose, for your information, copy of a letter this day ad- 
dressed to a former friend, Prince Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, now 
President of the Senate of France. If, in shadowing forth a faint out- 
line of the infamy of your character, I have given you cause for offence, 

my friend General is authorized by me to receive and respond 

to any communications you may desire to make. 

" The person of an ambassador is sacred, or I should have long since 
corrected your impertinence by wholesome chastisement. 

" The stringency of the laws of the District of Columbia in regard to 
personalities has and will prevent my noticing you there in any way. 
1 shall remain here until Thursday, 4 P. M., to learn and conform to 
your wishes. I have the honor to be, 

" JOHN BARNEY." 

The author is indebted to Mr. Barney for the above, and for a 
copy of his communications to Prince Jerome, to Louis Napoleon, 
Emperor of France, and to the President of the United States, in 
which the reasons for his challenge to the French ambassador 
are related in detail. They are substantially the same, and con- 
tain " an array of facts, the truthfulness of which," he remarks, 
" he avers of his own knowledge." These papers may be very 
properly omitted here. I cite, however, a single passage from 
the letter to Prince Jerome : 

" SIR, I desire to recall to your memory the period when first I 
had the honor to meet you in my father's house in Baltimore. As an 
officer of the Revolution in America, and Chef de Division in the ser- 
vice of the Republic of France, he claimed and had the honor to 
receive you and your suite. 

" The inclosed documents will evidence who I now am, and what I 
have been. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 59 

" For more than thirty years the representative of my native city in 
the councils of the State of Maryland, and in the Congress of the 
United States ; the personal friend of the late marshal, Count Ber- 
trand, as is certified by the annexed letter, I claim your attention in 
representing the degraded character of your Minister to these United 
States. 

u For twenty-seven years I have enjoyed the privilege of an acquaint- 
ance with the Diplomatic Corps in Washington, and I bear willing tes- 
timony to the amenity, courtesy, propriety, dignity, and polite civility 
of all, commanding the respect, esteem, and confidence of the pol- 
ished society of Washington. Mons. Sartiges presents the solitary 
exception," &c., &c. 

BARONNET, Mons. See Cournet. 

BARRELL, GEORGE. Challenge to Mr. Zebedee Cook, Jun., of 
Boston, in 1820. Mr. Cook published a card, in which he stated 
that, in his opinion, merchants were not required to adjust their 
disputes with pistols. 

BARRINGTON, Colonel JONAH, and a Mr. GILBERT. In Ireland, 
about the year 1759. The parties, after entertaining an irrecon- 
cilable grudge for some time, finally met in single combat, on 
horseback, on the green of Maryborough. It was arranged that 
the ground should be one hundred yards of race, and eight of 
distance ; the weapons, two holster-pistols to each, and a sword ; 
the pistols to be charged with one ball and " swan-drops." Six 
months intervened between the arrangements and the duel. The 
country people, for miles around, were present. Both parties 
fired, and missed. At the second fire Barrington was wounded, 
and, becoming enraged, a fierce hand to hand fight ensued ; he 
received three additional wounds, and Gilbert was cut on the 
side and thigb. Both wore iron scull-caps under their hats, 
which probably saved their brains. A reconciliation was effect- 
ed, which was lasting ; and when, subsequently, Barrington 
fought a Mr. Fitzgerald, his antagonist in this affair was his 
friend or second. 

BARRINGTON, SIR JONAH. The chronicler of the most noted 
Irish duels of his time. He was a duellist himself, and his ac- 
counts of his affairs with Richard Daly and Leonard McNally 
show the manner in which single combats sometimes originated, 
and were conducted, by gentlemen of the Emerald Isle. 

In the one case, Daly, who was a barrister, gave the chal- 
lenge. Barrington had never spoken a word to him in his life, 
had scarcely spoken of him, and was wholly unconscious of 



60 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

any cause of offence ; but inasmuch as this was the first invi- 
tation he had received, and as public sentiment in Ireland then 
required that such a challenge should never be declined, he ac- 
cepted without any inquiry as to the reason for being called out. 
They met in the field of Donnybrook. A brother of Sir Edward 
Crosby, Bart, was the friend of Barrington, and John Patterson, 
nephew to the Chief Justice, accompanied Daly. 

Crosby, without salutation or conversation, immediately cried 
out, " Ground, gentlemen ! ground, ground ! damn measure- 
ment ! " The second of Daly advanced, and said that his prin- 
cipal could not think of going further in the business ; that he 
was mistaken, and was sorry for having occasioned so much 
trouble to Mr. Barrington and his friend ; and that he hoped they 
would excuse him, and shake hands with him. To this Barring- 
ton'had no sort of objection, but Crosby said, without hesitation, 
"We cannot do that yet, sir; I show you we canV (taking a 
little manuscript book out of his breeches pocket). " There's 
the rules, look at that, sir ; see No. 7 : ' No apology can 
be received after the parties meet, without a fire? You see 
there 's the rule," continued Crosby, " and a young man on his 
Jirst-blood cannot break rule, particularly with a gentleman so 
used to the sport as Mr. Daly. Come, gentlemen, proceed, pro- 
ceed !" Daly appeared much displeased, but took his ground 
in silence. Barrington did the same. They fired ; Barrington 
took no aim, but wounded Daly. Barrington required to know 
the cause of the challenge ; but it was now Daly's turn to cite a 
rule, and his friend quoted No. 8 : " If a party challenged ac- 
cepts the challenge without asking the reason of it, the chal- 
lenger is never bound to divulge it afterwards." But this absurd 
duel ended here. 

In the affair with McNally, Barrington was also the challenged 
party. McNally was a short man, " and nearly as broad as 
long, his legs were of unequal length, and he had a face which 
no washing could clean," and was a good-natured, hospitable, 
talented, dirty fellow. The parties met in the middle of the 
review-ground, Phoenix Park. Barrington was attended by 
Henry Harding, " a huge, wicked, fighting king's county attor- 
ney," and by Rice Gibbon, a surgeon. His ball struck McNally 
in the side, who cried out, " I am hit." Barrington's surgeon 
instantly ripped up his clothes, and found that the bullet had 
struck the buckle of his gallows (suspenders) and had not en- 
tered his body. Harding exclaimed, " By J s, Mac ! you are 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 61 

the only rogue that I ever knew that was saved by the gallows.'' 1 
McNally had been in so bad odor among gentlemen of the bar 
that no one would fight him. This duel placed him on -fight- 
ing ground. He had been universally insulted ; but indignities 
were suspended, and he often said that Harrington's shot was his 
salvation. In Curran and his Contemporaries, there is an amus- 
ing description of his unfortunate position previously. 

" His distress at one time was truly pitiable, at not being able to in- 
duce anybody to fight him. Being, it seems, under some cloud, Harry 
Grady, who wounded everybody with whom he fought, refused that 
favor to McNally. Everybody followed this inhuman example. The 
poor man could get nobody to shoot him, and was the picture of mis- 
ery. In vain he fumed, and fretted, and affronted. All seemed deter- 
mined on being ' guiltless of his blood.' Never was an Irish gentleman 
so unfortunate. At length Sir Jonah Barrington, out of Christian char- 
ity, accepted his cartel, and shot him into fashion. McNally was a man 
again." 

BARRINGTON, WILLIAM, and Lieut. McKENZiE. The former 
was a brother of Sir Jonah Barrington, and a youth of twenty 
years ; the latter an officer in the British army. Captain Gillespie, 
though previously considered a friend of the Barringtons, volun- 
teered as McKenzie's second. It seems, by Sir Jonah's Sketches, 
that the dispute between the principals was private, and ought 
not to have caused a duel. McKenzie was not averse to an 
arrangement ; but Gillespie would entertain no overtures upon the 
subject. The combatants met, fired, and missed. They fired a 
second time. A reconciliation was then proposed, to which Gil- 
lespie objected. Barrington expressed his readiness to adjust the 
difficulty, after the second fire, and while thus protesting, was 
shot dead by Gillespie. Gillespie was arrested, and in 1788 
tried for the offence. It was proved at the trial, that Barrington 
declared enough had been done to satisfy the honor of himself, 
and of his antagonist ; that he actually held out his hand to 
McKenzie, but that Gillespie exclaimed, " his friend should not 
be satisfied, and the affair should proceed." The prosecution 
proved also, that Barrington uttered some harsh expressions rela- 
tive to Gillespie, who, losing his self-control, suddenly threw a 
handkerchief to Barrington, asking if he " dared take a corner 
of that"; that the unfortunate youth snatched at the handker- 
chief, and at the instant received a ball from Gillespie, which 
passed through his body ; that he expired in agony the same 
evening, and that the murderer fled from the field. 
6 



02 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

It is remarked by Sir Jonah, that the circumstance of a sec- 
ond's killing a principal because he desired a reconciliation, has 
no other example in the annals of duelling. 

Judge Bradstreet, who tried the case, held that the death of 
Barrington was clearly murder ; but the jury returned a verdict 
of "justifiable homicide" 

Gillespie became a general in the British army, and a monu- 
ment to his memory has been erected in Westminster Abbey. 
It is said that he was never happy after Barrington's fall ; that, 
intrepid to excess, he often tempted fate. He was slain under 
the walls of Bangalore, India, and possibly while courting death 
to end his sorrows. 

BARRON, JAMES, Captain in the Navy of the United States. 
See Decatur, Stephen. 

BARRY, , Captain, British Navy. See Montgomery. 

BARTHELMY, Mons. See Cournet. 
BARTON, . See Graham, W. G. 

BARWELL, , member of the Council of Bengal. See 

Clavering, General. 

BASSETT, WILLIS H., Surgeon in the Navy of the United States, 
and JOSHUA SANDS, Lieutenant in the same service. In South 
America, in 1830. Bassett was killed. The survivor z^nd 
the seconds were sent to the United States by their commanding 
officer. 

BATE, HENRY. See Dudley, Sir Henry, Baronet. 

BATH, WILLIAM PULTENEY, Earl of, and Lord HERVEY. In 
England, in 1731. This duel gave offence to the king, who re- 
moved Mr. Pulteney from the office of Privy Councillor, and from 
the commission of the peace. Pulteney was one of the ablest op- 
ponents of Sir Robert Walpole ; and, on the downfall of that min- 
ister, was elevated to the peerage by the title here given to him. 

BATRE, CLAUDE DE, a French knight. See Maximilian, Em- 
peror of Germany. 

BATTIER, , an officer of the tenth regiment of hussars, 

British army. Challenge, in 1824, to the Marquis of London- 
derry. It seems that the officers of that regiment claimed the 
right to determine who should be admitted into, and who should 
be excluded from, the corps, and that Battier, under the auspices 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 63 

of the Duke of York, obtained a commission, in opposition to 
the rule. The result was, that no one would associate with him. 
Thus " driven into Coventry," he retired on half-pay. The 
Marquis was colonel of the regiment, hence the challenge. 

BAYARD, Chevalier. See Sotomayor, Alonzo de. 
BAYARD, GODEFROI. See Eu t Count d\ 

BAVARIA : a Court of Honor established in 1819, to prevent 
duelling. Success of the measure unknown. 

BEAUMANOIR, a knight of Breton. See Beniborough, an Eng- 
lish knight. 

BEATJMARCHAIS, Mons. See Clavijo^ Don Joseph Flaxcardo. 
BEAUMONT, Mons. See Manuel, Mons. 

BEDFORD, Duke of, and the Duke of BUCKINGHAM. In Eng- 
land, 1822. Both parties fired ; the former in the air. The 
duel grew out of an expression of his grace of Bedford, at a 
county meeting. 

BELLAMONT, Lord. See Townshend, Lord. 

BELLASSES, SIR HENRY, and THOMAS PORTER. In 1677. I 
quote from the Edinburgh Review : 

" They dined together ... in Sir Robert Carr's. It happened that 
these two, the greatest friends in the world, were talking together, and 
Sir H. Bellasses talked a little louder than ordinarily to Tom Porter, 
giving him some advice. Some of the people standing by said, ' What ! 
are they quarrelling, that they talk so high ? ' Sir II. Bellasses, hearing 
it, said, * No ; I would have you know I never quarrel, but I strike ; 
take that as a rule of mine.' ' How,' said Tom Porter, ' strike ! I 
would I could see the man in England that durst give me a blow ! ' 
With that Sir H. Bellasses did give him a box on the ear ; and so they 

were going out to fight, but were hindered But they met ; Porter 

watching the coach of Sir Henry, stopping it, and bidding him to come 
out of it. 

" So out they went, and they both drew, and they fell to fight, some 
of their acquaintances by. They wounded one another ; and Sir H. 
Bellasses mortally. He, finding himself severely wounded, called to 
Tom Porter, and kissed him, and bade him shift for himself. ' For,' says 
he, ' Tom, thou hast hurt me, but I will make shift to stand on my legs 
till thou mayest withdraw, and the world take no notice of thee ; for I 
would not have thee troubled for what thou hast done.' And then Tom 

Porter showed him how he was wounded too Both of them were 

.... extraordinary friends. It is pretty to hear how the world talk of 
them, as a couple of fools that killed one another out of love." 



64 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

I may add, from another source, that James II., while Duke 
of York, and after the decease of his first wife, desired to 
many the widow of Sir Henry Bel lasses ; that they were in fact 
engaged ; that the lady, believing that the Duke's interests would 
suffer, released him ; but retained in writing his promise of 
marriage, to preserve her reputation. 

BEMBROUGH, , an English knight, and BEAUMANOIR, a 

knight of Breton, of the party of Charles of Blois. 

A duel of thirty knights on a side, about the year, probably, 
1349. After the knights of the two nations came into the field, 
and before the combat began, Beaumanoir proclaimed, that " it 
would be seen that day who had the fairest mistresses." The 
Bretons prevailed, after a bloody combat. Among the English 
knights were two distinguished generals, Sir Robert Knowles 
and Sir Hugh Calverly. In the advance of civilization, the duel- 
lists of our time wonder at a contest so ridiculous as this : may it 
not be well to remember that, in the still further progress of the 
human race, modern duelling will excite equal surprise. 

BENNET, Doctor. See Williams, Doctor. 
BENNETT, WILLIAM. See Stewart, Alphonso. 
BERARD, Mons. See Brives, Mons. M. 

BERESFORD, . See Fitzwilliam, Earl of. 

BERTHOLON, Mons. See Aguesseau, Mons. Segur d\ 

BEST, a captain in the guard of Elizabeth, Queen of England, 
and OLIVER ST. JOHN, of the noble house of Bolingbroke. In 
England. Best was killed. St. John, a student or barrister at 
law, relinquished his studies, and fled the kingdom : adopting a 
military life, he obtained distinction in the wars of the queen and 
her successor, and was finally advanced to the peerage as Vis- 
count Grandison. 

BEST, Captain. See Camelford, Lord Thomas. 
BEUVRON, Marquis of. See Bouteville, Count Charles. 

BIDDLE, THOMAS, and SPENCER PETTIS. In Missouri, in 1831. 
Both killed. Biddle was the challenged party, and, being near- 
sighted, stipulated a distance of five feet, with pistols. Their 
weapons, in position, actually overlapped each other. Both con- 
ducted with remarkable coolness. They exchanged forgiveness 
on the ground. Pettis died the day after, and Biddle the third day 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 65 

after the duel : the former was a member of Congress elect from 
Missouri, the latter a major in the army of the United States, and 
a brother of Nicholas Biddle, the celebrated banker. The quarrel 
commenced in the newspapers of St. Louis, during an election 
canvass. 

BINGHAM, . See Moore, James. 

BIVAR, DON RODRIGO (Ruv) DIAZ, Count, surnamed The Cid. 
He was the flower of Spanish chivalry, in the eleventh century. 
Two of his single combats are memorable. In one, the quarrel 
was between his father and the father of his lady-love. The 
two fathers fought, and Bivar's was vanquished : when, smarting 
under insult and disgrace, he required his son to espouse his 
cause. Bivar obeyed the call, and the parent of his loved one 
fell by his hand. 

In the other case, the Count was the champion of Ferdinand 
I., who, challenged by Ramiro, King of Aragon, obtained pos- 
session of Calahorra by the success of Bivar, who conquered 
Gonzales, the knight substitute of Ramiro. 

Bivar, in the reign of Alfonso, the son of Ferdinand, fought a 
duel by champions, to redress his own wrongs. The two broth- 
ers, Counts of Carrion, had sued for and received his daugh- 
ters in marriage, merely, it would seem, to obtain Bivar's great 
wealth, which, according to their plan, was given them with 
their brides, whom they instantly treated with the greatest bar- 
barity and abandoned. Bivar at once demanded the restoration 
of his property, and a combat with his inhuman sons-in-law. 
They would gladly have avoided the conflict, but Alfonso insist- 
ed, and they reluctantly complied. The knight-champions of 
Bivar overcame them, but spared their lives. 

Bivar is the hero of the great tragedy of Corneille, and of 
many of the old Spanish romances and ballads. 

Lord Woodhouselee says, that Bivar distinguished himself 
above all other Christian knights, and that Alfonso, by his ser- 
vices, became the most powerful of those petty sovereigns that 
divided the kingdom of Spain, of whom, at this period, there 
were about twenty (Christians and Mahometans), besides many 
independent nobles. 

BIXIO, Mons., ex-Minister of France. See Thiers, Mans., 
Minister of France. 

BLAIR, JAMES. See Peachy, A. C. 
6* 



66 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

BLANC, Mons. CHARLES, and Mons. LACOMBE. In France, 
1849. The offence was on the part of Lacombe, who wrote a 
paragraph against the brother of Blanc. Lacombe was wounded, 
when the seconds declared that " honor was satisfied." 

BLOOMFIELD, SAMUEL C., of New Jersey. An officer in the 
army of the United States. Was killed, in 1814. Antagonist 
unknown. 

BLOUNT, CHARLES, and the Earl of ESSEX. In England, 
1585. The Earl was the challenged party. It appears that, 
when Queen Elizabeth first saw Blount at Whitehall, she was 
pleased with his graceful person, and paid him marked attention. 
Essex was angry. At a subsequent time, Blount, who w r as of 
noble blood, and a younger brother of Lord Mountjoye, ran so 
well at tilt, that Elizabeth sent him a token of her favor. Blount 
soon after appeared at court, with the Queen's present displayed 
upon his person, which he took no pains to conceal. Essex saw 
the decoration, and asked what it was, and wherefore worn ? On 
hearing the facts from Fulke Greville, the Earl remarked con- 
temptuously, " Now I perceive that every fool must have a 
favor." 

Thereupon, Blount gave a challenge. He met Essex near 
Marybone park, and the haughty Earl was wounded in the thigh, 
and disarmed. When Elizabeth was told of the duel and its 
result, she swore by " God's death, that it was fit that some one 
or other should take the Earl down, and teach him manners, 
otherwise there would be no ruling him." She said also, " that 
her beauty had been the object of their quarrel." But Essex, at 
the time, weary of her fondness, called her " the old woman" 

BLOUNT, HON. THOMAS, member of Congress from North 
Carolina. Challenge, in 1797, to HON. GEORGE THATCHER, mem- 
ber of Congress from Massachusetts, and subsequently a judge 
of the Supreme Court of that State. 

The offence was given in debate. Mr. Blount introduced a 
series of resolutions on the subject of " Defensive Measures," 
one of which contemplated the putting of eighty thousand of the 
militia of the country " in a state of requisition" Mr. Thatcher, 
in the course of his remarks to the House, commented upon the 
phrase " requisition" as a French term of which he was not 
fond, and said that, while he had no objection to holding such a 
number of men " in readiness" he entertained the hope that the 
sentiment would be expressed in "American language." Mr. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 67 

Blount thereupon defended the offensive word by an appeal to 
the proceedings of the Congress of the Confederation, and to the 
calls of that body upon the States for troops, during the war of 
the Revolution ; and concluded with saying, that he " thought 
the objection a trifling one, and such as the gentleman ought to 
be ashamed of making." Mr. Thatcher rejoined, that he did 
not often say anything of which he was ashamed ; and closed 
with repeating the old adage, " that a guilty conscience needs 
no accuser." Mr. Blount rose in great warmth, and declared, 
that he u should take from no man, with impunity, such language 
as that," when, interrupted by a loud call to order, he took his 
seat. Here the dispute in the House appears to have ended. 
But Mr. Blount, in p due time, sent a hostile message. Mr. 
Thatcher's answer afforded much amusement at the expense of 
his chivalrous adversary, and was, in substance, that, being a 
husband and a father, his family had an interest in his life, and 
that he could not think of accepting the invitation without the 
consent of his wife, then at home in Massachusetts, whom he 
would immediately consult. 

Fisher Ames spoke of the affair in a letter to Dwight Foster, 
in his happiest vein : 

" I leave it to you wise men to save the nation. Some of you must 
watch and pray, and others must fight, if need be. I should not have 
thought the lot would have fallen upon Thatcher to defend his princi- 
ples by the sword. And, what is not the least remarkable, he got into 
the scrape by expressing his aversion to anything French. He is a 
worthy fellow. May he lon escape wounds and sickness, and enjoy 
as much glory as he thirsts for, without bleeding to get it. Does not J. 
Smith remark the advantage of a wife ? She is an excuse on a chal- 
lenge. God preserve you from gunpowder," &c. 

BLUE, WILLIAM K., of Virginia. Antagonist unknown. He 
entered the army of -the United States, as cornet of cavalry, in 
1793 ; was subsequently a lieutenant of dragoons, and a captain 
of infantry. After quitting the service, and after the year 1800, 
he fell in a duel at Fort Washington, Ohio. 

BLUNDELL, , a Lieutenant in the British service. In the 

Isle of Wight, supposed in the year 1813. Blundell was slain. 
His antagonist, his second, and two others, all officers in the 
army, were tried and convicted of murder. They were, how- 
ever, pardoned, but dismissed the service. 

BODKIN, AMBY. See Bourke, John. 



68 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

BOLTON, Duke of, and STEWART. In England, 1760. 

Mr. Stewart was a candidate for a seat in Parliament. Duel 
with swords near Marylebone. Stewart slightly wounded. " The 
Duke, in making a pass, overreached himself, fell down, and 
hurt his knee. The other bid him get up, but he could not ; 
then he bid him ask his life, but he would not." The combat 
ended. 

BOLTON, WILLIAM B. See White, Francis B. 
BONAPARTE, CHARLES. See Canino, Prince of. 

BONAPARTE, PIERRE. In France, 1849. Involved in the per- 
sonal quarrels of the members of the Legislative Assembly, in 
November, it is believed that he was a party to two or three 
duels immediately following them. (See Aguesseau and Ber~ 
tholon, for the quarrels here referred to.) But no particulars 
have been ascertained, except that M. Xavier Durrieu was, prob- 
ably, his antagonist in one of the combats supposed to have 
taken place. (See also Nieikerke, Count.) 

BOSWELL, SIR ALEXANDER, and JAMES STEWART, or STUART. 
In Scotland, in 1822. Sir Alexander was the son of Dr. John- 
son's biographer ; and Stewart was connected with some of the 
noblest and most ancient families in Scotland. 

In 1821, a newspaper was started in Edinburgh, called the 
Beacon, which contained an attack on Stewart ; but that affair 
was settled. Other attacks in the same paper followed, in 
which his " name was directly coupled with the word dastard, 
with that of bully, of sulky poltroon, coward, despised," 
&c. The Beacon was soon extinct ; but another paper was 
started called the Sentinel, in the first number of which the 
attack on Stewart was renewed. He at length discovered, or 
supposed he did, that Boswell was the writer of one or more of 
these attacks. The Earl of Rosslyn, as Stewart's friend, had 
an interview with Boswell, who could have adjusted the difficulty 
with the Earl on liberal and honorable terms. But he declined 
the overture made to him. " I cannot submit to be catechized," 
said he ; "I will make neither denial nor apology." A meeting, 
according to the code of honor, was thus rendered unavoidable. 

Stewart expected to fall, but escaped. Boswell was killed. 
Stewart fled, leaving a message, that, if a prosecution was de- 
signed against him, he would return. He surrendered himself 
for trial, in accordance with his pledge. It was proved that the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 69 

duel was a fair one, and he was acquitted. His friend, the 
Earl of Rosslyn, as well as Mr. Douglas, the second of Sir 
Alexander, were witnesses at the trial. The verdict of acquittal 
was received with loud cheers. 

He became involved in speculations soon after, and came to 
America. After his return, he published an account of his 
travels in the United States, and was the editor of the Courier, 
a paper which supported the Liberals. During the administration 
of Lord Melbourne, he was appointed " Factory Inspector," and 
discharged his duties in a manner satisfactory to all parties. He 
died in 1849, at the age of seventy-four. 

BOTH WELL, JAMES HEPBURN, Earl, and Duke of Orkney. 
General challenges, in 1567, to all gentlemen of good fame, 
who accused him of participation in the murder of Lord Darnley, 
the husband of Mary of Scotland. 

The first challenge was contained in a published writing im- 
mediately after his trial and acquittal. No one appears to have, 
accepted it. The second cartel was at the head of Mary's army, 
and on the eve of a battle with the troops of the nobles who had 
confederated against her. The queen's soldiers were irresolute, 
and discovered no inclination to engage ; she wept, threatened, 
and reproached them. Bothwell, at this juncture, sent to his 
adversaries a defiance, offering to decide the quarrel, and to 
prove his own innocence, in single combat. Kirkaldy of Grange, 
Murray of Tullibarden, and Lord Lindsay, contended for the 
honor of entering the lists against him. Robertson, from whom 
this account is derived, remarks, that this challenge proved to be 
a mere bravado ; that BothwelPs sense of guilt, or Mary's com- 
mand (whose husband he then was), prevented the duel. But 
Chalmers states, that Bothwell declined to meet two Murrays, 
because they were inferior to him in rank ; that he gave a defi- 
ance to Morton by name, that Morton is said to have accepted, 
and selected to fight on foot, with two-handed swords ; that Lord 
Lindsay, by Morton's consent, assumed the quarrel, and that the 
Queen is said to have commanded both to desist. 

BOUCICAULT, Marechal de, of France, and Governor of Genoa. 
Challenge, in 1403, to the Doge of Venice, or to Carlo Zeno, one 
of the most distinguished Venetians of the time. Boucicault and 
Zeno were in command of opposing fleets, Greece and Venice 
being at war. After a battle, Zeno, in a despatch to the 
Signory, claimed the victory, and added, that, if his officers had 



70 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

performed their duty, not one vessel of the Genoese fleet would 
have escaped him. The haughty Boucicault could ill brook the 
statements of his enemy, and replied to them in a long and 
intemperate cartel, addressed not only to Zeno, but to the Doge 
of Venice. In this communication, he gave them the lie direct ; 
and, to establish his own contrary assertions, confiding, as he 
declared, in divine justice, in the blessed Mother of God, and in 
St. George, he challenged either of them to meet him in the 
lists, offering advantage of numbers, fighting with five against 
six, ten against twelve, fifteen against eighteen, twenty against 
twenty-four. Or, to settle the disputed question of naval superi- 
ority, he would meet galley against galley, on the condition that 
his own vessel should be manned exclusively by Genoese and 
French, and that of his antagonist by Venetians. Neither chal- 
lenge was accepted. Boucicault probably had been, or subse- 
quently was, engaged in a duel at Padua, in the presence of 
many noble Venetians. (See Galeazzo.) 

BOULIGNY, HENRY, and CUMMINGS. In 1851, at or near 

New Orleans. Bouligny killed. 

BOURBON, Duke of. See Charles X- of France. 

BOURKE, JOHN, of Glinsk, and AMBY BODKIN. In Ireland, 
date not ascertained. The parties fought, principals and sec- 
onds, at ten paces, with pistols, at right angles, and all fired on a 
signal from an umpire. A child of Bourke (subsequently Sir 
John Bourke) was held upon a man's shoulder to see " papa 
fight." The two principals were slightly wounded at the first 
fire, and at the second the seconds and Bodkin were severely 
hurt; but no lives were sacrificed. Several of Bourke's ser- 
vants were present. 

BOUTEVILLE, FRANCIS DE, Count, of the ancient and illustri- 
ous family of Montmorenci, and one of the noted duellists of 
France, in the seventeenth century. Four persons of considera- 
tion fell by his sword in three years ; namely, M. Pontgibaud, 
in 1624 ; Count de Thorigny, ana the Marquis Desportes, in 
1626; and M. Lafrette, in 1627. After the fall of the last, he 
and the Count des Chappelles, his second, fled to Brussels, where 
he was pursued by the Marquis de Beuvron, a relative of the 
Count de Thorigny, who determined to revenge his kinsman's 
death. An apparent reconciliation was, however, effected ; 
though it is related that, at the moment they embraced in token 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 71 

of forgiveness, Beuvron whispered to Botfteville, " I shall never 
be satisfied till I have met you sword in hand." Louis XIII. 
was solicited to pardon Bouteville, but refused ; whereupon 
Bouteville exclaimed, that he " would fight in Paris, ay, and in 
the Palais Royal, too ! " It so turned out. On his return to 
France, a duel of three against three was arranged between him 
and Beuvron, and the Palais Royal was selected as the place 
of combat. Beuvron was attended by Buquet, by his equerry, 
and by Bussy d'Amboise ; Bouteville by Des Chappelles, by a 
cousin who was a constant companion in his duels, and by an- 
other gentleman. They fought with swords and daggers. Bussy 
fell by the hand of Des Chappelles, when the five survivors fled ; 
Beuvron and Buquet to England, Bouteville and his cousin to- 
wards Lorraine. The king ordered a vigorous pursuit of the 
offenders ; and Bouteville and his kinsman were overtaken and 
committed to the Bastile. Louis was importuned by the nobles 
and others, to pardon them. The Countess de Bouteville im- 
plored him, on her knees, to spare the life of her husband. 
Again, accompanied by the Princess of Conde, and three duch- 
esses, the wretched wife renewed her supplications. The mon- 
arch was inexorable. Bouteville and his relative were executed. 
Francis Henry de Montmorenci, Duke of Luxembourg, a posthu- 
mous son of Bouteville, was early distinguished in war ; and at 
the age of twenty was created a major-general by Anne of Aus- 
tria. It is said that, after Turenne had fallen, and Conde retired, 
Luxembourg had no equal in France. 

BOUVALLEN, Mons. See Dujarier, Mons. 

BOUVERIE, EDWARD, Member of Parliament, and Lord 
TANKERVILLE. In England, 1794. Bouyerie was mortally 
wounded. 

BOTIVET, Mons. F. and Mons. ROGER DU FORD. In France, in 
1850. Both were members of the Chamber of Deputies. They 
fought with pistols, without serious result to either. The meet- 
ing was in consequence of an- angry personal discussion in the 
Chamber. It is stated that Bouvet is " one of the most distin- 
guished and zealous members of the Peace Society " ! 

BOWIE, JAMES J., of Maryland. Lieutenant of dragoons, 
army of the United States. Killed in 1809, at New Orleans. 
Antagonist unknown. 

BOWLINGLY, W. H. See Roman? Charles. 



72 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

BOYD, , a captain, and CAMPBELL, a major in the 

British army. Both were officers of high standing. Campbell 
was a Scotchman of an ancient family. The duel in 1807, in 
Ireland. They fought in the night-time, without seconds, at 
seven paces, and in a private room. The dispute was trivial in 
the extreme. General Kerr had corrected Campbell's manner of 
giving an order. Campbell, in conversation about it, said that he 
was right, and the General wrong. Boyd, in reply, expressed 
the opinion, that " neither was correct, according to Dundas, 
which is the king's order." The whole provocation of Camp- 
bell consisted as judicially appears in the manner of Boyd's 
saying, " Yes, I do," in answer to his question, " Do you say I 
am wrong ? " 

Campbell's agony of mind, after the affair, was insupportable ; 
and he resolved to surrender himself. In a letter to his friend, 

E. Thompson, Esq., he declared : " I will die and 

suffer a violent and ignominious death for the benefit of my 
countrymen, who, by my unhappy exit, shall learn to abhor the 
too prevalent and too fashionable crime of duelling." 

He was tried for murder, convicted, and executed in 1808. 
It is manifest from the proceedings, that, had he fought a com- 
mon duel, he would have been acquitted. His offence was, not 
that he killed Boyd, but that he killed him contrary to established 
rules. This sufficiently appears, I think, from the reasoning of 
the judge who presided at the trial. In his charge to the jury, 
he remarked : 

"You must recall to your minds the words of the deceased Captain 
Boyd, namely : ' You have hurried nle ; I wanted to wait and have 
friends. Campbell, you are a bad man.' These words are very impor- 
tant ; and if you deem them sufficiently proved, they certainly do away 
all extenuation. If you think them proved, the prisoner is most clearly 
guilty of murder ; the deceased will then have been hurried into the 
field ; the contract of opposing life to life could not have been perfect." 

It was shown in the evidence, that, after the dispute, the par- 
ties separated for several hours ; that they quartered in a garrison 
where they had mutual friends who could have acted as seconds ; 
and that Boyd maintained in his dying moments that Campbell 
was not fair. Efforts were made to procure the pardon of the 
unhappy officer ; and a touching story of the exertions of his 
wife to move the royal clemency has been preserved. 

BRADDOCK, EDWARD, a general in the British army, and Colonel 
GUMLEY, presumed of the same service. Horace Walpole 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 73 

(speaking of Braddock's defeat and death, in the wilds of Amer- 
ica, in 1755), in a letter to Sir Horace Mann, referred to his 
previous mention of the unfortunate General, and remarked, that 
he would then " complete the poor man's history." Braddock, 
he said, " once had a duel with Colonel Gumley, Lady Bath's 
brother, [Elizabeth Gumley, 'wife of William Pulteney, Earl of 
Bath,] who had been his great friend ; as they were going to 
engage, Gumley, who had good humor and wit, (Braddock had 
the latter,) said, ' Braddock, you are a poor dog ! here, take my 
purse ; if you kill me, you will be forced to run away, and then 
you will not have a shilling to support you.' Braddock refused 
the purse, insisted on the duel, was disarmed, and would not 
even ask his life." 

BRADSHAW, Ensign . See Huston, Lieut. 

BRAZER, M. C. See Park, J. W. 

BREAUTE, CHARLES DE, a French gentleman of Caux, and a 
captain of a troop of horse. About the year 1600. He was 
a noted duellist of the time, and, of consequence, had been com- 
pelled to leave France. In the present case he arranged a 
combat of twenty French against twenty Flemish gentlemen. 
He slew his antagonist, an officer under the governor of Bois-le- 
duc, but was taken prisoner, and put to death by order of that 
functionary. 

BRECKINRIDGE, JOHN C. See Cutting, Francis B. 

BRIG, , a member of the " Catholic Association," and Mr. 

HAYES, solicitor. In Dublin, 1827. Brie was slain. 

BRIVES, Mons. M., and Mons. BERARD. In France, in 1849, 
with pistols. The seconds of the first were Mons. Baune and 
Lefont ; of the latter, Mons. de Heckeren and Chapot. Brives 
fired first and missed ; the pistol of Berard missed fire. The 
seconds interfered and put an end to the combat. The duel was 
the result of a stormy debate in the Chamber of Deputies, or 
Legislative Assembly of France. [See Aguesseau and Bertho- 
lon, for a particular account of this discussion.] 

BRODERICK, HON. D. C., and J. CALET SMITH. In California, 
in 1852. The newspaper statement of the affair is, that " six 
shots were fired without any serious damage, when the parties 
separated " in amity. 

BROOKS, WALTER, and Judge REED. In Mississippi, in 1851. 



74 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

/ 

At the first fire, Reed's ball grazed Brooks's spine, but did not 
enter his body. Here the combat terminated. 

BROWN, Sir MATHEW. See Townshend, Sir John. 

BRUCE, JAMES, the celebrated traveller. Two affairs. The 
first, at Brussels, in 1757. On the second day after Bruce's 
arrival at that city, he was in company with a stranger, who was 
wantonly insulted by a third person. Bruce remonstrated with 
the aggressor, who, for his interference, challenged him. The 
invitation was accepted. The parties met; our traveller wound- 
ed his adversary twice, and fled from Brussels to Holland. 

The second, in 1773, at Rome. Bruce, before he was consul 
at Algiers, had plighted his faith to a Scotch lady, and during 
his travels had remained true to his engagement. On his return 
from the East, he found that the lady had been united to the 
Marquis d'Accoramboni. He suddenly appeared at Rome, and 
desired the Marquis to apologize in writing for having married a 
lady who had been engaged to him. The Italian nobleman 
politely assured him that he would not have interfered had he 
known of the engagement. This declaration Bruce insisted 
should be expressed in a note. The Marquis declined. There- 
upon, Bruce addressed him in a- hostile letter. After complain- 
ing of the course of the Marquis, he says : 

" I am at least your equal, Marquis, and God alone can do me justice 
for the injury which you have done me. Full of innocence, and with a 
clear conscience, I commit my revenge to him ; and I now draw my 
sword against you with that confidence with which the reflection of 
having done my duty, and the sense of the injustice and violence which 
I have suffered from you, without any reason, inspire me. At half past 
nine (French reckoning) I come in my carriage to your gate ; if my 
carriage does not please you, let your own be ready. Let us go together 
to determine which of the two is the most easy, to offer an affront to 
an absent man, or to maintain it in his presence." 

This message was sufficiently savage. The Marquis replied : 
" When the marriage with Miss M., at present my wife, was 
contracted, it was never mentioned to me that there was a pre- 
vious promise made to you, otherwise that connection should not 
have taken place." He added, that, upon his honor, he had not 
spoken of Bruce in any manner, his person not having been 
known to him. Thus ended the affair. 

BRUCE, EDWARD, Lord of Kinloss, and the Earl of DORSET. In 
Netherlands, in 1613. Bruce was the second nobleman of the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 75 

name ; and Dorset, at the time of the duel, had not succeeded to 
the title, but was known as Sir Edward (or Sir George) Sack- 
ville. 

I have found frequent references to this tragic affair, but no 
work within my reach contains an account of the difficulty 
which led to it. Chambers, who has woven an interesting story 
out of it, relates (with what departure from historical accuracy 
I have no means of determining) that Bruce was enamored of 
the Lady Clementina, Sackville's sister ; that, while Bruce was 
at Lord Dorset's house on a visit to his love, Sackville came 
home in a high state of intoxication and excitement, and, having 
grossly insulted Bruce, finally struck him in the face, in the 
presence of Lady Clementina ; that Bruce, for her sake, pre- 
served a calm demeanor, and, though the words and the blow 
wounded his spirit to its depths, and turned his love for Sackville 
to gall and bitterness, yet had the affray been kept private, as 
he hoped it would, he would not, probably, have called him to 
an account ; that, most unfortunately, the occurrence obtained 
publicity ; and that Bruce was compelled, at length, to resolve 
upon calling Sackville out, because of the loss of the esteem of 
persons of his own rank, and of gentlemen generally. Cham- 
bers, in his story, relates further, that, subsequently, Sackville 
gave Bruce another blow, and thus rendered a duel unavoidable ; 
and that the meeting was appointed on the continent, in conse- 
quence of the king's knowledge of the first quarrel, and the de- 
termination which he had expressed to visit any transgression 
of the laws by either, with his severest displeasure. It is stated 
also, that Bruce took leave of his mother, and of the Lady Cle- 
mentina, feeling that he should never see them more ; that, in 
consequence of his fall, life to both was ever a mere blank ; that 
the latter wore mourning and lived single for the rest of her 
days, while the former caused the heart of her son to be em- 
balmed, and placed in a silver case, and kept it always before 
her upon her table ; and that, after the decease of the Lady 
Bruce, the silver case was deposited in the family vault, where 
it remained undisturbed till the year 1808, when it was removed 
for a short time, during some repairs upon the tomb. 

To return to history. Burke cites from Clarendon, but does 
not narrate the cause of the duel. 

" Sackville," says Clarendon, "entered into a fatal quarrel, upon a 
subject very unwarrantable, with a young nobleman of Scotland, the 
Lord Bruce, upon which they both transported themselves into Flan- 



76 " CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

ders, and, attended by two chirurgeons, placed at a distance, and under 
an obligation not to stir but at the fall of one of them, they fought under 
the walls of Antwerp, where the Lord Bruce fell dead upon the place ; 
and Sir Edward Sackville (for so he was called), being likewise hurt, 
retired into the next monastery which was at hand." 

I find it said, that Bruce possessed a character without re- 
proach, and promised, by bis talents and excellent qualities, to 
occupy the very first rank in affairs ; but that Sackville, on the 
other hand, was extravagantly fond of frolics, and, according to 
contemporary writers, "kept the streets of London in an almost 
perpetual broil." Whatever the truth as regards either noble- 
man, the combat was disgraceful to both. They fought in a 
meadow, ankle-deep in water, and in their shirts. Such an en- 
counter ill became gentlemen, even early in the seventeenth 
century ; and, with the duel between the Duke of Buckingham 
and Lord Shrewsbury, some fifty years later, should be cited to 
silence the outcries of horror of our British brethren, whenever 
the bravos of America, on the borders of civilization, use the 
bowie-knife, and strike down one another in the bridle-path. 

The Earl of Dorset died in 1652. We have his own account 
of his fight with Bruce, in a letter to a friend, dated at Louvain, 
Sept. 8, 1613. It is here inserted. As will be seen, he vouches 
for its entire accuracy in the concluding sentence : " So may I 
prosper, as I have dealt sincerely with you in this relation." 
Whatever the reader's disgust of details of blood, let Sackville's 
relation be carefully studied and treasured, in order to possess 
a weapon of defence against aspersions often cast upon us 
abroad. 

" We met at Tergosa, in Zealand, it being the place allotted for ren- 
dezvous ; he being accompanied with one Mr. Crawford, a Scotch gen- 
tleman, for his second, a surgeon, and a man. There having rendered 
himself, I addressed my second, Sir John Heidou,to let him understand 
that now all following should be done by consent, as concerning the 
terms whereon we should fight, as also the place. To our seconds we 
gave power for their appointments, who agreed we should go to Ant- 
werp, from thence to Bergen-op-Zoom, where in the midway but a 
village divides the States' territories from the Archduke's. And tln-iv 
was the destined stage, to the end that, having ended, he that could 
might presently exempt himself from the justice of the country, by iv- 
tiring into the dominion not offended. It was further concluded, that, 
in case any should fall or slip, that then the combat should cease, and 
he whose ill fortune had subjected him was to acknowledge his life to 
have been in the other's hands. But in case one party's sword should 
break, because that could only chance by hazard, it was agreed that the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 77 

other should take no advantage, but either then be made friends, or else 
upon even terms go to it again. Thus these conclusions being each of 
them related to his party, was by us both approved, and assented to. 
Accordingly we embarked for Antwerp. And by reason, as I conceive, 
he could not handsomely, without danger of discovery, had not paired 
the sword I sent him to Paris ; bringing one of the same length, but 
twice as broad; my second excepted against it, and advised me to 
match my own, and send him the choice, which I obeyed ; it being, you 
know, the privilege of the challenged to select his weapon. At the de- 
livery of the swords, which was performed by Sir John Heidon, it 
pleased the Lord Bruce to choose- my own, and then, past expectation, 
he told him that a little of my blood would not serve his turn ; and, 
therefore, he was now resolved to have me alone, because he knew 
(for I will use his own words) 'that so worthy a gentleman, and my 
friend, could not endure to stand by and see him do that which he must 
to satisfy himself and his honor.' Therefore Sir John Heidon replied, 
that such intentions were bloody and butcherly, far unfitting so noble a 
personage, who should desire to bleed for reputation, not for life ; withal 
adding, he thought himself injured, being come thus far, now to be pro- 
hibited from executing those honorable offices he came for. The Lord, 
for answer, only reiterated his former resolutions ; whereupon, Sir John, 
leaving him the sword he had elected, delivered me the other, with his 
determinations. The which, not for matter but manner, so moved me, 
as though to my remembrance I had not for a long while eaten more 
liberally than at dinner, and therefore unfit for such an action (seeing 
the surgeons hold a wound upon a full stomach more dangerous than 
otherwise), I requested my second to certify him I would presently 
decide the difference, and therefore he should presently meet me on 
horseback, only waited on by our surgeons, they being unarmed. To- 
gether we rode, but one before the other some twelve score paces, for 
about some two English miles; and then passion, having so weak an 
enemy to assail as my discretion, easily became the victor, and, using 
his power, made me obedient to his commands. I being verily mad 
with anger that the Lord Bruce should thirst after my life with a kind 
of assuredness, seeing I had come so far and needlessly to give him leave 
to regain his lost reputation, I bade him alight, which with willingness 
he quickly granted, and there in a meadow, ankle-deep in water at the 
least, bidding farewell to our doublets, in our shirts began to charge 
each other; having afore commanded our surgeons to withdraw them- 
selves a pretty distance from us, conjuring them besides, as they 
respected our favors, or their own safeties, not to stir, but suffer us to 
execute our pleasure ; we being fully resolved (God forgive us !) to de- 
spatch each other by what means we could. I made a thrust at my ene- 
my, but was short, and, in drawing back my arm, I received a great 
wound thereon, which I interpreted as a reward for my short shooting ; 
but in my revenge I pressed into him, though I then missed him also, 
and received a wound in my right pap, which passed level through my 
body, and almost to my back. And there we wrestled for the two great- 
7* 



78 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

est and dearest prizes we could ever expect trial for, honor and life. 
In which struggling, my hand having but an ordinary glove upon it, 
lost one of her servants, though the meanest. But at last breathless, 
yet keeping our hold, there passed on both sides propositions of quitting 
each other's swords. But when amity was dead, confidence could not 
live, and who should quit first was the question, which on neither part 
either would perform ; and restriving again afresh, with a kick and a 
wrench I freed my long captive weapon, which incontinently levying 
at his throat, being master still of his, I demanded if he would ask his 
life, or yield his sword, both which, though in that imminent danger, he 
bravely denied to do. Myself being wounded, and feeling loss of blood, 
having three conduits running on me, which began to make me faint, 
and he courageously persisting not to accede to either of my proposi- 
tions, through remembrance of his former bloody desire, and feeling of 
my present estate, I struck at his heart, but, with his avoiding, missed 
my aim, yet passed through the body, and, drawing out my sword, re- 
passed it again through another place, when he cried, ' Oh ! I am slain !' 
seconding his speech with all the force he had to cast me. But being 
too weak, after I had defended his assault, I easily became master of 
him, laying him on his back. When being upon him, I redemanded if 
he would request his life ; but it seemed he prized it not at so dear a 
rate to be beholden for it, bravely replying, ' He scorned it.' Which 
answer of his was so noble and worthy, as I protest I could not find in 
my heart to offer him any more violence, only keeping him down until 
at length his surgeon, afar off, cried, ' He would immediately die if his 
wounds were not stopped.' Whereupon I asked if he desired his sur- 
geon should come, which he accepted of; and so, being drawn away, I 
never offered to take his sword, accounting it inhuman to rob a dead 
man, for so I held him to be. This thus ended, I retired to my surgeon, 
in whose arms, after I had remained awhile, for want of blood, I lost 
my sight, and withal, as I then thought, my life also. But strong water 
and his diligence quickly recovered me ; when I escaped a great dan- 
ger; for my Lord's surgeon, when nobody dreamt of it, came full at me 
with his X,ord's sword ; and had not mine with my sword interposed 
himself, I had been slain by those base hands ; although my Lord Bruce, 
weltering in his blood, and past all expectation of life, conformable to 
all his former carriage, which was undoubtedly noble, cried out, ' Ras- 
cal, hold thy hand ! ' So may I prosper, as I have dealt sincerely with 
you in this relation." 

BRUNSWICK, HENRY, Duke of. Challenge, in 1528, to ANDREA 
GRITTI, Doge of Venice. When the Duke despatched his cartel 
of defiance to single combat, he had approached the Venetian 
frontier, and had made an unsuccessful diversion in the Veronese. 
The affair between the Emperors Francis and Charles (which 
some writers assign as the origin of modern duelling) occurred 
only the previous year ; and his grace of Brunswick seems to 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 79 

have possessed the low ambition of imitating the French mon- 
arch under circumstances that brave men of the time must have 
ridiculed ; for his challenge ivas to a man who was more than 
eighty years of age. 

BRUNTFIELDS, , sons of the Laird of Craig-house. See 

Carmichael, James. 

BRYANT, SAMUEL EL, and . In 1814. Bryant was 

a native of North Carolina, and a lieutenant in the army of the 
United States. He was killed. 

BUCK, , Lieutenant, army of United States. See Moore, 

Thomas. 

BUCKINGHAM, OWEN, member of Parliament, and WILLIAM 
ALDWORTH. In England, in 1719 or 1720. They quarrelled 
" after having drank too freely," and fought in the dark. Buck- 
ingham was killed. 

BUCKINGHAM, Duke of. See Bedford, Duke of. 
BUCKINGHAM, Duke of. See Shrewsbury, Earl of. 
BUCKINGHAM, Lord. See Townshend, George. 
BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, Lord. See Curran, John Philpot. 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, SIR HENRY, Baronet, and OLIVER LE NEVE. 
In England in 1699. Buckinghamshire mortally wounded. 
He was with King William in the battle of Boyne, 1690, as 
one of his Majesty's aids. At his decease, he was a member 
of Parliament. 

BUGEAUD, THOMAS ROBERT, a Marshal of France. See Du- 
long, Mons. 

BULL, OLE BORNEMAN, one of the greatest musicians of 
modern times. About the year, probably, 1838. His antago- 
nist was a fellow-artist, and was mortally wounded. 

BUNBURY, REV. SIR WILLIAM, and " TOM HARVEY." In 
England, 1753. Walpole, in a letter to George Montague, 
wrote : 

" Tom Harvey, who always obliges the town with a quarrel in a dead 
season, has published a delightful letter to Sir William Bunbury,. full of 
madness and wit. He had given the doctor a precedent for a clergy- 
man's fighting a duel, and I furnished him with another story of the 
same kind, that diverted him extremely," &c. 



80 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

BUQUET, Mons. See Boutcville, Count Charles. 

BURGUNDY, the Duke of. Challenge, in 1425, to the Duke of 
Gloucester, who held Hainault, of which the challenger wished 
to obtain possession. The defiance was accepted, and a day ap- 
pointed, but I find no account of a duel. 

BURDETT, SIR FRANCIS, and JAMES PAUL. In England, 1807 ; 
the former wounded. The two gentlemen met in consequence 
of " a misunderstanding about the former being chairman of a 
dinner to be given to the latter." Mr. Paul was much before 
the public, at this period, as the accuser of the Marquis of Wel- 
lesley, and as a candidate for the representation of Westminster 
in Parliament. In 1808 he committed suicide. 

BURLINGTON, Lord, and Lord EUSTON. In England, 1741. 
Burlington challenged Euston, and the challenge was accepted, 
but the meeting was prevented. 

BURR, AARON, Vice-President of the United States. See 
Hamilton, Alexander. 

BURROWES, PETER. See Butler, Hon. Somerset. 

BUTLER, HON. SOMERSET, and PETER BURROWES, a barrister at 
law. In Ireland, near Kilkenny. 

Barrington gives an amusing story of the meeting between 
these gentlemen, of which I note the substance. Butler was an 
accomplished duellist ; Burrowes was not. The distance ten 
paces ; the weapons pistols. Butler's ball struck Burrowes's 
body, and he dropped down. Butler fled. The surgeon was 
called, Burrowes's clothes were ripped up, and his wound pro- 
nounced mortal. The dying man groaned, tried to recollect 
some prayer, if possible, or a scrap of his catechism. Brother 
barristers present sighed heavily ; he was about departing to 
another, and, as they endeavored to persuade him, to a better 
world. The spectators closed in to see him die ! Lo ! the sur- 
geon, after a second examination, produced the bullet fired by 
Butler, which, having rattled among the gingerbread, nuts, &c., 
with which Burrowes's waistcoat-pocket was filled, struck a cop- 
per coin, and became flattened. Of course he was not hurt : 
suspending his prayers, and rising from the ground, he departed, 
happy in his escape from death. 

BYNUM, JESSE A., member of Congress from North Carolina. 
See Cilley, Jonathan. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 81 

BYNUM, , and PERRY. In North or South Carolina, 

1832. The first was editor of the Greenville Sentinel, the other 
of the Greenville Mountaineer. Bynum was mortally wounded, 
and died in great agony. 

BYRNE, JOHN. See Mountgarret, Lord. 
BYRNE, EDMUND. See Miller ; William, Jun. 
BYRON, Lord WILLIAM. See Chaworth. 
CADWALLADER, JOHN. See Conway, General Thomas. 
CJESAR, JULIUS, See Antony, Marc. 
CAHILL, . See Rutherford. 

CALIFORNIA : Constitutional provision : 

" Any citizen of this State who shall, after the adoption of this Con- 
stitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons, or send or accept a chal- 
lenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons, either within this State or 
put of it, or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid or assist in any 
manner those thus offending, shall not be allowed to hold any office of 
profit, or to enjoy the right of suffrage, under this Constitution." 

CALDWELL, Doctor. See O" 1 Sullivan. 
CALLIER, General. See Soule, Pierre. 

CALVERT, PETER, an officer in the army of William III. of 
England, and of the family of Calvert of Albury Hall. Slain 
in a duel at Chester. 

CAMELFORD, Lord THOMAS, and Captain BEST. In England, 
near " Holland House," in 1804. Lord Camelford, who was an 
eccentric man, and who confessed himself the aggressor, was 
slain. He was found weltering in his blood, deserted by his 
seconds. He was the second of that name, and but twenty-nine 
years of age. I suppose that he enjoyed the title in 1798, when 
a Lord Camelford deliberately shot dead Lieutenant Paterson, in 
the naval yard at Antigua, upon a point of disputed rank ; but 
was " honorably acquitted " by a court-martial, on the ground 
that Paterson's conduct was mutinous. 

Captain Best was reputed a fatal marksman. A short time pre- 
vious to the duel, he had killed a man by the accidental discharge 
of a pistol. Best was miserable ever afterward. He died at 
forty-eight, a perfect wreck. " In his closing hours, he declared 
that the recollection of the duel and its results had embittered 
every moment of his life, that the whole scene was fresh in his 



82 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

memory, as if it had happened yesterday, and that there were 
times when Lord Camelford seemed to stand before him, and 
gaze on him with an earnestness and tenacity that rendered life 
a burden." 

CAMP, J. J., Major. See Woolfolk^ General Sowell. 
CAMPBELL, Major. See Boyd, Captain. 
CAMPBELL, Colonel. See Coffin, John. 

CAMPBELL, . In 1833. According to Niles's Register, 

he was Attorney of the United States for Florida, and was 
killed in a duel. 

CAMPBELL, SIR COLIN, and the Lord of LORN. Campbell was 
the ancestor of the Duke of Argyle, and was knighted by Alex- 
ander III., in 1280. He was slain by his powerful neighbor, the 
Lord of Lorn. An obelisk was erected over his grave. 

CANINO, CHARLES BONAPARTE, Prince of, and a son of the 
Count Rossi. In France, in 1851. The circumstances are thus 
stated : s 

" Charles Bonaparte, Prince of Canino, and formerly President of 
the Roman Assembly, has been frequently assailed indirectly with 
odious imputations, as having instigated the murder of Rossi. Viscount 
Arlincourt, who has written a reactionary book about Italy, let drop in 
the pages of his Italie Rouge some atrocious insinuations to this effect, 
for which he was recently fined. Stirred up by such hints, and worked 
upon by the blind fury of the foes of the revolution, the second son of 
Count Rossi lay in wait for an occasion to avenge his father's death. 
Charles Bonaparte was dining with a friend at a cafe on the Quai 
d'Orsay, when the waiter announced to him that a gentleman outside 
wished to speak with him. Prince Oanino required his name, and, 
being refused, begged the mysterious stranger to wait till he had finished 
dinner. Rossi sat down at one of the little tables outside the cafe, and 
when his adversary came out marched up to him, saying, ' You are the 
Prince of Canino.' Having received an answer in the affirmative, he 
aimed a blow at the Prince's face. Mediators interposed to prevent the 
scuffle from going further, and the principals were led off in different 
directions. They met again in the Park at Versailles, and exchanged 
a couple of pistol-shots each, at thirty and fifteen paces, without effect. 
The seconds then declared the requisitions of honor satisfied." 

CANNING, GEORGE, and Lord CASTLEREAGH. In England, 
1809. The parties met on Putney Heath ; Mr. Canning, attend- 
ed by Charles Ellis (afterward Lord Seaford) ; and his lordship 
by Lord Yarmouth (subsequently the Marquis of Hertford). 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 83 

They fought in sight of the windows of the house in which Pitt 
died. They fired by signal, and missed. The seconds attempted 
to effect an accommodation : they failed ; but declared that, after 
a second shot, they would retire from the field. At the next fire, 
Castlereagh's ball entered Mr. Canning's thigh on the outer side 
of the bone. Napier says the wound was severe ; another 
writer, that it was slight. As it is believed that Mr. Canning 
personally surrendered the seals of the Foreign Office twenty 
days after (Oct. 11), at the royal levee, his injury was not, 
probably, very serious. 

According to some accounts, the two statesmen assumed their 
places for a third shot, when the seconds, seeing the blood 
streaming from Mr. Canning's wound, interfered, and put an end 
to the combat. Mr. Canning, in the opinion of his biographer, 
might have declined Lord Castlereagh's challenge, on very ob- 
vious grounds, but accepted it, because he thought that his lord- 
ship's letter precluded explanation. Bell remarks, also, that 
Wilberforce blamed Castlereagh, and that Sir Samuel Romilly 
blamed both. 

The affair did not terminate on Putney Heath. Mr. Canning 
was compelled to publish a statement of the whole transaction, 
in answer to certain strictures of Lord Camden ; while Lord 
Castlereagh's secretary issued a " detail " of the " original cause 
of the animosity," which was answered by Mr. Canning. 

This duel, politically, was of no small consequence, since it 
occasioned the dissolution of the ministry. The difficulty be- 
tween the immediate parties is probably stated with accuracy 
by Wade. 

" Mr. Canning," he says, " had some months previously addressed a 
letter to the Duke of Portland, the head of the administration, inform- 
ing his grace that he should resign the Foreign Secretaryship, if 
Lord Castlereagh continued to hold the Secretaryship of War, for 
which department Mr. Canning thought Lord Castlereagh unfit. 

" The Duke of Portland, either from not coinciding in opinion with 
Mr. Canning, or wishing, himself, from the infirmities of age, to retire 
from the ministry, delayed to act on the suggestion of Mr. Canning, 
though he promised that it should be carried into effect. Meantime, no 
communication was made to Lord Castlereagh, and Mr. Canning con- 
tinued to act with him in the cabinet, even while the important expedi- 
tion to Walcheren was being prepared, without openly avowing any 
objection to the official competence of his colleague. 

" Under these circumstances, his lordship considered that he had been 
treated with duplicity, and demanded satisfaction." 



84 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

In 1818, Mr. Canning had a personal disagreement with Sir 
Francis Burdett, in consequence of a letter of the baronet to the 
chairman of the "Reform Dinner." A duel was anticipated, 
and possibly arranged ; but friends effected a satisfactory ad- 
justment. 

CANNON, , and PIERSON, . At or near Havana, in 

1819. Both midshipmen in the navy of the United States, and 
at the time of the meeting attached to the ship John Adams. 
Cannon killed on the spot. 

CARASCOSA, General. See Pepe, General. 

CARDIGAN, JAMES THOMAS, Earl of, and Captain HARVEY G. 
P. TUCKETT. In 1841, on Wimbledon Common, England. The 
parties met with pistols, at twelve paces. Tuckett was wounded 
at the second shot. 

Lord Cardigan was tried at the bar of the House of Lords and 
acquitted, on the ground that the proof failed to establish the 
identity of Tuckett, as set out in the indictment. Lord Denman, 
as Lord High Steward, sat as judge. The bishops were, upon 
their request, excused from answering. The Duke of Cleveland 
answered, " Not legally guilty, upon my honor" ; all the other 
peers said, " Not guilty, upon my honor," in the usual form. 

CARDOGAN, Captain. See Paget, Lord. 

CAREY, MATHEW, and Colonel OSWALD. In 1785, in Penn- 
sylvania. The parties were editors of newspapers in Philadel- 
phia, of opposite politics. The political discussions of the time 
were conducted with much asperity, and Oswald indulged in 
remarks in his columns which Carey resented, and which in- 
duced him to send a challenge. In the combat that followed, 
Carey was severely wounded. Singular to remark, he com- 
menced authorship by the publication of an essay on duelling. 

CARLISLE, Earl of. See Lafayette, Marquis of. 

CARMICHAEL, JAMES, and the BRUNTFIELDS, of Scotland. 
There is an interesting story founded on the murder of Stephen 
Bruntfield, Laird of Craig-house, and a zealous partisan of 
Mary of Scotland, by James Carmichael, a friend successively 
of Murray and Morton. The tale is founded, I suppose, upon 
facts of history. Chambers, who relates it, quotes from " Bird's 
Diary," and gives extracts " from notes of a conversation on 
local antiquities, with Sir Walter Scott," in 1824. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 85 

It appears, by the tradition mentioned "by Sir Walter, that 
Stephen Bruntfield left three sons, who were trained by their 
mother to challenge and fight Carmichael, as each of them 
should arrive at the years of manhood, to avenge their father's 
murder ; that two fought Carmichael, and were slain, and that 
the youngest son obtained the royal leave to meet the mortal foe 
of his family in public lists, on the island of Cramond, where a 
vast assembly of people from every part of Scotland met to wit- 
ness the combat. In this the third duel Carmichael was 
killed on the spot. 

The Diary, as quoted, omits an account of one combat. The 
first, as stated, was with the son Stephen, in December, 1596, 
on St. Leonard's Craigs ; and the third, with the son Adam, 
" who purchased a license of his Majesty," was in March, 1597, 
" in Barnbougle Links, before about five thousand gentlemen." 
"And," concludes the quaint chronicler, " the said Adam, al- 
though but ane young man, and of mean stature, slew the said 
James Carmichael, he being as able a lyke man as was living." 

CARNE, RICHARD, of England. In Holland. He was slain. 
He was of the family of Carne of Nash, and of the lineage of 
Clemen ap Bledri, King of Cornwall. 

CARREL, ARMAND, a literary character of merit, of France. 
Two duels. In 1832, having reflected upon the honor of the 
Duchesse de Berri, he was involved in an affair with one of her 
chivalric defenders, and was severely wounded by the sword of 
his adversary. 

In 1836, he fought a second time with Emile de Girardin, and 
was killed. His remains received a public funeral, and several 
orations and eulogies were pronounced over his grave. 

CARRION, brothers and Counts of. See Bivar, Don Rod- 
rigo. 

CARROLL, E. T., and J. M. BARBAGON. At or near New 
Orleans, in 1852, with rifles. After the second fire, the affair 
was amicably settled. Carroll is editor of the Crescent. 

CARSON, . See Vance, . 

CARTER, W. PL, and H. DE COURCEY. In California, in 1852. 
De Courcey, editor of the Calaveras Chronicle ; he was shot 
through the body. 

GARY, Sir ROBERT, of Torr Abbey, England. Early in the 
8 



86 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

reign of Henry V. a knight of Aragon, who had won great 
fame by his feats of arms on the Continent, went over to Eng- 
land, and gave a general challenge to men of rank and quality. 
Sir Robert consented to meet him, and "after a long and cruel 
encounter, in Smithfield, London, vanquished him. The family 
estate of Sir Robert had been confiscated, by reason of the de- 
votion of his father to Richard II., but was restored by Henry as 
a reward. 

CASTINE, Cornet. See Moore, Dudley. 
CASTLEREAGH, Lord Viscount. See Canning, George. 
CAVENDISH, Lord FREDERIC. See Shelburne, Earl of. 

CAVOIE, PHILIP D'OGER, Marquis of. A French nobleman 
who flourished in the second half of the seventeenth century. He 
became known as the " brave Cavoie," in consequence of his gal- 
lant bearing in the duels in which he was engaged. He seems 
to have escaped punishment for his own affairs of honor, but 
was imprisoned for acting as second in the quarrel of another. 
His release from the Bastile was owing to a maid of honor of 
the queen of Louis XIV., of the name of Coetlogon, who had 
become madly in love with him, and to whom he was married. 
The Marquis died in 1716, at an old age. It is said, that "a 
fashionable gladiator " he was one of the handsomest men in 
France, and dressed with singular elegance. 

CAY, or KAY, of England. There is a tradition, that the an- 
cestor of the family of Cay of Charlton Hall, county of Nor- 
thumberland, lost the ancient patrimony in consequence of a 
duel. The substance of the story is, that this ancestor, and a 
gentleman with whom he had a quarrel, agreed to meet in single 
combat, within the pound-fold of Alnwick ; that they locked the 
door or gate on entering, and threw the key over the wall ; that 
Cay slew his adversary, and, climbing the wall, fled ; that his 
estates were forfeited, and that he lived ever after in poverty. 

CAZETES, Mons. See Barnave, Ant. Pierre Jos. Marie. 

CEARNACH, CONNAL, and CEAT. Very possibly the story is 
fabulous. The former is represented as the most valiant champion 
of Europe, and as second in command of the army of Conner, 
King of Ulster (Ireland), and Ceat as commander of the army 
of Connaught, in the " memorable seven years' war" prior to 
the Christian era. They met in mortal duel. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 87 

" Ceat, .... having overthrown three of the bravest champions of 
Ulster, in single combat, sent a herald to Connal Cearnach, to challenge 
him to a personal conflict, which was instantly accepted. For two days, 
we are told, the contest between these chivalrous heroes lasted, of which 
both the armies of Connaught and Ulster were spectators. Although 
Ceat was slain first, he sold his life at the dear price of his rival's, for 
Connal lost so much blood in the fierce and desperate struggle, that he 
fell down exhausted, in a swoon, upon the body of Ceat." 

CHAISTAIGNERIE, Mons. See Jarnac, Mons. 

CHALAIS, Mons. See Frettes, La. 

CHAPPELES, Count of. See Bouteville, Count Charles. 

CHARLES, King of France. See Richard II. of England. 

CHARLES V., Emperor of Germany. See Francis /., King 
of France. 

CHARLES X., King of France, and the Duke of BOURBON. In 
the year 1778, when the king was known as the Count d'Artois. 
The offence was on the part of the Count, who, at a ball in the 
opera hall, Paris, pulled off the mask worn by the Duchess of 
Bourbon. The Duke, who was a Conde, and father of the Duke 
d'Enghien, for his challenge to the Count, was banished to 
Chantilly. 

CHAVOIX, Mons. See Dupont, Mons. 

CHAWORTH, , and WILLIAM, Lord BYRON. In London, 

in 1765. The parties had a dispute at a public dinner, relative 
to tbe quantity of -game on their respective estates. But the 
difference did not seem serious to the gentlemen present, and no 
apprehensions were entertained that it would proceed further. 
The company dispersed at an early hour in the evening, when 
Lord Byron invited Mr. Chaworth into a vacant room, in the inn 
or hotel where they had dined, took a candle from a servant, 
told Mr. Chaworth to defend himself, and drew his own sword. 

Mr. Chaworth received a stab in his body fourteen inches deep, 
and was mortally wounded. He was carried to his residence in 
London, and immediately executed his will. He expired the 
morning after the duel. 

The circumstances of the combat, the meeting without sec- 
onds and by candle-light, occasioned much excitement against 
Lord Byron, and suspicions were raised, that he drew his sword 
and made a pass with it before his antagonist was allowed time 



88 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

to draw his weapon entirely from the scabbard. But his lord- 
ship did not attempt to escape. 

The case was considered so equivocal, that he was arrested, 
and tried before his peers in Westminster Hall. He behaved with 
decorum, but appeared shocked and humbled. The trial lasted 
two days. The Dukes of York and Gloucester were present. 
Four of the noblemen, namely, Lords Beaulieu, Falmouth, De- 
spenser, and Orford, acquitted him entirely ; but one hundred 
and twenty others answered that he was guilty of manslaughter. 
He plead his peerage, and escaped, by his privilege, " burning 
in the hand." According to one writer, he was " discharged upon 
simply paying his fine " ; another says, that he was set at liberty 
" on payment of fees " ; while in the State Trials it is said that 
he was released, " having undergone one day's confinement." 

Though he was legally acquitted of murder, he suffered the 
punishment of public opinion ; and was consigned to a life of 
seclusion and obscurity. He was the fifth Lord Byron, and 
great-uncle of the poet. He died in 1798. 

The strongest and most lasting attachment of Lord Byron, 
author of " Childe Harold," was to Mary Cha worth, the daugh- 
ter of Lord William's antagonist. This lady, who was two 
years older than his lordship, regarded his love as the passion of 
a schoolboy, and married another. The event caused the poet 
the keenest bitterness, and he never alluded to it without suffer- 
ing. His disappointment had an influence upon his whole life. 

CHEETHAM, JAMES. Challenge to William Coleman, in 1804. 
These gentlemen were among the leading editors of the day. 
Both lived in New York. The first, a Democrat, conducted the 
American Citizen, the organ of his party ; the latter was editor 
of the Evening Post, a Federal paper of great influence. 

The cartel of Cheetham was in consequence of an altercation 
in the two newspapers. The state to which the quarrel came at 
last, transpired so far as to be understood or suspected by distin- 
guished gentlemen of the Federal and Democratic parties, whq 
interposed to prevent a meeting. But Coleman, for not fighting 
in this case, was involved in another affair, in which his antago- 
nist was slain. See Thompson, Captain, and William Coleman. 

CIIETWYND, WILLIAM. See Walpole, Horace. 

CHICKLEY, Captain. See Stanly, John. 

CHOLAT, Mons. See Aguesseau, Mom. Segur d\ 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 89 

CHRICHTON, JAMES, surnamed the " Admirable," for his won- 
derful feats, -and deeds of generosity. Towards the close of the 
sixteenth century. He challenged a gladiator of Mantua, who, 
by his great skill with the sword, had vanquished the most cele- 
brated masters of that weapon in Europe, and who had just 
slain three antagonists. The victor in the combat, by Chrich- 
ton's terms, was to receive from the other a purse of fifteen 
hundred pistoles. The gladiator was killed. The money won 
by his fall was presented by the "Admirable" to the widows of 
the three adversaries above mentioned. 

CHRISTIE, , Barrister at Law. See Scott, Editor London 

Magazine. 

CHUDWORTH, Colonel. See Aldworth, . 

CID, The. See Bivar, Don Rodrigo (Ruy) Diaz, Count. 

CILLEY, JONATHAN, and WILLIAM J. GRAVES. In Maryland, 
near Washington, in 1838. The parties were members of the 
House of Representatives ; the first from Maine, the last from 
Kentucky. Among the gentlemen present at the meeting were 
six other members of Congress; namely, Messrs. Crittenden and 
Menefee, of Kentucky ; Wise, of Virginia ; Duncan, of Ohio ; 
Bynum, of North Carolina ; and Jones, of Wisconsin. 

This was a combat under the duello, upon a mere point of 
honor. There was no difficulty between Messrs. Graves and 
Cilley, at any time. Even upon the ground, after an exchange 
of shots, the latter declared, that he entertained for Mr. Graves 
" the highest respect, and most kind feelings." 

Mr. Cilley fell mortally wounded, with these sentiments upon 
his lips. It has been suggested that, as there was no personal 
animosity between these gentlemen, a single fire should have 
satisfied Mr. Graves, and that, by twice renewing the challenge, 
the duel was pushed to an unusual, perhaps to an unjustifiable, ex- 
tremity. Possibly, the intimation is not destitute of force. But 
since no condemnation of the course pursued has been pronounced 
by persons versed in the duello, and since the affair was actually 
conducted throughout by persons of this description, we are re- 
quired to believe that Mr. Cilley was slain in accordance with 
the code. 

In this view of the case, how very deplorable the law which 
demanded, or seemed to demand, two members of the national 
councils, of unquestioned character, to meet in a combat, which, 
8* 



90 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

under the circumstances, was almost sure to terminate only with 
the fall of one or both of them. 

The challenge was given because Mr. Cilley declined to 
accept a note from Colonel Webb, borne by Mr. Graves, " on 
grounds which would exonerate Mr. Graves from all responsi- 
bility growing out of the affair." This Mr. Cilley could not do, 
without an admission that, in his remarks in the House relative 
to Colonel Webb, he had slandered that gentleman ; and thus, as 
said Mr. Williams of Maine, in announcing his death in the Sen- 
ate, " he accepted the call, because the act was indispensable, to 
avoid disgrace to himself, to his family, and to his constituents." 

The supposition, that the letter of Mr. Graves of February 
20, and the reply thereto, by Mr. Cilley, of the following day, 
raised a question of veracity, and thus introduced a new element 
into the case, is without the least foundation, as will be seen from 
the correspondence, and the official paper appended to this 
notice. 

The decease of Mr. Cilley was announced in both houses of 
Congress, on the 26th of February, and his remains were in- 
terred from the Hall of Representatives, on the next day. On the 
1st of March, a committee of seven members of the House was 
appointed, "to investigate the causes which led to his death, 
and the circumstances connected therewith." The report of this 
committee was not made until the 25th of April. It contains a 
minute account of everything which occurred, and is well wor- 
thy of a careful study, not only as embracing an authentic 
statement of facts, but as showing the odious, the inhuman cus- 
tom of duelling, as it exists in the highest walks of American 
society. 

This fatal combat gave rise to a most intense excitement, and 
accusations of an appalling nature were freely circulated against 
some of the actors in it ; but not one of the charges, it is confi- 
dently believed, rests upon competent evidence. There was a 
stern, an unrelenting adherence, even, to stern and unrelenting 
rules, on the part of the principals and their friends, nothing 
more. In rny judgment, the sole motive of all was "to avoid dis- 
grace." We are to blame, then, the public sentiment which 
demanded this course of conduct. 

I knew Mr. Cilley well. He was a man of chivalrous feelings 
and of proud bearing. He seemed never to forget that he was 
of the lineage of an honorable and ancient family, that his 
grandfather was a general officer in the Revolution, and that his 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 91 

brother led the charge of the gallant Miller, at the battle of 
Bridge water, in the war of 1812. 

" The committee appointed to investigate the causes which led to the 
death of the Hon. Jonathan Cilley, late a member of the House of 
Representatives, and the circumstances connected therewith, and to 
inquire whether there has been, in the case alluded to, a breach of the 
privileges of the House, and to whom were referred sundry memorials 
on the subject, now ask leave to submit their report. 

" In discharging the trust committed to them by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, the committee have endeavored implicitly to obey its order, 
neither stopping short, on the one hand, of the full measure of the duty 
imposed upon them, nor transcending its just limits on the other. They 
were of the opinion that the investigation was instituted solely for the 
maintenance of the privileges of the House. It was not within the 
province of the House of Representatives to investigate the causes 
which led to the death of one of its members, or the circumstances 
which attended it, with a view to the punishment of any offender for a 
high crime or misdemeanor. That belongs, in every case, exclusively 
to the courts of law. Senators and representatives are not privileged 
from arrest in cases of ' treason, felony, and breach of the peace ' ; and 
it is a constitutional provision, that * in all criminal prosecutions, the ac- 
cused shall enjoy the right of a speedy and public trial, by an impartial 
jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been com- 
mitted, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law ; 
and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; to be 
confronted by the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process 
for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to have the assistance of coun- 
sel for the defence.' 

" The inquiry, therefore, is directed to one object only, the main- 
tenance of the privileges of the House ; and the question is, What, in 
that view, were the causes which led to the death of Mr. Cilley, and 
the circumstances connected therewith, and did they involve a breach 
of those privileges ? 

" In pursuing this investigation, the committee have examined all 
whose testimony, there was reason to believe, might be material ; and 
Messrs. Graves, Wise, and Jones, members of the House, were permit- 
ted to attend, and to examine and cross-examine the witnesses ; and 
the same leave was extended to Mr. Menefee, of the House, and to Mr. 
Pierce, of the Senate, at their request. The entire mass of the testi- 
mony is now submitted as a part of this report. One witness, Daniel 
Jackson, of the city of New York, who was summoned to attend, and 
called upon to testify, has neglected to obey the requisition, though he 
appeared before the committee, and interrogatories were put to him ; 
but from the position in which he stood, and the disclosures of another 
witness, it was not thought worth the time or attention of the House, 
or of the committee, to notice him further. 

" The late Jonathan Cilley, a member of the House, from the State 



92 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

of Maine, fell by the hand of William J. Graves, a member of the 
House from the State of Kentucky, in a duel fought with rifles, near 
the boundary line between the District of Columbia and the State of 
Maryland, on Saturday, the 24th of February last. 

" The causes which led to his death are intimately connected with the 
proceedings of this House. On the 12th of February Mr. Wise, of 
Virginia, presented to the House a publication in the New York Courier 
and Enquirer, charging a member of Congress with corruption upon 
the authority of an anonymous writer under the signature of the ' Spy 
in Washington ' ; and thereupon moved a resolution for the appoint- 
ment of a select committee, with power to send for persons and papers, 
to inquire into the charge. Mr. Wise said : ' The character of the 
authority upon which the charge is made is vouched for as respectable 
and authentic by the editor of the Courier and Enquirer, in whose 
paper it appears, and the House is called upon to defend its honor and 
dignity against the charge.' 

" Mr. Cilley addressed the House in opposition to the resolution. In 
the course of the debate he said, ' He knew nothing of this editor ; but 
if it was the same editor who once made grave charges against an insti- 
tution of this country, and afterward was said to have received facilities 
to the amount of $ 52,000 from the same institution, and gave it his 
hearty support, he did not think his charges were entitled to much 
credit in an American Congress.' These words, spoken by Mr. Cilley 
in debate, were strictly in order, were pertinent to the subject under 
discussion, and ' did not exceed the bounds and limits of his place and 
duty ' ; and though they implicated a doubt inconsistent with unblem- 
ished honor and character in the person alluded to, yet Mr. Cilley was 
justified in the use of them, by a report of a committee of the House 
of Representatives, appointed on the 14th of March, 1832, to inspect 
the books and examine into the proceedings of the Bank of the United 
States. An extract from the report, made by the majority of the com- 
mittee, and published by order of the House of Representatives, is 
hereby annexed, in which it is stated, that ' for sixteen months ' the New 
York Courier and Enquirer l was warmly opposed ' to the Bank of the 
United States; that on the 26th of March, 1831, and within less than nine 
months thereafter, the bank made three loans, amounting * to the sum 
of $52,975, which consisted of notes drawn and indorsed by the editors 
only'; and that 'on or about the 8th of April, 1831, it (the paper) 
changed its course in favor of the bank.' 

"It was in reference to the facts contained in this report, and pub- 
lished to the world by order of the House of Representatives, that Mr. 
Cilley spoke the words which have been already recited ; and for thus 
alluding to facts put forth in the published documents of that body, of 
which he was a member, he was called in question by the editor of the 
New York Courier and Enquirer. James Watson Webb, on the 1 2th 
of February, addressed a note to him, reciting those words, apprising 
him that the writer of it was the editor of that paper, and concluding 
with a demand of explanation, couched in very explicit terms. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 93 

" Gadsbifs Hotel, Washington, February 21, 1838. 

" SIR, In the Washington Globe of the 12th instant, you are re- 
ported to have said, in the "course of the debate which took place in the 
House of Representatives on that day, growing out of a publication 
made in the New York Courier and Enquirer : 'He (you) knew noth- 
ing of this editor ; but if it was the same editor who had once made 
grave charges against an institution of this country, and afterwards was 
said to have received facilities to the amount of some $ 52,000 from the 
same institution, and gave it his hearty support, he did not think his 
charges were entitled to much credit in an American Congress.' 

" I deem it my duty to apprise you, sir, that I am the editor of the 
paper in which the letter from the ' Spy in Washington/ charging a 
member of Congress with corruption, was first published ; and the ob- 
ject of this communication is, to inquire of you Avhether I am the editor 
to whom you alluded, and, if so, to ask the explanation which the char- 
acter of your remarks renders necessary. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"To THE HON. JONATHAN CILLEY. J. WATSON WEBB. 

"This demand of explanation, under the circumstances which existed, 
was not susceptible of misinterpretation, and, the sequel proves, was 
not misunderstood. Mr. Graves was the bearer of this note, having 
read it, and being fully apprised of its contents, and tendered it to Mr. 
Cilley, in the hall of the House of Representatives, while the House was 
in session. Mr. Cilley declined to receive it, and thereupon a brief cor- 
respondence ensued, which terminated in the challenge and death of 
Mr. Cilley by the bearer of this note. The first note of Mr. Graves was 
delivered by himself to Mr. Cilley, on the same day on which he bore 
the note of Webb, that is, on Wednesday, the 21st of February, 1838, 
and should have borne that date. 

"House of Representatives, February 20, 1838. 

" In the interview which I had with you this morning, when you 
declined receiving from me the note of Colonel J. W. Webb, asking 
whether you were correctly reported in the Globe, in what you are 
there represented to have said of him in this House, on the 1 2th instant, 
you will please say whether you did not remark, in substance, that, in 
declining to receive the note, you hoped I would not consider it in any 
respect disrespectful to me ; and that the ground on which you rested 
your declining to receive the note was distinctly this : that you could 
not consent to get yourself into personal difficulties with conductors of 
public journals, for what you might think proper to say in debate upon 
this floor, in discharge of your duties as a representative of the people ; 
and that you did not rest your objection in our interview upon any per- 
sonal objections to Colonel Webb as a gentleman. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"HoN. JONATHAN CILLEY. W. J. GRAVES. 

" It will be observed that the note which Mr. Graves bore is described 
by him as the note of Colonel J. W. Webb, asking whether Mr. Cilley 



94 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

was correctly reported in the Globe, in what he was there represented to have 
said in the House of Representatives, on the 12th instant. But it will be 
perceived that the note itself, though it is thus described by Mr. Graves 
whenever he speaks of it afterward, does not contain that inquiry. 

" Mr. Cilley, on the same day, personally delivered to Mr. Grav-es the 
following note in reply : 

11 House of Representatives, February 21, 1838. 

" The note which you just placed in my hands has been received. 
In reply, I have to state that in your interview with me this morning, 
when you proposed to deliver a communication from Colonel Webb, of 
the New York Courier and Enquirer, I declined to receive it because 
I chose to be drawn into no controversy with him. I neither affirmed 
nor denied anything in regard to his character ; but when you remarked 
that this course on my part might place you in an unpleasant situation, 
I stated to you, and now repeat, that I intended by the refusal no dis- 
respect to you. 

" Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" HON. W. J. GRAVES. JONATHAN CILLEY. 

On Thursday, the day following, Mr. Graves sent his second note to 
Mr. Cilley, which was delivered to him in his seat, during the session of 
the House, by Mr. Menefee, of Kentucky, the latter accompanying its 
delivery with an expression of the hope that Mr. Cilley would perceive 
the propriety of relieving Mr. Graves from a position which was painful 
to him. Mr. Cilley remarked that the note should be attended to. It 
is as follows : 

" House of Representatives, February 22, 1838. 

" SIR, Your note of yesterday, in reply to mine of that date, is 
inexplicit, unsatisfactory, and insufficient. Among other things in this, 
that, in your declining to receive Colonel Webb's communication, it 
does not disclaim any exception to him personally as a gentleman. I 
have, therefore, to inquire whether you declined to receive his communica- 
tion on the ground of any personal exception to him as a gentleman or a 
man of honor? A categorical answer is expected. 

" Very respectfully, 

"HoN. J. CILLEY. WM. J. GRAVES. 

Mr. Cilley, on the same day, returned the following reply, by Mr. 
Duncan, of Ohio : 

"House of Representatives, February 22, 1838. 

" SIR, Your note of this date has just been placed in my hands. I 
regret that mine of yesterday was unsatisfactory to you ; but I cannot 
admit the right on your part to propound the question to which you ask 
a categorical answer, and therefore decline any further response to it 

" Very respectfully, 

" HON. W. J. GRAVES. JONATHAN CILLEY. 

On Friday, the 23d of February, Mr. Wise presented to Mr. Cilley, 
at his boarding-house, a few minutes before 12 o'clock, M., a challenge 
from Mr. Graves. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 95 

"Washington City, February 23, 1838. 

" As you have declined accepting a communication which I bore to 
you from Colonel Webb, and as, by your note of yesterday, you have 
refused to decline on grounds which would exonerate me from all re- 
sponsibility growing out of the affair, I am left no other alternative but 
to ask that satisfaction which is recognized among gentlemen. My 
friend, Hon. Henry A. Wise, is authorized by me to make the arrange- 
ments suitable to the occasion. Your obedient servant, 

"HoN. J. CILLEY. WM. J. GRAVES. 

On the evening of the same day, about the hour of 5 o'clock, Mr. 
Jones, the Delegate from Wisconsin, delivered to Mr. Graves, in the 
room of Mr. Wise, and in his presence, an acceptance of the challenge. 

''Washington City, February 23, 1838. 

" Your note of this morning has been received. My friend, General 
Jones, will ' make the arrangements suitable to the occasion.' 

" Your obedient servant, 

" HON. W. J. GRAVES. JONATHAN CILLEY. 

Mr. Jones immediately submitted the following propositions to Mr. 
Wise: 

x " Washington, February 23, 1838. 

" SIR, Mr. Cilley proposes to meet Mr. Graves, at such place as 
may be agreed upon between us, to-morrow, at 12 o'clock, M. The 
weapons to be used on the occasion shall be rifles ; the parties placed 
side by side, at eighty yards' distance from each other ; to hold the 
rifles horizontally at arm's length, downwards ; the rifles to be cocked 
and triggers set ; the words to be, ' Gentlemen, are you ready ? ' After 
which, neither answering ' No,' the words shall be, in regular succession, 
4 Fire, one, two, three, four.' Neither party shall fire before the word 
' fire/ nor after the word ' four.' The positions of the parties at the ends 
of the line to be determined by lot. The second of the party losing the 
position shall have the giving of the word. The dress to be ordinary 
winter clothing, and subject to the examination of both parties. Each 
party may have on the ground, besides his second, a surgeon, and two 
other friends. The seconds, for execution of their respective trusts, 
are allowed to have a pair of pistols each, on the ground, but no other 
person shall have any weapon. The rifles to be loaded in the presence 
of the seconds. Should Mr. Graves not be able to procure a rifle by the 
tune prescribed, time shall be allowed for that purpose. 

" Your very obedient servant, 

" HON. HENRY A. WISE. GEO. W. JONES. 

At 9 o'clock, P. M., Mr. Wise replied : 

11 Washington, February 23, 1338. 

" SIR, The terms arranging the meeting between Mr. Graves and 
Mr. Cilley, which you presented to me this evening, though unusual 
and objectionable, are accepted, with the understanding that the rifles 
are to be loaded with a single ball, and that neither party is to raise his 
weapon from the downward horizontal position until the word ' fire.' 



96 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

"I will inform you, sir, by the hour of 11 o'clock, A. M., to-morrow, 
whether Mr. Graves has been able to procure a rifle, and, consequently, 
whether he will require a postponement of the time of meeting. 

" Your very obedient servant, 

" HON. GEO. W. JONES. HENRY A. WISE. 

About 8 o'clock, A. M. , on the 24th, Mr. Jones left at Mr. Wise's 
room the following note, to wit : 

"Washington City, D. C., February 24, 1838. 

" SIR, I will receive, at Doctor Reilly's, on F Street, any commu- 
nication you may see proper to make me, until 11 o'clock, A. M., to-day. 
" Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" HON. H. A. WISE. GEO. W. JOXES. 

"Dr. Reilly's, F Street, February 24, 1838, 10 o'clock, A. M. 

" SIR, I have called at this place, in conformity with your note of 
this morning, to inform you that Mr. Graves has not as yet been able 
to procure a rifle and put it in order, and cannot be ready by 12 
o'clock, M., to-day. He is desirous, however, to have the meeting 
to-day, if possible, and I will inform you by half-past 1 2 o'clock, M., 
to-day, what time to procure and prepare a weapon he will require. 

" Very respectfully, &c., 

" HON. GEO. W. JONES. HENRY A. WISE. 

Afterwards, Mr. Jones left at Mr. Wise's room the following note, 
to wit : 

"Washington, February 24, 1838, 10 A. M. 

" Your note dated at 10 o'clock to-day is received. In reply, I have 
the pleasure to inform you that I have in my possession an excellent 
rifle, in good order, which is at the service of Mr. Graves. 

" Very respectfully, &c., 

" HON. H. A. WISE. GEO. W. JONES. 

Afterwards, Mr. Jones sent to Mr. Wise's room the following note, 
to wit : 

"Washington, February 24, 1838, 11 A. M. 

" SIR, Through the politeness of my friend, Doctor Duncan, I now 
tender to you, for the use of Mr. Graves, the rule referred to in my 
note of 10 A. M. this morning. 

" Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

" HON. H. A. WISE. GEO. W. JONES. 

" And with this note, a rifle and powder-flask and balls were left at 
Mr. Wise's room. 

" The rifle was procured by Mr. Jones, and sent by him to Mr. Wise, 
in accordance with a previous request of Mr. Wise, or in consequence 
of a conversation between them. Mr. Jones says it was in strict accord- 
ance with the request of Mr. Wise ; and Mr. Wise says he had a conver- 
sation with Mr. Jones upon the subject, requested Mr. Jones to inform 
him where one could be obtained, and has no doubt that it was in con- 
sequence of this conversation that Mr. Jones sent the rifle, and that he 
acted with the best motive in sending it. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 97 

" Mr. Wise having received the last note, called on Mr. Jones, and 
informed him that Mr. Graves had procured another rifle, and would 
be ready for the meeting at 3 o'clock, P. M. The parties met by 
arrangement on the road to Marlborough, in Maryland. Mr. Cilley was 
accompanied by his second, Mr. Jones, by Mr. Bynum of North Caro- 
lina, and Colonel James W. Schaumburg, as his friends, and by Doctor 
Duncan of Ohio, as his surgeon. Mr. Graves was attended by Mr. 
Wise, as his second, by Mr. Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, and 
Mr. Menefee of Kentucky, as his friends, and by Dr. Foltz, of this city, 
as his surgeon ; and all proceeded thence about 2 o'clock, P. M. to the 
place of meeting. Mr. Jones and Mr. Wise immediately marked off 
the ground. The line of fire was at right angles with the rays of the 
sun. The choice of positions fell by lot to Mr. Wise, and Mr. Jones 
had the giving of the word. Mr. Wise chose the position at the north- 
westerly end of the line. The distance was about ninety-two yards. 
There was a strong wind falling on the line of fire at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees against Mr. Cilley. 

" The position of Mr. Graves was near a wood, partly sheltered by it. 
and that of Mr. Cilley was on higher ground, and in the open fields. 
The calibre of Mr. Graves's rifle was nearly twice as large as that of 
Mr. Cilley's, and would receive a ball of about eighty to the pound ; 
while the rifle of Mr. Cilley would receive a ball of about one hundred 
and thirty-two to the pound. Mr. Calhoun and Mr. Hawes, both mem- 
bers of the House from Kentucky, were at some distance off', as specta- 
tors. Mr. Wise had two rifles on the ground, one of which, not being 
loaded, remained, by consent, in one of the carriages. The hack-drivers 
were on the ground ; and two other persons (Grafton Powell and James 
F. Brown) were present, without the consent of either party or their 
friends. Shortly after 3 o'clock, P. M., the parties exchanged shots, 
according to the terms of meeting. Mr. Cilley fired first, before he had 
fully elevated his piece ; and Mr. Graves one or two seconds afterwards. 
Both missed. My. Graves could not have reserved his fire had he been 
disposed to do so. 

" The friends assembled at the request of Mr. Wise, and Mr. Jones 
inquired of Mr. Wise whether his friend (Mr. Graves) was satisfied. 
Mr. Wise immediately said, 'Mr. Jones, these gentlemen have come 
here without animosity toward each other; they are fighting merely 
upon a point of honor ; cannot Mr. Cilley assign some reason for not 
receiving at Mr. Graves's hands Colonel Webb's communication, or 
make some disclaimer which will relieve Mr. Graves from his position ? ' 
Mr. Jones replied, ' While the challenge is impending, Mr. Cilley can 
make no explanation.' Mr. Wise said, ' The exchange of shots sus- 
pends the challenge, and the challenge is suspended for explanation.' 
Mr. Jones thereupon went to Mr. Cilley and returned ; and after a few 
words in regard to putting in writing what had been and might be said, 
Mr. Jones proceeded to say, ' I am authorized by my friend, Mr. Cilley, 
to say, that in declining to receive the note from Mr. Graves, purport- 
ing to be from Colonel Webb, he meant no disrespect to Mr. Graves, 
9 



98 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

because he entertained for him then, as he now does, the highest respect 
and the most kind feelings ; but that he declined to receive the note 
because he chose not to be drawn into any controversy with Colonel 
Webb,' or ' he refuses to disclaim disrespect for Colonel Webb, because 
he does not choose to be drawn into an expression of opinion as to him.' 
Both expressions were used in the course of the conversation. 

"After a consultation on each side, Mr. Wise said to Mr. Jones, ' This 
answer leaves Mr. Graves precisely in the position in which he stood 
when the challenge was sent.' From an examination of the evidence, 
it will be perceived that, although the language made use of by the per- 
sons present, in narrating what passed on this occasion, is not the same, 
yet there is no substantial difference between them. Mr. Cilley reas- 
serted the ground which he had assumed in the correspondence ; that 
he declined to receive the note of Webb, because he chose to be drawn 
into no controversy with him ; that he refused to disclaim any personal 
exception to Webb as a gentleman or man of honor, because he would 
neither affirm nor deny anything in regard to his character ; and that in 
declining to receive the demand of explanation, he had intended no 
disrespect to Mr. Graves. Mr. Cilley even went further, and declared 
that he entertained for him the highest respect and the most kind feelinc/s. 
The position of Graves was, therefore, not changed, except so far as tnQ 
peril of life by Mr. Cilley in defence of his own position, and the subse- 
quent voluntary avowal of the highest respect and the most kind feel- 
ings for the individual who had put him in jeopardy, may be supposed 
to have changed it. 

" Mr. Crittenden says that it was now ' urged on the part of Mr. 
Graves, that Mr. Cilley ought to make some such explanation or decla- 
ration as had been proposed, for the satisfaction of Mr. Graves ; while 
on the part of Mr. Cilley it was urged that Mr. Graves ought to be sat- 
isfied with the exchange of shots, without any such explanation or 
declaration.' All the friends of Mr. Cilley urged that Mr. Graves 
should now be satisfied, and that the affair should now terminate, with- 
out requiring from Mr. Cilley any further concession beyond what he 
had already make. Doctor Foltz said he ' thought the affair should 
end here ; there was no personal ill-feeling between the parties ; that 
they had both proved themselves men of honor and courage ; and that 
Mr. Cilley's opinion of Colonel Webb could not be changed by the far- 
ther exchange of shots or the receipt of wounds.' Mr. Crittenden was 
understood, by nearly all present, to concur in these views, though it 
seems he did not intend so to be understood, but acquiesced witli Mr. 
Wise and Mr. Menefee in insisting that the fight should go on, unless 
Mr. Cilley would make the concession which had been demanded. Ac- 
cordingly the challenge was renewed, the parties resumed their posi- 
tions, and again exchanged shots in the manner prescribed by the terms 
of meeting. Mr. Graves fired first, before he had fully elevated his 
piece; Mr. Cilley fired about two seconds afterward. They both 
missed. Mr. Cilley could not have reserved his fire had he been dis- 
posed to do so. Mr. Jones, Mr. Bynum, Mr. Schaumburg, Dr. Foltz, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 99 

Mr. Wise, and Mr. Fuller thought, from the motions and appearance of 
Mr. Graves, that he was hit. He at once said, ' I must have another 
shot/ Mr. Wise says, 'He positively, peremptorily, and repeatedly 
insisted upon another shot.' 

" The seconds and friends again assembled, and the challenge was 
again withdrawn. Mr. Jones said, 'Mr. Wise, my friend, in coming to 
the ground and exchanging shots with Mr. Graves, has shown to the 
world that, in declining to receive the note of Colonel Webb, he did not 
do so because he dreaded a controversy. He has shown himself a brave 
man, and disposed to render satisfaction to Mr. Graves. I do think 
that he has done so, and that the matter should end here/ Mr. Wise 
replied, in substance, 'Mr. Jones, Mr. Cilley has already expressed his 
respect for Mr. Graves, in the written correspondence, and Mr. Graves 
does not require of Mr. Cilley a certificate of character for Colonel 
Webb ; he considers himself bound not only to preserve the respect due 
to himself, but to defend the honor of his friend, Colonel Webb. Mr. 
Graves only insists that he lias not borne the note of a man who is not 
a man of honor and not a gentleman/ The challenge was again re- 
newed, and while the friends were loading the rifles, Mr. Wise and Mr. 
Jones walked apart, and Mr. Wise asked Mr. Jones ' if Mr. Cilley 
could not assign the reason for declining to receive the note of Colonel 
Webb, that he (Mr. Cilley) did not hold himself accountable to Colonel 
Webb for words spoken in debate ? ' Mr. Jones replied, that ' Mr. 
Cilley would not assign that reason, because he did not wish to be un- 
derstood as expressing the opinion whether he was or was not account- 
able for words spoken in debate/ Wise then asked Jones whether 
' Mr. Cilley would not say that, in declining to receive the note o 
Colonel Webb, he meant no disrespect to Mr. Graves, either directly or 
indirectly?' To which Mr. Jones replied affirmatively, adding, 'Mr. 
Cilley entertains the highest respect for Mr. Graves, but declined to 
receive the note because he chose to be drawn into no controversy with 
Colonel Webb.' Mr. Jones says that Mr. Wise took no exception to 
this answer, but continued to require other concessions, as stated, to be 
made. 

" Mr. Wise says that in making that proposition he went beyond his 
instructions ; and that the proposition and the response to it were not 
communicated to Mr. Graves, but were communicated both to Mr. 
Crittenden and to Mr. Menefee. Mr. Crittenden says he does not re- 
member to have heard them, during the progress of the contest, and 
that he does not remember to have given any advice or opinion upon 
them. Mr. Menefee remembers the proposition and reply, and posi- 
tively or by acquiescence gave the advice that the reply, thus qualified, 
was but a reiteration, in substance, of the originel ground assumed by 
Mr. Cilley, and held to be inadmissible by Mr. Graves. Mr. Wise had 
in his possession, on the ground, three written propositions, neither of 
which was exhibited, nor their substance submitted in any other man- 
ner than as before stated. 

"Mr. Jones, Mr. Bynum, Mr. Schaumburg, Dr. Duncan, and Dr. 



100 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Foltz now objected, in the strongest language, against the further 
prosecution of the contest, and insisted that it should now cease, and 
that Mr. Graves should declare himself satisfied. Mr. Crittenden was 
understood again, by nearly all present, to concur in these views ; but 
it appears from his testimony, that he acquiesced in the views of Mr. 
Wise and Mr. Menefee. They insisted that the fight should go on, 
unless Mr. Cilley would make the concessions which were demanded ; 
either a direct disclaimer of any personal exception to James Watson 
Webb, as a gentleman and a man of honor, in declining to receive his 
note, or an indirect disclaimer, by placing the refusal to receive it upon 
the ground of privilege ; both of which Mr. Cilley, in the correspond- 
ence and throughout the affair upon the field, had refused to do, and, 
persisting in it, had twice received the fire of his antagonist. 

" Immediately previous to the last exchange of shots, Mr. Wise said to 
Mr. Jones, 'If this matter is not terminated this shot, and is not settled, 
I will propose to shorten the distance.' To which Mr. Jones replied, 
After this shot, without effect, I will entertain the proposition.' Mr. 
Graves had directed Mr. Wise, if they missed repeatedly, to prevent a 
prolongation of the affair by proposing closer quarters; in consequence 
of which Mr. Wise made the proposition, which would have aggravated 
the severity of the terms. The rifles being loaded, the parties resumed 
their stations, and fired the third time, very nearly together. Mr. Cil- 
ley was shot through the body. He dropped his rifle, beckoned to 
one near him, and said to him, I am shot,' put both his hands to his 
wound, fell, and in two or three minutes expired. 

" Early in the day on which he fell, an agreement was entered into 
between James Watson Webb, Daniel Jackson, and William H. Morell, 
to arm themselves, repair to the room of Mr. Cilley, and force him to 
fight Webb with pistols on the spot, or to pledge his word of honor to 
give Webb a meeting before Mr. Graves ; and if Mr. Cilley would do 
neither, to shatter his right arm. They accordingly took measures to 
ascertain whether Mr. Cilley was at his lodgings, and finding that he 
was not, they proceeded, well armed, to Bladensburg, where it was said 
the duel between Mr. Graves and Mr. Cilley was to take place. Before 
arriving there, it was agreed between Webb, Jackson, and Morell, that 
Webb should approach Mr. Cilley, claim the quarrel, insist on fighting 
him, and assure him if he aimed his rifle at Mr. Graves, he [Webb] 
would shoot him [Mr. Cilley] on the spot. It was supposed by them 
th^t Mr. Graves, or Mr. Wise, or some of the party, would raise a 
weapon at Webb, whereupon it was agreed that Webb should instantly 
shoot Mr. Cilley, and that they should then defend themselves in the 
best way they could. 

" Not finding the parties at Bladensburg, they followed in pursuit to 
the old Magazine, and thence to the shore of the Potomac, near the 
arsenal, at Greenleaf Point, whence, it being after 3 o'clock, P. M., they 
returned to the city to await the result. * It is unnecessary to add/ 
say they, in a statement drawn up by Webb, signed by Jackson and 
Morell, and published in the New York Courier and Enquirer, ' what 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 101 

would have been the course of Colonel Webb, if Mr. Graves, instead of 
Mr. Cilley, had been injured. Suffice it to say, that it was sanctioned 
by us ; and however much we deplore it, we could not doubt but the 
extraordinary position in which he would have been placed would have 
warranted the course determined upon.' It is difficult to imagine what 
is here darkly shadowed forth, if it be not that, had Mr. Cilley survived 
the encounter with Mr. Graves, and had the latter suffered in it, it 
would then have been the fate of Mr. Cilley to have encountered an 
assassin. 

" Such were the material facts and circumstances which attended the 
death of Mr. Cilley. The committee, entertaining the opinion that the 
cause of the challenge was the cause of the death of Mr. Cilley, have 
sought for it where it should be found in the most authentic form, in the 
correspondence of the parties. 

" Mr. Cilley declined to receive the note of Mr. Webb, because he 
'chose to be drawn into no controversy with him.' He placed his 
refusal to receive a demand for explanation of the words spoken by him 
in debate, solely on the ground of his own voluntary election, without 
assigning any other reason. ' He chose to be drawn into no contro- 
versy ' with "Webb. He declared, at the same time, that he neither 
affirmed nor denied anything in regard to Webb's character, in declin- 
ing to receive the note. He declared further, that he had before stated, 
and now repeated, that he intended by the refusal no disrespect to Mr. 
Graves, and that he had said this only in reply to a remark of Mr. 
Graves, that this course might place him in an unpleasant situation. 

"Mr. Graves, in his second note, takes but one exception to this first 
note of Mr. Cilley. * It does not disclaim any exception to him (Webb) 
personally as a gentleman.' He says: ' Your note of yesterday, in re- 
ply to mine of that data, is inexplicit, unsatisfactory, and insufficient ; 
among other things in this, that, in your declining to receive Colonel 
Webb's communication, it does not disclaim any exception to him, 
personally, as a gentleman. I have, therefore,' he adds, 'to inquire 
whether you declined to receive his communication on the ground of 
any personal exception to him as a gentleman or a man of honor ? A 
categorical answer is expected.' 

" Mr. Cilley, in his second note, regrets that his first was unsatisfac- 
tory, but cannot admit the right of Mr. Graves to propound the question, 
and therefore he declines any further response to it. 

" It is difficult to conceive that Mr. Graves, upon this correspondence 
of Mr. Cilley, could have challenged him for intending disrespect to Mr. 
Graves; for any such intention was positively disclaimed, and, as ap- 
pears, in a most unexceptionable and courteous manner, in reply to a 
suggestion of his own, which called for it ; or for affirming or denying 
anything in regard to the character of Webb, in declining to receive 
his note ; for any such affirmation or denial is also disclaimed, in equally 
positive terms. Mr. Cilley had declined to receive a call from James 
Watson Webb, for explanation of words spoken in debate in the House 
of Representatives, and had put his refusal solely on the ground that he 
9* 



102 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

chose to be drawn into no controversy with him ; but he is pressed fur- 
ther, and interrogated beyond this limit which he had assigned to him- 
self, and a categorical answer is demanded to the question whether he 
declined on the ground of any personal exception to Webb as a gentle- 
man or a man of honor. He denies the right to interrogate him in this 
manner for declining a call, which his right and duty, as a member of 
the House of Representatives, and the just maintenance of the privi- 
leges of that body, required him to decline ; and, denying the right to 
interrogate, he therefore refused to submit to answer any further. And 
it was because he refused to receive the note, and refused to answer 
any further, that he was challenged by another of the same body. 

" This matter is not left open to inference or argument. The cause 
of the challenge appears in a manner which precludes all doubt. It is 
still further specified and avowed by Mr. Graves himself, in his own 
note, which contains the challenge. It is stated clearly, unequivocally, 
and with the utmost precision, and is assigned expressly, and in form, 
as the cause for which the challenge is given. ' As you have declined 
accepting a communication which I bore to you from Colonel Webb, 
and as by your note of yesterday you have refused to decline on 
grounds which would exonerate me from all responsibility growing out 
of the aifair, I am left no other alternative but to ask that satisfaction 
which is recognized among gentlemen.' Mr. Cilley, by his 'note of 
yesterday,' had refused to answer the question to which a ' categorical 
answer ' had been demanded : that is to say, * whether he declined to 
receive Colonel Webb's communication on the ground of any personal 
exception to him as a gentleman or a man of honor.' The ground of 
challenge, therefore, is, by Mr. Graves himself, expressly stated to be, 
that Mr. Cilley declined to receive the communication from Webb, and, 
by his note of February 22d, refused to answer that question, touching 
the honor of Webb. 

" This was the open and avowed cause, set forth and presented to Mr. 
Cilley, by which he was .guided, and upon which he acted, in a matter 
involving the utmost extremity of human responsibility. For this cause, 
and for this alone, he was challenged and fell by the hand of Mr. 
Graves ; unless it be admissible to believe, that, after all verbal commu- 
nication had ceased between him and his antagonist, and the difference 
had assumed the form exclusively of a written correspondence between 
them, he was challenged and fell for a cause not set up in that corre- 
spondence, not put forth as a ground of complaint, not made known to 
him or his friends as a matter of grievance, and in regard to which, 
therefore, it may be believed, he was profoundly ignorant, and had no 
opportunity afforded him in any way of voluntary satisfaction or ex- 
planation. 

" Nor is there anything in what subsequently occurred, as disclosed 
by the joint statement of the seconds, or the testimony of any witness, 
which gives color to a suggestion, that there was, at any time afterward, 
a change of the ground of controversy. 

" No communication whatever, upon the subject of difference, took 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 103 

place between the principals, their respective seconds, or friends, after 
the challenge was given, before the first exchange of shots. Of course, 
no change of the ground of controversy could have occurred until 
after Mr. Cilley had received the fire of his antagonist, and had haz- 
arded his life in defence of the position which he had assumed in the 
correspondence. After the first exchange of shots, as already shown, 
Mr. Cilley reasserted his original position, and Mr. Wise insisted that 
what was then said by Mr. Jones only placed ' the affair upon the 
original grounds,' and left ' Mr. Graves precisely in the position in which 
he stood when the challenge was sent.' There was, in fact, no change 
whatever in the position of the parties, except what arose from the cir- 
cumstance that Mr. Cilley had given Mr. Graves the satisfaction 
demanded of an exchange of shots, and from the further circumstance 
that Mr. Cilley not only repeated the disclaimer that he had meant no 
disrespect to Mr. Graves, but positively avowed, also, that he enter- 
tained for him the highest respect and the most kind feelings. 

" In this state of the controversy the challenge is renewed, and Mr. 
Cilley again puts his life in jeopardy. The challenge being once more 
suspended, he again insists upon his original position, that he had de- 
clined to receive the demand for explanation of the words spoken by 
him in debate, because he chose to be drawn into no controversy with 
Webb, and that he would assign no other reason ; and while, on the 
other hand, it was insisted for Mr. Graves, that he considered himself 
bound not only to preserve the respect due to himself, but to defend the 
honor of his friend, Colonel Webb, and that he only insisted ' that he 
had not borne the note of a man who was not a man of honor and not 
a gentleman,' Mr. Cilley replied affirmatively to a proposition sub- 
mitted on the part of Mr. Graves, that, in declining to receive the note, 
he meant no disrespect to Mr. Graves, either directly or indirectly ; and 
declared that he entertained the highest respect for him, but declined to 
receive the note, because he chose to be drawn into no controversy with 
Colonel Webb. He excluded, in direct and positive terms, every pos- 
sibility of disrespect to Mr. Graves, directly or indirectly, and in effect 
only insisted on his right to decline a demand for explanation of words 
spoken in debate, because he chose to be drawn into no controversy 
upon the subject, without assigning any other reason. But he was in- 
terrogated for another reason, and another reason was demanded ; and 
for resisting that demand the challenge was again renewed, and he fell 
a victim in defence of what he conceived to be his rights as an indi- 
vidual, or as a representative of the people in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

" The committee were disposed to pursue this inquiry in every form. 
Not content with tracing the cause of the challenge in the written cor- 
respondence, in the assignment of reasons for the challenge under Mr. 
Graves's own hand, and in the various propositions which were sub- 
mitted on the field, from the beginning to the end of the contest, they 
proceeded to put to every witness who was believed to know anything 
upon the subject the direct inquiry, whether ' Mr. Graves or his sec- 



104 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

ond, at any time before Mr. Cilley fell, communicated to Mr. Cilley, his 
second, or attendant friends, that a question of veracity between Mr. 
Graves and Mr. Cilley was a point of difficulty to be adjusted ? ' Mr. 
Jones answered, Certainly not to me, nor to Mr. Cilley, at any time, 
to my knowledge, either before or during the day the duel was Ibught. 
I did not hear of the existence of such a question until the Sunday or 
Monday after Mr. Cilley was killed. The written correspondence 
between Mr. Graves and Mr. Cilley does not show the existence of any 
such question of veracity.' Mr. Bynum answered, ' I heard no such 
communication, directly or indirectly, from either Mr. Graves or his 
second, made or intimated to Mr. Cilley or any of his friends, before he 
fell.' Mr. Schaumburg answered,^ ' I did not understand that there was 
a " question of veracity " between the parties, nor was there any convex 
sation on the subject/ Dr. Duncan answered, ' They never did, to my 
knowledge. I never heard the question of veracity assigned, during 
Mr. Cilley's life, as the cause of any difficulty.' Mr. Pierce answered, 
* I never held any conversation with Mr. Graves, or " his second or 
attendant friends," in relation to the late fatal duel, nor did I ever hear 
until subsequently to the 24th of February last, that any question of 
veracity between Mr. Graves and Mr. Cilley was a point of difficulty to 
be adjusted.' Dr. Foltz answered, ' They did not.' Mr. Wise answered, 
' I did not know what Mr. Graves may have communicated to Mr. 
Cilley at any time before he fell, as to a question of veracity between 
them. I presume they both knew what had passed between them ver- 
bally. I believe that I did state to Mr. Jones, or to other friends of Mr. 
Cilley, on the ground, that Mr. Graves said Mr. Cilley had assigned to 
him the reason for declining to receive the note of Colonel Webb, that 
he did not choose to be accountable for words spoken in debate. I 
think I so informed Mr. Jones, when I asked him if Mr. Cilley could 
not assign this reason on the ground ; but of this I am not positive.' 
Mr. Crittenden answered, ' Not that I know of. I know of no com- 
munication between any of these parties other than as before stated, so 
far as I now recollect. Whether those communications involve any 
such question, it is not for me to decide ; no such question was made, 
in terms, that I know of.' Mr. Menefee answered, ' Mr. Graves had no 
communication of any kind with Mr. -Cilley, his second or attendant 
friends, and of course did not communicate to them that such a question 
was a point of difficulty. Nor did the second of Mr. Graves, as far as 
I remember, make such a communication, except so far as may be im- 
plied from the propositions made by him, in connection with the corre- 
spondence, &c. One, at least, of the friends of Mr. Graves, in the 
presence of his second, made frequent attempts to direct the attention 
of the second and friends of Mr. Cilley to the difficulty which was pre- 
sented by the terms of Mr. Graves's first note (giving his version of 
what Mr. Cilley had said), and the ground which Mr. Cilley had subse- 
quently assumed. But it was not referred to, in terms, as a question of 
veracity. It was believed that Mr Cilley had honorable grounds, which 
would be satisfactory to Mr. Graves, and at the same time compatible 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 105 

with the truth, which would effect the object, without making directly 
such a question while efforts were pending to accommodate. Whether 
the views thus expressed were communicated to Mr. Cilley, I know 
not. For the character of what occurred on this point, so far as I par- 
ticipated in it, the committee are referred to my general statement.' 
Mr. Graves said to Dr. Foltz, on the way to the field, ' that he had been 
the bearer of a note from Colonel Webb to Mr. Cilley, inquiring if Mr. 
Cilley had been correctly reported in the Globe. Mr. Cilley refused to 
receive the note, and declined giving his reasons, which implicated me, 
in consequence of which I challenged him, but I have no personal ani- 
mosity toward him.' Mr. Wise said on the field, ' Mr. Jones, these gen- 
tlemen have come here without animosity toward each other ; they are 
fighting merely upon a point of honor. These men have nothing 
against each other ; they are merely settling a point of honor.' 

" This concurrent testimony of all, without exception, taken in con- 
nection with the written correspondence, the various propositions and 
answers on the field, and the further fact, that Mr. Cilley had not been 
informed that Mr. Graves had undertaken to repeat to others any ver- 
bal communication between them, or that any misapprehension or mis- 
understanding existed between them on that subject, utterly repels the 
suggestion, that any question of veracity had arisen, or had been made, 
or was the cause of the challenge or the death of Mr. Cilley. Indeed, 
any misapprehension on that subject would have given no more just 
ground of animosity, and least of all of the highly vindictive feelings 
necessarily aroused by a question of veracity, than the very evident 
misapprehension which Mr. Graves labored under, in regard to some 
parts of the note of James Watson Webb of which he was the bearer. 

" The committee will not, injustice to Mr. Graves, harbor the belief, that 
there were rankling secretly in his bosom any vindictive or hostile feelings 
towards Mr. Cilley, growing out of any question of personal veracity, 
and prompting him to carry on a deadly warfare under another pretext, 
not only without a direct and explicit disclosure of the real cause of 
difficulty, such as would have lett no misapprehension on the mind 
of any one, but under circumstances which misled the other party and 
his friends, and left him, under that false impression, to the forfeit of his 
life. 

" The committee have, therefore, come to the conclusion, that the 
words spoken by Mr. Cilley in debate in the House of Representatives, 
the refusal of Mr. Cilley to receive a demand for explanation of those 
words, and his refusal to assign any other reason for it than that he 
chose to be drawn into no difficulty upon the subject, were the causes 
which led to the death of Mr. Cilley, under the circumstances which 
have been substantially detailed. 

" It remains to inquire whether there has been a breach of the privi- 
leges of the House. 

" It is a breach of the highest constitutional privileges of the House, 
and of the most sacred rights of the people in the person of their repre- 
sentative, to demand, in a hostile manner, an explanation of words spoken 



106 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

in debate ; to be the bearer of such a demand ; to demand a reason for 
refusing to receive it, beyond the mere voluntary election of the mem- 
ber interrogated ; or to demand, under any circumstances, any reason 
at all. No member can be questioned in a hostile way, and put to his 
plea, and yield to it, without subjecting himself to great disadvantage 
in the estimation of many, and impairing his influence and his useful- 
ness as a member. It is a still more aggravated breach of the privi- 
leges of the House, and of the rights of the people in the person of 
their representative, to challenge a member, and to slay him in combat, 
for refusing to comply with any such demand. It is the highest offence 
which can be committed against either House of Congress, against the 
freedom of speech and of debate therein, against the spirit and the 
substance of that constitutional provision, that, for any speech or debate 
in either House, the members shall not be questioned -in any other place, 
and violates essentially the right of perfect immunity elseiohere for 
words spoken in debate here, which is essential to the independence of 
Congress, and to the .existence of constitutional liberty. And when 
this offence is committed by a member, it calls for the exercise of the 
highest powers of the House to purge itself of the evil, to maintain 
effectually its rights and privileges, and to preserve inviolable this im- 
munity, which is guaranteed by the Constitution, not for the sake of the 
individual, but for his constituents and for the country. 

" The present case is without any circumstance of extenuation. A 
member of the House, in a manner most strictly parliamentary, on an 
occasion most appropriate, in language most decorous and moderate, in 
defence of the honor of the House against an anonymous and unfounded 
charge of corruption, had alluded to the published records of former 
proceedings with perfect truth and accuracy ; had, in obedience to his 
duty, declined a hostile demand for explanation in a manner in which 
the committee can discover no cause of offence ; had, respectfully, with 



expressions of regret, declined to admit the right to interrogate him 
further; had disclaimed all disrespect, directly or indirectly, toward 
his antagonist, and avowed for him the highest respect and the kindest 
feelings ; and after all this, avowed without hostility, and against the 
strongest protestations of others, he was required, fatally, to expose him- 
self to the third discharge of a rifle. On the other hand, Mr. Graves, 
a member of the House, voluntarily and unnecessarily became the 
bearer of a demand upon another member in attendance, for expla- 
nation of words spoken in debate ; he presented it in the House while 
the House was in session; he demanded a reason for the refusal, beyond 
the voluntary election of that member to be drawn into no difficulty 
upon the subject ; which being withheld, he then challenged him in 
this city, and slew him in this vicinity, while Congress was in session. 

" Every step of Mr. Graves in this progress involved him deeper 
and deeper in a breach of the privileges of the House, until their de- 
struction was consummated in the person of Mr. Cilley. The eye of 
reason can discover, iii the whole course of Mr. Cilley, no offence 
towards those who pursued him, except that given by alluding to the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 107 

records of Congress, in the faithful and upright discharge of his duty 
as a member, which justly could have given no offence at all. Nor can 
his death be vindicated or excused by any circumstance whatsoever, 
not even by that custom, the relic of unenlightened and barbarous ages, 
which was formerly supposed to be a proof of some degree of physical 
courage, but is, in' fact, a signal monument of the want of the higher at- 
tribute of moral courage ; which has, in these modern times, degenerated 
into a game of chances and a scramble for undue advantages ; which 
can furnish no criterion for truth, justice, or honor, and deals out its in- 
flictions of misery most severely upon the unoffending and the helpless ; 
which is deeply deplored by all men, even those who submit to it, and 
is forbidden, in every stage of it, by all law, human and divine. 

" It is not necessary, on the present occasion, to go into any consider- 
ation of the general power of the House to punish for breach of privi- 
lege, or to inquire into the origin and foundation of that power over 
contempts, which has been asserted by the Parliament of Great Britain 
from time immemorial, by every legislative body, by every judicial tri- 
bunal, from the highest to the lowest, and repeatedly, by one or the 
other House of Congress, and has been recognized as existing in the 
House of Representatives by the Supreme Court of the United States. 
Whether it be a power necessary to the continued existence of the 
legislative body, or a power necessary to the free exercise of its legis- 
lative functions, it is in either case a necessary power, strictly granted 
by the Constitution, and as fully granted as if it were literally expressed. 
But in the case of members, the Constitution has expressly granted the 
power to punish for disorderly conduct, and has also expressly granted 
tjie power, with the concurrence of two thirds, to expel a member 
for any cause which two thirds of the House may deem sufficient. 

" The committee, therefore, viewing the breach of the rights and 
privileges of the House, on the part of Mr. Graves, to have been an 
offence of this high character, against the vital principle of a deliber- 
ative assembly and of representative government, is constrained, by a 
sense of duty, to present to the House a resolution that he be expelled 
therefrom. 

" It has been decided by the House of Representatives, on a former 
occasion, that it was a breach of privilege to send a challenge to a mem- 
ber in attendance, or to be the bearer of such challenge. And it is 
equally so to act as second to the challenger. In the present instance 
it appears that Mr. Wise had no knowledge of the demand of expla- 
nation which was borne by Mr. Graves, and had never seen the paper 
until after the fatal catastrophe. But having been early consulted by 
Mr. Graves upon the first letter of Mr. Cilley, and concurring with him 
in his views of it, he bore the challenge to Mr. Cilley, and he acted 
throughout as the second of the challenger, advising and insisting that 
the fight should go on until Mr. Cilley fell. The committee, therefore, 
deeming him deeply involved, under the circumstances which this case 
presents, in a breach of the privileges of the House, report a reso- 
lution that he deserves the decided censure of the House, and that he 
be censured accordingly. 



108 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

" Mr. Jones had no knowledge of the affair until the determination 
of Mr. Cilley had been formed as to the acceptance of the challenge, 
and the time, mode, weapon, and other preliminaries of the meeting. 
But he was the bearer of the acceptance, and acted throughout as the 
second of the challenged party ; and it is the opinion of the committee 
that he was thereby involved in a breach of privilege, and that he be 
censured therefor. 

" In regard to the persons not principal nor seconds who were pres- 
ent on the field, and expressed their opinions at the request of the par- 
ties, without having advised, instigated, or procured the meeting, how- 
ever they might be implicated in the courts of law, the committee enter- 
tain doubts how far they would be involved in a breach of privilege ; 
and, under a strong conviction that the power of the House should be 
exercised, never in a doubtful case, always with moderation, they con- 
tent themselves with presenting the facts and circumstances, so far as 
those persons are concerned, without proposing any action thereon. 

" The committee entertain no doubt that James Watson Webb has 
been guilty of a breach of the privileges of the House ; but they also 
concur unanimously in the opinion, that if there be any real ground to 
believe that a conspiracy to assassinate actually existed, as set forth in 
that atrocious paper drawn up by him, signed by Daniel Jackson and 
William H. Morell, sworn to by the latter, and published in the New 
York Courier and Enquirer, he be left to the chastisement of the course 
of law, and of public opinion, and that the House will consult its 
own dignity and the public interest by bestowing upon him no further 
notice." 

CLARENCY, Prince of, and CHARLES DE GONTAUT, Duke of 
Biron. In France, about the year 1581. The parties were 
rival suitors to the heiress of the family of Caumont. Each 
was attended by two seconds, who fought with the principals. 
They met in a snow-storm, at daybreak. Biron and his seconds 
arranged, in taking position, that the snow should drive into the 
faces of their adversaries ; and, by this device, the Prince and 
his seconds were slain. Henry III., at the solicitation of the 
Duke of Epernon, pardoned the triple murder. In the reign 
of Henry IV., Biron became Admiral of France, and a Marshal, 
and Ambassador to the Courts of Brussels and Queen Elizabeth. 
But his star set in blood. He conspired against his royal friend, 
and was executed, in 1602. Multitudes visited the church in 
which his remains were deposited, in order to sprinkle his grave 
with holy water. 

CLARENDON, Lord. See Ossory, Lord. 

CLARKE, , Captain in the British Navy. See Lines. 

CLARY, MONS. See Valentine, Mons. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 109 

CLAVERING, General, and Mr. HARWELL. In India, 1775. 
These gentlemen were members of the Council of Bengal, 
under the administration of Warren Hastings. They fought, 
because the General said that Mr. Harwell " had taken money 
in direct contradiction to his solemn oath." 

CLAVIJO, DON JOSEPH FLAXARDO, and BEAUMARCHAIS. Cla- 
vijo loved a sister of Beaumarchais, but forsook her. This de- 
sertion caused an affair of honor, which, with the attending cir- 
cumstances, deprived the former of his employments and the 
respect of his countrymen, and his life afterwards was passed 
under a cloud. Clavijo was a Spanish scholar of note, the 
translator of Buffbn's Natural History into his vernacular, and 
Vice-Director of the Cabinet of Natural History. 

CLAY, HENRY. This eminent statesman fought two duels. He 
was the challenger in both. The first, in 1808, with Humphrey 
Marshall, a fellow-member of the Legislature of Kentucky. Mr. 
Marshall was a gentleman of talents, of high standing, and a 
Federalist of great influence. He was the constant antagonist of 
Mr. Clay in debate, and finally indulged in personal remarks so 
denunciatory and severe, as to draw a message. They met. 
They exchanged two or three shots, and retired from the field, 
each slightly wounded. 

The second, in 1826, on the Virginia shore of the Potomac, 
near Washington, with John Randolph. Mr. Clay, at this time, 
was Secretary of State, Mr. Randolph, a Senator in Congress. 
This duel, like that in 1808, was political. The particular cause 
will appear in the extract from Mr. Benton's Thirty Years in 
the Senate, appended to this notice. 

Never, in my judgment, has the utter, unconditional absurdity 
and folly of duelling been so perfectly demonstrated, as in the 
case before us. These two great men unlike as they were 
loved one another, even in the hour of meeting in mortal com- 
bat. But in the sudden fusion of political parties, and in events 
which followed, they had become alienated, and nothing but the 
magic influence of pistols strangely enough could induce 
them to confess their love, either to themselves or to the world. 

They can never disappear in American history. Their names 
will stand indissolubly connected upon its pages. The Scott or 
the Cooper of a future age, when the duello, as an existing code 
for the adjustment of personal differences, shall have passed for 
ever away, will seize upon the circumstances which preceded, 
10 



110 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

which attended, and which concluded the duel between them, as 
the groundwork of a thrilling story, descriptive of the barbarity 
of the age in which they lived. The writer of fiction will relate 
that Clay and Randolph prepared to meet, and met, in deadly 
strife, their hearts gushing bursting, even with tenderest so- 
licitude, each for the other's safety ; that the Virginian, when 
told of the sleeping child, and of the unconscious tranquillity of 
the wife of his adversary, rejoined, in tones as sweet as woman's 
own, " I shall do nothing on the morrow to disturb the sleep of 
the child or the repose of the mother" Stranger still, he will re- 
late, that, on the ground, the same voice was heard to breathe, in 
gentlest accent, " / would not have seen Mr. Clay fall mortally, 
or even doubtfully wounded, for all the land that is watered by the 
King of Floods and all his tributary streams." And so, too, he 
will write down for wondering readers, that the lofty son of Ken- 
tucky, the moment he had discharged his weapon, approached 
his antagonist, and uttered, " / trust in God, my dear sir, you 
are untouched ; after what has occurred, I would not have harmed 
you for a thousand worlds" Then will come the explana- 
tion, in which it will appear, that the public sentiment of the 
time imperiously demanded this scene, in order that these emi- 
nent men might continue to receive the courtesies of their com- 
peers. 

Some of the great actors in the political strifes which caused 
this combat lived on in hostile word and act, and were never 
reconciled. 

It is gratifying to know that perfect amity existed between Mr. 
Clay and the Virginia Senator ever after their hostile meeting. 
When Mr. Randolph returned from Russia, he was broken in 
health and spirit. Indeed, he was dying. But he would visit the 
Senate-chamber, and seat himself near Mr. Clay, to grasp his 
hand, to " hear his voice again." 

I now insert an account of the duel, from the pen of General 
James Hamilton, of South Carolina, who was an eyewitness. 

" The night before," says this distinguished gentleman, " Mr. Ran- 
dolph sent for me. I found him calm, but in a singularly kind and con- 
fiding mood. He told me that he had something on his mind to tell me. 
He then remarked, 'Hamilton, I have determined to receive, without 
returning, Clay's fire ; nothing shall induce me to harm a. hair of his 
head ; I will not make his wife a widow, nor his children orphans. 
Their tears would be shed over his grave ; but when the sod of Vir- 
ginia rests on my bosom, there is not one in this wide world, not one 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. Ill 

individual, to pay this tribute upon mine.' His eyes filled, and resting 
his head upon his hand, we remained some minutes silent. I replied, 
' My dear friend (for ours was a sort of posthumous friendship, bequeathed 
by our mothers), 1 deeply regret that you have mentioned the subject 
to me ; for you call upon me to go to the field and see you shot down, 
or to assume the responsibility, in regard to your own life, in sustaining 
your determination to throw it away. But on this subject, a man's own 
conscience and his own bosom are his best monitors. I will not advise, 
but under the enormous and unprovoked personal insult you have 
offered Mr. Clay, I cannot dissuade. I feel bound, however, to com- 
municate to Colonel Tatnall your decision.' 

" He begged me not to do so, and said he was very much afraid that 
Tatnall would take the studs, and refuse to go out with him. I, how- 
ever, sought Colonel Tatnall, and we repaired about midnight to Mr. 
Randolph^ lodgings, whom we found reading Milton's great poem. For 
some moments he did not permit us to say one word in relation to the 
approaching duel ; and he at once commenced one of those delightful 
criticisms on a passage of this poet, in which he was \vont so enthusias- 
tically to indulge. After a pause, Colonel Tatnall remarked, 'Mr. 
Randolph, I am told you have determined not to return Mr. Clay's fire ; 
I must say to you, my dear sir, if I am only to go out to see you shot 
down, you must find some other friend.' Mr. Randolph remarked, that 
it was his determination. After much conversation on the subject, I 
induced Colonel Tatnall to allow Mr. Randolph to take his own course, 
as his withdrawal as one of his friends might lead to very injurious 
misconstructions. At length, Mr. Randolph, smiling, said, ' Well, Tat- 
nall, I promise you one thing, if I see the devil in Clay's eye, and that, 
with malice prepense, he means to take my life, I may change my 
mind,' a remark I knew he made merely to propitiate the anxieties 
of his friend. 

" Mr. Clay and himself met at 4 o'clock the succeeding evening, on 
the banks of the Potomac. But he saw no ' devil in Clay's eye,' but a 
man fearless, and expressing the mingled sensibility and firmness which 
belonged to the occasion. 

" I shall never forget this scene as long as I live. It has been my 
misfortune to witness several duels, but I never saw one, at least in its 
sequel, so deeply affecting. The sun was just setting behind the blue 
hills of Randolph's own Virginia. Here were two of the most extra- 
ordinary men our country in its prodigality had produced, about to 
meet in mortal combat. Whilst Tatnall was loading Randolph's pistol, 
I approached my friend, I believed for the last time. I took his hand ; 
there was not in its touch the quivering of one pulsation. He turned 
to me and said, ' Clay is calm, but not vindictive ; I hold my purpose, 
Hamilton, in any event ; remember this.' 

" On handing him his pistol, Colonel Tatnall sprung the hair-trigger. 
Mr. Randolph said, * Tatnall, although I am one of the best shots in 
Virginia, with either pistol or gun, yet I never fire with a hair-trigger ; 
besides, I have a thick buckskin glove on, which will destroy the deli- 



112 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

cacy of my touch, and the trigger may fly before I know where I am/ 
But from his great solicitude lor his friend, Tatnall insisted upon hair- 
ing the trigger. On taking their position, the fact turned out as Mr. 
Randolph anticipated, his pistol went off before the word, with the 
muzzle down. 

" The moment this event took place, General Jesup, Mr. Clay's 
friend, called out that he would instantly leave the ground with his 
friend, if ti/at occurred again. Mr. Clay at once exclaimed, that it 
was an acqndent, and begged that the gentleman might be allowed to go 
on. On the word being given, Mr. Clay fired without effect, Mr. Ran- 
dolph discharging his pistol in the air. 

" The moment Mr. Clay saw that Mr. Randolph had thrown away his 
fire, wilfli a gush of sensibility, he instantly approached Mr. Randolph, 
and said, with an emotion I never can forget, 'I trust in God, my dear 
sir, you are untouched ; after what has occurred, 1 would not have 
harmed you for a thousand worlds." 

The relation of the Hon. Thomas Hart Benton, who was also 
an eyewitness, and anxiously interested for both parties, follows. 
It is minute, and in the highest degree interesting. No reader 
of this work will regret, I feel sure, that, abandoning several 
attempts to abridge it, I retain it entire. 

" It was Saturday, the first day of April, towards noon, the Senate not 
being that day in session, that Mr. Randolph came to my room at Brown's 
hotel, and (without explaining the reason of the question) asked me if 
I was the blood-relation of Mrs. Clay ? I answered that I was, and he 
immediately replied that that put an end to a request that he had wished 
to make of me, and then went on to tell me that he had just received 
a challenge from Mr. Clay, had accepted it, was ready to go out, 
and would apply to Colonel Tatnall to be his second. Before leaving, 
he told me he would make my bosom the depository of a secret which 
he should commit to no other person : it was that he did not intend to 
fire at Mr. Clay. He told it to me because he wanted a witness of his 
intention, and did not mean to tell it to his second, or anybody else j and 
enjoined inviolable secrecy until the duel was over. This was the first 
notice I had of the affair. The circumstances of the delivery of the 
challenge I had from General Jesup, Mr. Clay's second, and they were 
so perfectly characteristic of Mr. Randolph, that I give them in detail, 
and in the General's own words. 

" ' I was unable to see Mr. Randolph until the morning of the 1st of 
April, when I called on him for the purpose of delivering the note. 
Previous to presenting it, however, I thought it proper to ascertain 
from Mr. Randoph himself, whether the information which Mr. Clay had 
received, that he considered himself personally accountable for the 
attack on him, was correct, I accordingly informed Mr. Randolph that 
I was the bearer of a message from Mr. Clay, in consequence of an 
attack which he had made upon his private as well as public character, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 113 

in the Senate ; that I was aware no one had a right to question him 
out of the Senate for anything said in debate, unless he chose volun- 
tarily to waive his privileges as a member of that body. Mr. Randolph 
replied, that the Constitution did protect him, but he would never shield 
himself under such a subterfuge as the pleading of his privilege as a 
Senator from Virginia ; that he did hold himself accountable to Mr. 
Clay ; but he said that gentleman had first two pledges to redeem, 
one, that he had bound himself to fight any member of the House of 
Representatives who should acknowledge himself the author of a cer- 
tain publication in a Philadelphia paper ; and the other, that he stood 
pledged to establish certain facts in regard to a great man, whom he 
would not name ; but, he added, he could receive no verbal message 
from Mr. Clay, that any message from him must be in writing. I re- 
plied, that I was not authorized by Mr. Clay to enter into, or receive, 
any verbal explanations, that the inquiries I had made for my own 
satisfaction, and upon my own responsibility, that the only message of 
which I was the bearer was in writing. I then presented the note, 
and remarked that I knew nothing of Mr. Clay's pledges ; but that if 
they existed as he (Mr. Randolph) understood them, and he was aware 
of them when he made the attack complained of, he could not avail 
himself of them, that by making the attack, I thought he had waived 
them himself. He said he had not the remotest intention of taking ad- 
vantage of the pledges referred to, that he had mentioned them 
merely to remind me that he was waiving his privilege, not only as a 
Senator from Virginia, but as a private gentleman, that he was ready 
to respond to Mr. Clay, and would be obliged to me if I would bear his 
note in reply, and that he would, in the course of the day, look out 
for a friend. I declined being the bearer of his note, but informed him 
my only reason for declining was, that I thought he owed to himself to 
consult his friends before taking O important^ step. He seized my 
hand, saying, " You are right, sir. I thank you for the suggestion; but, 
as you do not take my note, you must' not be impatient if you should 
not hear from me to-day. I now think of only two friends, and there 
are circumstances connected with one of them which may deprive me of 
his services, and the other is in bad health, he was sick yesterday, and 
may not be out to-day." 

" ' I assured him that any reasonable time which he might find neces- 
sary to take, would be satisfactory. I took leave of him ; and it is due 
to his memory to say, that his bearing was, throughout the interview, 
that of a high-toned, chivalrous gentleman of the old school.' 

" These were the circumstances of the delivery of the challenge, and 
the only thing necessary to give them their full character is to recollect 
that, with this prompt acceptance and positive refusal to explain, and 
this extra cut about the two pledges, there was a perfect determination 
not to fire at Mr. Clay. That determination rested on two grounds : 
first, an entire unwillingness to hurt Mr. Clay ; and, next, a conviction 
that to return the fire would be to answer, and would be an implied 
acknowledgment of Mr. Clay's right to make him answer. This he 
10* 



114 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

would not do, either by implication or in words. He denied the 
right of any person to question him out of the Senate for words spoken 
within it. He took a distinction between man and Senator. As Sena- 
tor he had a constitutional immunity, given for a wise purpose, and 
which he would neither surrender nor compromise : as individual he 
was ready to give satisfaction for what was deemed an injury. He 
would receiVe, but not return, a fire. It was as much as to say, Mr. 
Clay may fire at me for what has offended him ; I will not, by return- 
ing the fire, admit his right to do so. This was a subtile distinction, and 
that in a case of life and death, and not very clear to the common intel- 
lect ; but to Mr. Kandolph both clear and convincing. His allusion to 
the ' two pledges unredeemed,' which he might have plead in bar to 
Mr. Clay's challenge, and would not, was another sarcastic cut at Mr. 
Adams and Mr. Clay, while rendering satisfaction for cuts already 
given. The 'member of the House' was Mr. George Kremer, of Penn- 
sylvania, who, at the time of the presidentinl election in the House of 
Representatives, had avowed himself to be the author of an anonymous 
publication, the writer of which Mr. Clay had threatened to call to 
account if he would avow himself, and did not. The ' great man ' 
was President Adams, with whom Mr. Clay had had a newspaper con- 
troversy, involving a question of fact, which had been postponed. 
The cause of this sarcastic cut, and of all the keen personality in the 
Panama speech, was the belief that the President and Secretary, the 
latter especially, encouraged the newspapers in their interest to attack 
him, which they did incessantly ; and he chose to overlook the editors 
and retaliate upon the instigators, as he believed them to be. This he 
did to -his heart's content in that speech, and to their great annoy- 
ance, as the coming of the challenge proved. The ' two friends ' alluded 
to were Colonel Tatnall and myself, and the circumstances which 
might disqualify one of the two were those of my relationship to Mrs. 
Clay, of which he did not know the degree, whether of affinity or con- 
sanguinity, considering the first no obstacle, the other a complete bar 
to my appearing as his second, holding, as he did, with the tenacity 
of an Indian, to the obligations of blood, and laying but little stress on 
marriage connections. His affable reception and courteous demeanor 
to General Jesup were according to his high breeding, and the decorum 
which belong to such occasions. A duel in the circle to which he belonged 
was 'an affair of honor'; and high honor, according to its code, must 
pervade every part of it. General Jesup had come upon an unpleasant 
business. Mr. Randolph determined to put him at his ease ; and did it 
so effectually as to charm him into admiration. The whole plan of his 
conduct, down to contingent details, was cast in his mind instantly, as 
if by intuition, and never departed from. The acceptance, the refusal 
to explain, the determination not to fire, the first and second choice of 
a friend, and the circumstances which might disqualify one and delay 
the other, the additional cut, and the resolve to fall, if he fell, on the 
soil of Virginia, was all, to his mind, a single emanation, the flash 
of an instant. He needed no consultations, no deliberations, to arrive 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 115 

at all these important conclusions. I dwell upon these small circum- 
stances because they are characteristic, and show the man, a man 
who belongs to history, and had his own history, and should be known 
as he was. That character can only be shown in his own conduct,' 
his own words and acts : and this duel with Mr. Clay illustrates it at 
many points. It is in that point of view that I dwell upon circum- 
stances which might seem trivial, but which are not so, being illustrative 
of character, and significant, to their smallest particulars. 

" The acceptance of the challenge was in keeping with the whole 
proceeding, prompt in the agreement to meet, exact in protesting 
against the right to call him out, clear in the waiver of his constitutional 
privilege, brief and cogent in presenting the case as one of some repre- 
hension, the case of a member of an administration challenging a 
Senator for words spoken in debate of that administration ; and all in 
brief, terse, and superlatively decorous language. It ran thus : ' Mr. 
Randolph accepts the challenge of Mr. Clay ; at the same time, he pro- 
tests against the right of any minister of the executive government of 
the United States to hold him responsible for words spoken in debate, 
as a Senator from Virginia, in crimination of such minister, or the ad- 
ministration under which he shall have taken office. Colonel Tatnall, 
of Georgia, the bearer of this letter, is authorized to arrange with Gen- 
eral Jesup (the bearer of Mr. Clay's challenge) the terms of the meet- 
ing to which Mr. Randolph is invited by that note.' 

" This protest which Mr. Randolph entered against the right of Mr. 
Clay to challenge him, led to an explanation between their mutual 
friends on that delicate point, a point which concerned the indepen- 
dence of debate, the privileges of the Senate, the immunity of a mem- 
ber, and the sanctity of the Constitution. It was a point which Mr. 
Clay felt; and the explanation which was had between the mutual 
friends presented an excuse, if not a justification, for his proceeding. 
He had been informed that Mr. Randolph, in his speech, had avowed 
his responsibility to Mr. Clay, and waived his privilege, a thing which, 
if it had been done, would have been a defiance, and stood for an invi- 
tation to Mr. Clay to send a challenge. Mr. Randolph, through Colonel 
Tatnall, disavowed that imputed avowal, and confined his waiver of 
privilege to the time of the delivery of the challenge, and in answer to 
an inquiry before it was delivered. 

" The following are the communications between the respective sec- 
onds on this point : 

" ' In regard to the protest with which Mr. Randolph's note concludes, 
it is due to Mr. Clay to say that he had been informed Mr. Randolph 
did, and would, hold himself^responsible to him for any observations he 
might make in relation to him ; and that I (General Jesup) distinctly 
understood from Mr. Randolph, before I delivered the note of Mr. Clay, 
that he waived his privilege as a Senator.' 

"To this Colonel Tatnall replied: 

" ' As this expression (did and would hold himself responsible, &c.) 
may be construed to mean that Mr. Randolph had given this intima- 



116 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

tion not only before called upon, but in such a manner as to throw out 
to Mr. Clay something like an invitation to make such a call, I have, on 
the part of Mr. Randolph, to disavow any disposition, when expressing 
his readiness to waive his privilege as a Senator from Virginia, to invite, 
in any case, a call upon him for personal satisfaction. The concluding 
paragraph of your note, I presume, is intended to show merely that 
you did not present a note, such as that of Mr. Clay to Mr. Randolph, 
until you had ascertained his willingness to waive his privilege as a Sen- 
ator. * This I infer, as it was in your recollection, that the expression of 
such a readiness, on the part of Mr. Randolph, was in reply to an in- 
quiry on that point made by yourself.' 

" Thus an irritating circumstance in the affair was virtually negatived, 
and its offensive import wholly disavowed. For my part, I do not be- 
lieve that Mr. Randolph used such language in his speech. I have no 
recollection of having heard it. The published report of the speech, as 
taken down by the reporters, and not revised by the speaker, contains 
nothing of it. Such gasconade was foreign to Mr. Randolph's character. 
The occasion was not one in which these sort of defiances are thrown 
out, which are either to purchase a cheap reputation when it is known 
they will be despised, or to get an advantage in extracting a challenge 
when there is a design to kill. Mr. Randolph had none of these views 
with respect to Mr. Clay. He had no desire to fight him, or to hurt 
him, or gain cheap character by appearing to bully him. He was above 
all that, and had settled accounts with him in his speech, and wanted no 
more. I do not believe it was said. But there was a part of the speech 
which might have received a wrong application, and led to the errone- 
ous report, a part which applied to a quoted passage in Mr. Adams's 
Panama message, which he condemned and denounced, and dared the 
President and his friends to defend. His words were, as reported un- 
re vised, ' Here I plant my foot; here I fling defiance right into his (the 
President's) teeth ; here I throw the gauntlet to him, and the bravest of 
his compeers, to come forward and defend these lines/ &c. A very 
palpable defiance this, but very different from a summons to personal 
combat, and from what was related to Mr. Clay. It was an unfortunate 
report, doubtless the effect of indistinct apprehension, and the more to 
be regretted as, after having been a main cause in inducing the chal- 
lenge, the disavowal could not stop it. 

" Thus the agreement for the meeting was absolute, and, according to 
the expectation of the principals, the meeting itself would be immedi- 
ately; but their seconds, from the most laudable feelings, determined to 
delay it, with the hope to prevent it, and did keep it off a week, ad- 
mitting me to a participation in the good work, as being already privy 
to the affair, and friendly to both parties. The challenge stated no 
specific ground of offence, specified no exceptionable words. It was 
peremptory and general, for an * unprovoked attack on his (Mr. Clay's) 
character,' and it dispensed with explanations by alleging that the no- 
toriety and indisputable existence of the injury superseded the necessity 
for them. Of course this demand was bottomed on a report of the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 117 

words spoken, a verbal report, the full daily publication of the 
debates having not then began, and was of a character greatly to ex- 
asperate Mr. Clay. It stated that in the course of the debate Mr. Ran- 
dolph said, ' that a letter from General Salazar, the Mexican Minister 
at Washington, submitted by the Executive to the Senate, bore the 
ear-mark of having been manufactured or forged by the Secretary of 
State, and denounced the administration as a corrupt coalition between 
the puritan and blackleg ; and added at the same time, that he (Mr. 
Randolph) held himself personally responsible for all that he had said.' 
This was the report to Mr. Clay, and upon which he gave the absolute 
challenge, and received the absolute acceptance, which shut out all in- 
quiry between the principals into the causes of the quarrel. The sec- 
onds determined to open it, and to attempt an accommodation, or a 
peaceable determination of the difficulty. In consequence, General Jes- 
up stated the complaint in a note to Colonel Tatnall thus : ' The injury 
of which Mr. Clay complains consists in this : that Mr. Randolph has 
charged him with having forged or manufactured a paper connected with 
the Panama mission ; also, that he has applied to him in debate the epi- 
thet of blackleg. The explanation which I consider necessary is, that 
Mr. Randolph declare that he had no intention of charging Mr. Clay, 
either in his public or private capacity, with forging or falsifying any pa- 
per, or misrepresenting any fact ; and also, that the term blackleg was 
not intended to apply to him.' To this exposition of the grounds of ..com- 
plaint, Colonel Tatnall answered : ' Mr. Randolph informs me that the 
words used by him in debate were as follows : " That I thought it would 
be in my power to show evidence sufficiently presumptive to satisfy a 
Charlotte (County) jury, that this invitation was manufactured here, 
that Salazar's letter struck me as bearing a strong likeness in point of 
style to the other papers. I did not undertake to prove this, but ex- 
pressed my suspicion that the fact was so. I applied to the administra- 
tion the epithet, puritanic-diplomatic-blacklegged administration." Mr. 
Randolph, in giving these words as those uttered by him in debate, is 
unwilling to afford any explanation as to their meaning and application.' 
In this answer Mr. Randolph remained upon his original ground of 
refusing to answer out of the Senate for words spoken within it. In 
other respects the statement of the words actually spoken greatly ame- 
liorated the offensive report, the coarse and insulting words ' forging 
and falsifying ' being disavowed, as in fact they were not used, and are 
not to be found in the published report. The speech was a bitter philip- 
pic, and intended to be so, taking for its point the alleged coalition 
between Mr. Clay and Mr. Adams with respect to the election, and 
their efforts to get up a popular question contrary to our policy of non- 
entanglement with foreign nations, in sending ministers to the Congress 
of the American States of Spanish origin at the Isthmus of Panama. 
I heard it all, and though sharp and cutting, I think it might have been 
heard without any manifestation of resentment by Mr. Clay. The part 
which he took so seriously to heart, that of having the Panama invita- 
tions manufactured in his office, was to my mind nothing more than 



118 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

attributing to him a diplomatic superiority, which enabled him to obtain 
from the South American ministers the invitations that he wanted ; and 
not at all that they were spurious fabrications. As to the expression 
' htaclclcij dm/. />nri?<in,' it was merely a sarcasm to strike by antithesis, 
and which, being without foundation, might have been disregarded. I 
presented these views to the parties, and if they had come from Mr. 
Randolph might have been sufficient; but he was inexorable, and 
would not authorize a word to be said beyond what he had written. 

" All hope of accommodation having vanished, the seconds proceeded 
to arrange for the duel. The afternoon of Saturday, the 8th of April, 
was fixed upon for the time, the right bank of the Potomac, within the 
State of Virginia, above the Little Falls bridge, was the place, pis- 
tols the weapons, distance ten paces, each party to be attended by 
two seconds and a surgeon, and myself at liberty to attend as a mutual 
friend. There was to be no practising with pistols, and there was 
none ; and the words, ' One, two, three, stop,' after the word ' Fire,' 
were, by agreement between the seconds, and for the humane purpose 
of reducing the result as near as possible to chance, to be given out in 
quick succession. The Virginia side of the Potomac was taken at the 
instance of Mr. Randolph. He went out as a Virginia Senator, refusing 
to compromise that character, and if he fell in defence of its rights, 
Virginia soil was to him the chosen ground to receive his blood. There 
was a statute of the State against duelling within her limits ; but as he 
merely went out to receive a fire without returning it, he deemed that 
no fighting, and consequently no breach of her statute. This reason 
for choosing Virginia could only be explained to me, as I alone was the 
depositary of his secret. The week's delay which the seconds had con- 
trived was about expiring. It was Friday evening, or rather night, 
when I went to see Mr. Clay for the last time before the duel. There 
had been some alienation between us since the time of the presidential 
election in the House of Representatives, and I wished to give evidence 
that there was nothing personal in it. The family were in the parlor, 
company present, and some of it stayed late. The youngest child, I 
believe James, went to sleep on the sofa, a circumstance which availed 
me for a purpose the next day. Mrs. Clay was, as always since the 
death of her daughters, the picture of desolation, but calm, conversible, 
and without the slightest apparent consciousness of the impending 
event. When all were gone, and she also had left the parlor, I did 
what I came for, and said to Mr. Clay that, notwithstanding our late 
political differences, my personal feelings towards him were the same as 
formerly, and that, in whatever concerned his life or honor, my best 
wishes were with him. He expressed his gratification at the visit and 
the declaration, and said it was what he would have expected of me. 
We parted at midnight. 

" Saturday, the 8th of April, the day for the duel, had come, and 
almost the hour. It was noon, and the meeting was to take place at 
4i o'clock. I had gone to see Mr. Randolph before the hour, and for a 
purpose ; and, besides, it was so far on the way, as he lived half-way 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 119 

to Georgetown, and we had to pass through that place to cross the Po- 
tomac into Virginia at the Little Falls bridge. I had heard nothing 
from him on the point of not returning the fire since the first commu- 
nication to that effect, eight days before. I had no reason to doubt the 
steadiness of his determination ; but felt a desire to have some fresh 
assurance of it after so many days' delay, and so near approach of the 
trying moment. I knew it would not do to ask him the question, 
any question which would imply a doubt of his word. His sensitive 
feelings would be hurt and annoyed at it. So I fell upon a scheme to 
get at the inquiry without seeming to make it. I told him of my visit 
to Mrs. Clay the night before, of the late sitting, the child asleep, 
the unconscious tranquillity of Mrs. Clay ; and added, I could not help 
reflecting how different all that might be the next night. He under- 
stood me perfectly, and immediately said, with a quietude of look and 
expression which seemed to rebuke an unworthy doubt, ' / shall do 
nothing to disturb the sleep of the child or the repose of the mother,' and 
went on with his employment, his seconds being engaged in their prep- 
arations in a different room, which was, making codicils to his will, 
all in the way of remembrance to friends ; the bequests slight in value, 
but invaluable in tenderness of feeling and beauty of expression, and 
always appropriate to the receiver. To Mr. Macon he ^ave some 
English shillings, to keep the game when he played whist. His name- 
sake, John Randolph Bryan, then at school in Baltimore, and since 
married to his niece, was sent for to see him, but sent off before the 
hour for going out, to save the boy from a possible shock at seeing him 
brought back. He wanted some gold, that coin not being then in 
circulation, and only to be obtained by favor or purchase, and sent his 
faithful man, Johnny, to the United States Branch Bank to get a few 
pieces, American being the kind asked for. Johnny returned without 
the gold, and delivered the excuse that the bank had none. Instantly 
his clear silver-toned voice was heard above its natural pitch, exclaim- 
ing : ' Their name is legion ! and they are liars from the beginning. 
Johnny, bring me my horse.' His own saddle-horse was brought him 
for he never rode Johnny's, nor Johnny his, though both, and all his 
hundred horses, were of the finest English blood, and rode off to the 
bank down Pennsylvania Avenue, now Corcoran & Riggs's, Johnny 
following, as always, forty paces behind. Arrived at the bank, this 
scene, according to my informant, took place. Mr. Randolph asked 
for the state of his account, was shown it, and found it to be some four 
thousand dollars in his favor. He asked for it. The teller took up 
packages of bills, and civilly asked in what sized notes he would have it. 
' I want money,' said Mr. Randolph, putting emphasis on the word ; 
and at that time it required a bold man to ihtimate that United States 
Bank notes were not money. The teller, beginning to understand him, 
and willing to make sure, said, inquiringly : * You want silver ? ' 'I 
want my money ! ' was the reply. Then the teller, lifting boxes to the 
counter, said, politely, ' Have you a cart, Mr. Randolph, to put it in.' 
' That is my business, sir/ said he. By that time the attention of the 



120 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

cashier (Mr. Richard Smith) was attracted to what was going on, who 
came up, and, understanding the question and its cause, told Mr. Randolph 
there was a mistake in the answer given to his servant, that they had 
gold, and he should have what he wanted. In fact, he had only applied 
for a few pieces, which he wanted for a special purpose. This brought 
about a compromise. The pieces of gold were received, the cart and 
the silver dispensed with ; but the account in the bank was closed, and 
a check taken for the amount on New York. He returned, and deliv- 
ered me a sealed paper, which I was to open if he was killed, give 
back to him if he was not; also an open slip, which I was to read be- 
fore I got to the ground. This slip was a request to feel in his left 
breeches pocket, if he was killed, and find so many pieces of gold, I 
believe nine, take three for myself, and give the same number to 
Tatnall and Hamilton each to make seals to wear in remembrance of 
him. We were all three at Mr. Randolph's lodgings then, and soon sat 
out, Mr. Randolph and his seconds in a carriage, I following him on 
horseback. 

" I have already said that the count was to be quick after giving the 
word ' Fire,' and for a reason which could not be told to the principals. 
To Mr. Randolph, who did not mean to fire, and who, though agreeing 
to be shot at, had no desire to be hit, this rapidity of counting out the 
time, and quick arrival at the command ' Stop,' presented no objection. 
With Mr. Clay it was different. With him it was all a real transaction, 
and gave rise to some proposal for more deliberateness in counting off 
the tune ; which being communicated to Colonel Tatnall, and by him 
to Mr. Randolph, had an ill effect upon his feelings, and, aided by an 
untoward accident on the ground, unsettled for a moment the noble de- 
termination which he had formed not to fire at Mr. Clay. I now give 
the words of General Jesup : ' When I repeated to Mr. Clay the " word " 
in the manner in which it would be given, he expressed some appre- 
hension that, as he was not accustomed to the use of the pistol, he might 
not be able to fire within the time, and for that reason alone desired 
that it might be prolonged. I mentioned to Colonel Tatnall the desire 
of Mr. Clay. He replied, " If you insist upon it, the time must be 
prolonged, but I should very much regret it." I informed him I did 
not insist upon prolonging the time, and I was sure Mr. Clay would ac- 
quiesce. The original agreement was carried out.' 

" I knew nothing of this until it was too late to speak with the seconds 
or principals. I had crossed the Little Falls bridge just after them, and 
come to the place where the servants and carriages had stopped. I saw 
none of the gentlemen, and supposed they had all gone to the spot 
where the ground was being marked off; but on speaking to Johnny, 
Mr. Randolph, who was still in his carriage and heard my voice, looked 
out from the window and said to me : ' Colonel, since I saw you, and 
since I have been in this carriage, I have heard something which may 
make me change my determination. Colonel Hamilton will give you 
a note which will explain it.' Colonel Hamilton was then in the car- 
riage, and gave me the note, in the course of the evening, of which 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 121 

Mr. Randolph spoke. I readily comprehended that this possible change 
of determination related to his firing ; but the emphasis with which he 
pronounced the word ' may,' clearly showed that his mind was unde- 
cided, and left it doubtful whether he would fire or not. No further 
conversation took place between us ; the preparations for the duel were 
finished ; the parties went to their places ; and I went forward to a 
piece of rising ground, from which I could see what passed and hear 
what was said. The faithful Johnny followed me close, speaking not a 
word, but evincing the deepest anxiety for his beloved master. The 
place was a thick forest, and the immediate spot a little depression, or 
basin, in which the parties stood. The principals saluted each other 
courteously as they took their stands. Colonel Tatnall had won the 
choice of position, which gave to General Jesup the delivery of the 
word. They stood on a line east and west, a small stump just behind 
Mr. Clay ; a low gravelly bank rose just behind Mr. Randolph. This 
latter asked General Jesup to repeat the word as he would give it; 
and while in the act of doing so, and Mr. Randolph adjusting the but 
of his pistol to his hand, the muzzle pointing downwards, and almost to 
the ground, it fired. Instantly Mr. Randolph turned to Colonel Tatnall, 
and said, * I protested against that hair trigger.' Colonel Tatnall took 
blame to himself for having sprung the hair. Mr. Clay had not then 
received his pistol. Mr. Johnson (Josiah), one of his seconds, was 
carrying it to him, and still several steps from him. This untimely fire, 
though clearly an accident, necessarily gave rise to some remarks, and 
a species of inquiry, which was conducted with the utmost delicacy, but 
which, in itself, was of a nature to be inexpressibly painful to a gentle- 
man's feelings. Mr. Clay stopped it with the generous remark that the 
fire was clearly an accident, and it was so unanimously declared. An- 
other pistol was immediately furnished ; an exchange of shots took place, 
and, happily, without effect upon the persons. Mr. Randolph's bullet 
struck the stump behind Mr. Clay, and Mr. Clay's knocked up the earth 
and gravel behind Mr. Randolph, and in a line with the level of his 
hips, both bullets having gone so true and close, that it was a marvel 
how they missed. The moment had come for me to interpose. I went 
in among the parties and offered my mediation, but nothing could be 
done. Mr. Clay said, with that wave of the hand with which he was 
accustomed to put away a trifle, '-This w child's play!' and required 
another fire. Mr. Randolph also demanded another fire. The seconds 
were directed to reload. AVhile this was doing, I prevailed on Mr. Ran- 
dolph to walk away from his post, and renewed to him, more pressingly 
than ever, my importunities to yield to some accommodation ; but I 
found him more determined than I had ever seen him, and for the first 
time impatient, and seemingly annoyed and dissatisfied, at what I was 
doing. He was indeed annoyed and dissatisfied. The accidental fire 
of his pistol preyed upon his feelings. He was doubly chagrined at it, 
both as a circumstance susceptible in itself of an unfair interpretation, 
and as having been the immediate and controlling cause of his firing at 
Mr. Clay. He regretted this fire the instant it was over. He felt that 
11 



122 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

it had subjected him to imputations from which he knew himself to be 
free, a desire to kill Mr. Clay, and a contempt for the laws of his be- 
loved State ; and the annoyances which he felt at these vexatious cir- 
cumstances revived his original determination, and decided him irrevo- 
cably to carry it out. 

" It was in this interval that he told me what he had heard since we 
parted, and to which he alluded when he spoke to me from the window 
of the carriage. It was to this effect : that he had been informed by 
Colonel Tatnall, that it was proposed to give out the words with more 
deliberateness, so as to prolong the time for taking aim. This informa- 
tion grated harshly upon his feelings. It unsettled his purpose, and 
brought his mind to the inquiry (as he now told me, and as I found it 
expressed in the note which he had immediately written in pencil to 
apprise me of his possible change) whether, under these circumstances, 
he might not ' disable ' his adversary. This note is so characteristic, 
and such an essential part of this affair, that I here give its very words, 
so far as it relates to this point. It ran thus : 

" ' Information received from Colonel Tatnall since I got into the 
carriage may induce me to change my mind of not returning Mr. 
Clay's fire. I seek not his death. I would not have his blood upon 
my hands it will not be upon my soul if shed in self-defence for 
the world. He has determined, by the use of a long, preparatory cau- 
tion by words, to get time to kill me. May I not, then, disable him? 
Yes, if I please.' 

"It has been seen by the statement of General Jesup, already given, 
that this ' information ' was a misapprehension ; that Mr. Clay had not 
applied for a prolongation of time for the purpose of getting sure aim, 
but only to enable his unused hand, long unfamiliar with the pistol, to 
fire within the limited time ; that there was no prolongation, in fact, 
either granted or insisted upon ; but he was in doubt, and General Jes- 
up having won the word, he was having him repeat it in the way he 
was to give it out, when his finger touched the hair-trigger. How un- 
fortunate that I did not know of this in time to speak to General Jes- 
up, when one word from him would have set all right, and saved the 
imminent risks incurred. This inquiry, 'May I not disable him ?' was 
still on Mr. Randolph's mind, and dependent for its solution on the ris- 
ing incidents of the moment, when the accidental fire of his pistol gave 
the turn to his feelings which solved the doubt. But he declared to me 
that he had not aimed at the life of Mr. Clay ; that he did not level as 
high as the knee, not higher than the knee-band, ' for it was no mercy 
to shoot a man in the knee'; that his only object was to disable him, 
and spoil his aim. And then added, with a beauty of expression and a 
depth of feeling which no studied oratory can ever attain, and which I 
shall never forget, these impressive words: * I would not have seen him 
fall mortally, or even doub' fully, wounded, for all the land thai is watered 
by the King of Floods and all his tributary streams.' He left me to re- 
sume his post, utterly refusing to explain out of the Senate anything 
that he had said in it, and with the positive declaration that he would 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 128 



not return the next fire. I withdrew a little way into the woods, and 
kept my eves fixed upon Mr. Randolph, who I then knew to be the only 
one in danger. I saw him receive the fire of Mr. Clay, saw the gravel 
knocked ur> in the same place, saw Mr. Randolph raise his pistol, dis- 
charge it into the air, heard him say, '/ do not f re at you, Mr. 
Clay,' and immediately advancing, and offering his hand. He was 
met in the same spirit. They met half-way, shook hands, Mr. Randolph 
saying jocosely, ' You owe me a coat, Mr. Clay,' (the bullet had passed 
through the skirt of the coat, very near the hip,) to which Mr. Clay 
promptly and happily replied, ' / am glad (he deb! is no greater.' I had 
come up, and was prompt to proclaim what I had been obliged to keep 
secret for eight days. The joy of all was extreme at this happy termi- 
nation of a most critical affair, and we immediately left, with lighter 
hearts than we brought. I stopped to sup with Mr. Randolph and his 
friends, none of us wanted dinner that day, and had a character- 
istic time of it. A runner came in from the bank, to say that they had 
overpaid him, by mistake, $ 130 that day. He answered, 'I believe 
it is your rule not to correct mistakes, except at the time, and at your coun- 
ter.' And with that answer the runner had to return. When gone, 
Mr. Randolph said, ' / will pay it on Monday ; people must be honest, 
if banks are not.' He asked for the sealed paper he had given me, 
opened it, took out a check for $ 1,000, drawn in my favor, and with 
which I was requested to have him carried, if killed, to Virginia, and 
buried under his patrimonial oaks, not let him be buried at Washing- 
ton, with an hundred hacks after him. He took the gold from his left 
breeches pocket, and said to us, (Hamilton, Tatnall, and I,) k Gentle- 
men, Clay's bad shooting sha'n't rob you of your seals. I am going to 
London, and will have them made for you,' which he did, and most 
characteristically, so far as mine was concerned. He went toMhe her- 
ald's office in London, and inquired for the Benton family, of which I 
had often told him there was none, as we only dated on that side from 
my grandfather in North Carolina. But the name was found, and with 
it a coat of arms, among the quarterings a lion rampant. This is the 
family, said he ; and had the arms engraved on the seal, the same which 
I have since habitually worn ; and added the motto, Faclis non. verb'is, 
of which he was afterwards accustomed to say, the non should be 
changed into et. But, enough. I run into these details, not merely to 
relate an event, but to show character ; and if I have not done it, it is 
not for want of material, but of ability to use it. 

u On Monday the parties exchanged cards, and social relations were 
formally and courteously restored. It was about the first high-toned 
duel that I have witnessed, and among the highest- toned that I have 
ever witnessed, and so happily conducted to a fortunate issue, a result 
due to the noble character of the seconds, as well as to the generous 
and heroic spirit of the principals. Certainly, duelling is bad, and has 
been put down, but not quite so bad as its substitute, revolvers, 
bowie-knives, blackguarding, and street-assassinations under the pre- 
text of self-defence." 






124 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

CLERMONT, Louis DE, and ST. PHAL. In France, in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century. Clermont was a French noble, 
sometimes called Bussy d'Amboise. An assassin, a libertine, 
and a professed duellist, he was one of the worst men of his 
time. His affair with St. Phal shows how wantonly he provoked 
a quarrel. That gentleman, looking at some embroidery, re- 
marked that the letter X was worked on it. Clermont, insolently, 
and purely from a spirit of contradiction, asserted that the letter 
was Y. A duel of six against six was the consequence. Cler- 
mont was slightly wounded ; but, dissatisfied with the result, he 
challenged St. Phal a second time, which caused the King to in- 
terfere, and put an end to the dispute. For his many offences 
Clermont was consigned to the Bastile. Released by the inter- 
ference of persons of influence at court, he was soon after slain 
by a nobleman whose wife he had seduced, when expecting to 
meet the lady, in accordance with an appointment made on 
compulsion by the injured husband. 

CLINTON, DE WITT, and JOHN SWARTWOUT. Near the city 
of New York, in 1802. The dispute was political : Hamilton 
was involved, and, two years later, became a victim. A cor- 
respondence preceded the meeting between Clinton and his oppo- 
nent, in which concessions were demanded and evaded. On the 
ground, Clinton is said to have expressed the wish (referring to 
Burr), that he " had the principal there." 

The seconds were R. Riker and W. S. Smith. The state- 
ment of the latter follows. It will be seen that the parties ex- 
changed Jive shots. 

" The ground being correctly measured, and intermediate questions 
adjusted, the gentlemen took their stations, were each presented 
with a pistol, and, by order, faced to the right, and fired, ineffectually. 
At the request of Mr. Riker, I asked Mr. Swartwout, ' Are you satis- 
fied, sir V ' He answered, ' I am not.' The pistols then being exchanged, 
and their positions resumed, by order, the gentlemen faced to the right, 
and fired a second shot, without effect. At the request of Mr. Riker, 
I again addressed Mr. Swartwout, * Are you satisfied, sir ? ' He answer- 
ing strongly in the negative, we proceeded, and a third shot was ex- 
changed without injury. At the request of Mr. Riker, I again asked Mr. 
Swartwout, ' Are you satisfied, sir ? ' He answered, ' I am not, neither 
shall I be, until that apology is made which I have demanded. Until 
then, wejiiust proceed.' I then presented a paper to Mr. Riker, con- 
taining the apology demanded, for Mr. Clinton's signature, observing, 
that we could not spend our time in conversation ; that this paper must 
be signed or proceed. Mr. Clinton declared he would not sign any 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 125 

paper on the subject, that he had no animosity against Mr. Swart- 
wout, would willingly shake hands and agree to meet on the score of 
former friendship. 

" Mr. Swartwout insisting on his signature to the apology, and Mr. 
Clinton declining, they stood at their posts and fired a fourth shot. Mr. 
Clinton's ball struck Mr. Swartwout's left leg, about five inches below 
the knee; he stood ready and collected. At the request of Mr. 
Hiker, I again addressed Mr. Swartwout, * Are you satisfied, sir ? ' He 
answered, that ' It was useless to repeat the question, my determi- 
nation is fixed, and I beg we may proceed.' Mr. Clinton repeated 
that he had no animosity against Mr. Swartwout, was sorry for what 
had passed, proposed to advance, shake hands, and bury the circum- 
stance in oblivion. During this conversation, Mr. Swartwout's surgeon, 
kneeling by his side, extracted the ball from the opposite side of his 
leg. Mr. Swartwout standing erect on his post, and positively declining 
anything short of an ample apology, they fired the fifth shot, and Mr. 
Swartwout received the ball in the left leg, about five inches above the 
ancle ; still, however, standing steadily on his post, perfectly composed. 
At the request of Mr. Hiker, I again addressed Mr. Swartwout, ' Are 
you satisfied, sir ? ' He forcibly answered, ' I am not, sir ; proceed.' 
Mr. Clinton then quit his station, declined the combat, and declared he 
would fire no more. Mr. Swartwout expressed himself surprised, that 
Mr. Clinton would neither apologize nor give him the satisfaction re- 
quired; and addressing me, said, 'What shall I do, my friend?' I 
answered, ' Mr. Clinton declines making the apology required, refuses 
taking his position, and positively declares he will fight no more; 
and his second appearing to acquiesce in the disposition of his principal, 
there is nothing further left for you now, but to have your wounds 
dressed.' The surgeons attended, dressed Mr. Swartwout's wounds, 
and the gentlemen, in their respective barges, returned to the city." 

Mr. Clinton was challenged the year following, for words spoken 
in the Senate of the United States. (See Jonathan Dayton.) 

CLONMELL, LORD, and LORD TYRAWLY. The family name 
of the first, Scott ; of the latter, Cuffe. The case is related by 
Harrington, and is a curious one. It seems that Lady Tyrawly 
had an utter aversion to her husband ; and as a means to procure 
a divorce from him, confessed to him in tears, and upon her 
knees, that she was an adulteress. His lordship ordered her out 
of the house, and to private lodgings. He next summoned a 
friend, and informed him that his wife had confessed that u the 
villain Scott," the Attorney-General and pretended friend of the 
family, was her seducer. The Attorney-General was accord- 
ingly challenged. That gentleman, believing that a declaration 
of innocence on his part would be regarded only as an honor- 
able perjury, to save her ladyship's reputation, and to screen 



126 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

himself from her husband's vengeance, determined to meet his 
lordship. They exchanged shots. Mr. Scott then told his antag- 
onist, that he never had the slighest familiarity with her ladyship, 
upon his honor ; and here the affair terminated. It may be add- 
ed, that her ladyship secured a separate maintenance by her trick. 

COBDEN, RICHARD, Member of Parliament. See Hastings, 
Admiral Sir Thojnas. 

COCHRAN, , and JOSEPH BAINBRIDGE. At Malta, in 1803. 

Cochran, an Englishman, and secretary of Sir Alexander Ball, 
Governor of Malta ; Bainbridge, a midshipman in the navy of 
the United States, and attached to the frigate New York. 

The papers of Commodore Preble, in my possession, afford 
ample evidence, that at this period our navy and its officers were 
held in utter contempt. His flag-ship (the frigate Constitution) 
was called, in derision, "a bunch of pine boards," and the 
gentlemen who were in service in the Mediterranean during the 
war with Tripoli were often treated with indignity. This was 
especially the case when the American squadrons under the 
command of Commodores Dale and Morris were in that sea. 

While Morris was there, the New York, one of his ships, put 
into Malta. Bainbridge and a brother officer went on shore. 
At the theatre they met Cochran and other British officers, who 
reflected upon the valor of their countrymen, and followed them 
into the lobby. In pacing the lobby, Cochran, the principal ag- 
gressor in words previously, ran against Bainbridge three sev- 
eral times. Upon the last collision Bainbridge knocked him down. 
A challenge from Cochran was the result. Lieutenant Stephen 
Decatur arranged the terms of meeting. Bainbridge was not prac- 
tised with the pistol at any distance ; but Cochran was sure at 
ten paces. Decatur, as a device to save his friend's life, proposed 
four paces, to which Cochran's friend objected. Decatur insisted, 
and prevailed. The parties exchanged shots without effect. At 
the second fire Cochran was mortally wounded in the head. 

Sir Alexander Ball demanded the surrender of the two Ameri- 
can officers for trial ; and the British government took notice of 
the affair in a communication to our Minister in London. The 
successor of Cochran, as secretary of Sir Alexander, was the 
celebrated Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who had been employed as 
an editor of a London newspaper, the Morning Post. 

COCKE, SAMUEL B., and MR. GIBSON. Near Washington, in 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 127 

1822. The former, a midshipman in the navy ; the latter, a 
clerk in the Treasury Department. Cocke shot through the lungs ; 
Gibson not hurt. 

COFFIN, JOHN. Two affairs. The first, in 1783, at New 
York. Duel with Colonel Campbell, in which Coffin was wound- 
ed in the groin ; both were officers in the British service, in the 
war of the Revolution. 

Coffin was a native of Boston, a " Loyalist," a brother of Ad- 
miral Sir Isaac Coffin, and became a general. At the peace, he 
retired to the British possessions, and finally settled in the Prov- 
ince of New Brunswick. In 1818, he became involved in 
several controversies with gentlemen of consideration in that 
Province, and especially with the officers of His Majesty's cus- 
toms. The cartel which follows was addressed to the Honorable 
Robert Parker the Comptroller of the Revenue for New Bruns- 
wick. Eastport, Maine, designated as the place of meeting, is 
still called by its ancient name, " Moose Island," by British 
colonists generally. 

" SIR, I have the honor to communicate the following note re- 
ceived from your son Nevil, last Sunday morning. I am not in the 
habit of entertaining young gentlemen at this inconvenient place. But, 
sir, harboring no vindictive resentment against you, and our ages being 
more equal, if you will attend me upon a party of pleasure to Moose 
Island, I shall be very happy to entertain you. I regret very much 
that I cannot offer you a passage in the schooner Martin, as she is at 
present out of commission. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, with the utmost consideration, your most 
obedient humble servant, JOHN COFFIN." 

COHN, or COHEN, and DR. WINTZEL. In Louisiana, 1853. 
The former, editor of the Staats Zeitung ; the latter, editor of 
the Deutsche Zeitung. Combat on Sunday. The New Orleans 
Courier says : 

" The conditions were, that one of them should first fire at fifteen 
paces, and, having advanced ten, should receive his adversary's fire at 
five paces. By the trial shot, the first fire was allotted to Mr. Cohn. 
He fired accordingly, but missed, and advanced ten paces. Dr. Wint- 
zel raised his pistol, but lowered it again. The hope thus raised that 
he did not intend to fire was disappointed ; for he presently raised his 
pistol again, fired, and struck Mr. Cohn on the right side below the 
ribs. At first the wound was pronounced mortal ; but we learn that 
Mr Cohn might recover. The ball has not been extracted." 

Another account of the affair is, that 



128 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

" The parties fought with pistols, at fifteen paces' distance. It is re- 
ported that Mr. Cohen fired first, his antagonist reserving his fire, 
and that then Mr. Cohen advanced ten steps and received the fire of the 
opposing party at five paces' distance. Rumor has it that the ball took 
effect about the middle of Cohen's body, inflicting a wound that is pro- 
nounced mortal." 

COKER, JOSEPH B. See Stewart, Claudius C. 

COLBEE, a corporal in the army of the Revolution. In 1779, 
while stationed at the Highlands, New York. Challenge to 
Sergeant Powers. The Corporal was tried by a court-martial, 
and sentenced to be reduced to the ranks. 

COLCLOUGH, and ALCOCK. In Ireland, year 1808. This is 
one of the saddest tales in the annals of duelling. The parties 
were rival candidates for a seat in Parliament, for the county of 
Wexford, Ireland. The causes were political. Tenants of 
" forty shillings a year " were voters. Alcock had obtained the 
favor of a lady who owned an estate in the county, and his 
friends counted upon the votes of her tenants ; but the tenants 
preferred Colclough, and tendered their votes to him accordingly. 

This was resented, and Colclough was required to refuse their 
suffrages. He declined, stating, that he had not solicited their 
votes, and could not interfere to prevent them from doing as 
they pleased. It was then said to him, " Receive their votes 
at your peril ! " 

Before the opening of the poll, the following day, the two 
gentlemen met. Hundreds of people were present ; and among 
them, twelve county magistrates, and many of the tenants who 
had occasioned the combat. Colclough was shot through the 
heart at the first fire, and fell dead. In a few hours, Alcock was 
returned duly elected. He was tried at Wexford, on an indict- 
ment for murder, and acquitted. It appeared in evidence, that 
before delivering his fire he put on spectacles, which, it was 
proved, he did not always wear. 

The most distressing part of the affair remains to be told. 
The combatants had been warm friends. The recollections of 
the duel, and of the trial which followed it, were fatal to the sur- 
vivor. He became melancholy ; his reason wandered ; and he 
died, a mental and physical wreck, in a madhouse. His sister, 
too, an intimate friend of Colclough, " doubly wounded," did 
not long survive. Lovely and sensitive, the horrible transaction 
was ever present to her imagination. After her brother's death, 
she wasted away in hopeless insanity. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 129 

COLEMAN, WILLIAM, editor of New York Evening Post. See 
Cheetham, James, and also Thompson, Captain. 

COLES, GEORGE. See Palmer, . 

COLLETT, JOSHUA W. In Mexico, 1848. He was a captain 
in the army of the United States, and was slain. Antagonist 
unknown. 

COLLINS, , ex-Sheriff. See Winters, Charles. 

COLT,- SIR HENRY BUTTON. See Fielding, . 

COLTER, JOHN. See Nugent, John. 

CONCHA, J. DE LA, General. See Soule, Neville. 

CONDE, Prince of. See Turenne, Viscount. 

CONDE, the Prince of, and the Count AGOULT. In France, 
previous to 1789. The Prince was wounded. Napoleon's vic- 
tim, the Due d'Enghien, was his grandson. Conde died at 
Paris, in 1818. 

CONNECTICUT, Constitutional provision : 

" The privileges of an elector shall be forfeited by a conviction of 
bribery, forgery, perjury, duelling, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft, or 
other offence, for which an infamous punishment is inflicted." 

CONNER, CONSTANT. A Loyalist, or Tory, in the Revolution, 
and an officer in the corps called the " Royal Fensible Ameri- 
cans." He went to Nova Scotia at the peace of 1783, where, in 
a duel, he slew his adversary. Conner died at Halifax. 

CONRAD, . See Geoffrey of Lusignan. 

CONSTABLE, PHILIP, and EDWARD PERCY. In England, in 
1618. Constable was killed; he was of Wassand, county of 
York. 

CONVERSANO, Count of, and the Duke of MARTINA. In 1664. 
Both nobles of Naples. The Duke was a mere youth ; and ap- 
peared as the champion of his uncle, the Prince of Francavilla, 
who was an old man, as was also the Count of Conversano. 
These two aged noblemen had hated each other for a long time, 
and for various causes. The Count met his enemy in the public 
street, and leaning over his carriage struck him repeatedly with 
the flat side of his sword. This was the immediate cause of the 
duel. 



130 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

The Count consented that the young Duke might be the sub- 
stitute for his uncle ; and agreed, moreover, to a year's delay, 
in order that the Duke might " finish his education," or, more 
probably, perfect himself in the art of fencing. 

The Duke prepared himself for the combat by making his 
will, by confession according to the rites of the Church, and by 
taking affectionate leave of his mother. The Count, on the con- 
trary, ordered a sumptuous feast to be prepared, and invited his 
friends and retainers to partake of it after the duel. They met, 
and the Count was slain. 

CONWAY, THOMAS, Knight of the Order of St. Louis, and JOHN 
CADWALADER, of Pennsylvania. In 1778. Both were general 
officers in the army of the Revolution. 

The commonly received, and probably the true opinion, is, 
that Conway's enmity to Washington, and his participation in 
the intrigue to displace the Commander-in-chief, and to elevate 
Gates, was the cause of the meeting between these two gentle- 
men. Graydon, in his Memoirs, while he refers especially to this 
intrigue, inclines to consider that the immediate origin of the 
duel was the opposition of Cadwalader to Conway's application 
to Congress for the commission of a major-general, on account 
of misconduct at Germantown. 

Conway was dangerously wounded. His adversary's bullet 
entered his mouth, and he fell directly on his face. He thought 
his injury mortal ; and atoned to Washington in the following 
terms : 

"Philadelphia, February 23d, 1778. 

" SIR, I find myself just able to hold my pen during a few minutes, 
and take this opportunity of expressing my sincere grief, for having 
done, written, or said anything disagreeable to your Excellency. My 
career will soon be over, therefore justice and truth prompt me to de- 
clare my last sentiments. You are, in my eyes, the great and good 
man. May you long enjoy the love, esteem, and veneration of these 
States, whose liberties you have asserted by your virtues. 

" I am, &c., THOMAS CONWAY." 

CONWAY, General, and ROBERT CRITTENDEN. In 1830, or 
a year or two earlier, in Arkansas. Supposed the first party 
or political duel in that State. Several gentlemen who subse- 
quently became distinguished in the national councils were in- 
volved in the affair. Crittenden's friend on the ground was 
" Ben Desha," a son of a governor of Kentucky ; the second of 
s^ Conway, Colonel Wharton Rector. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 131 

I give the material circumstances from an article which ap- 
peared, some years ago, in Noah's Weekly Messenger, presumed 
from the pen of the editor : 

"In 1830, Crittenden and Conway began to canvass the Territory as 
opponents for the office of Delegate to the supreme Congress of the na- 
tion, the former being a Whig, and the latter a Democrat. The field was 
altogether new ; parties had not yet been organized, and all was in a 
state of transition, agitated, stormy, and doubtful. The magnificence 
of the prize for which they struggled stimulated the rivals to the highest 
degree of enthusiasm, until the strife became maddening, and burst 
over all the boundaries of decent language, and even common courtesy. 
It was generally believed, that whatsoever party acquired the ascendency 
now would be enabled to keep it a long while, perhaps for ever. Un- 
der such circumstances, the excitement of the people and their leaders 
may be imagined. 

" For a time the opposing candidates pursued different circuits, one 
sweeping the stumps of the north, and the other those of the south. 
They were probably induced to take this course in the first instance 
from the same motive, a desire to avoid a personal collision ; for they 
seem all along to have dreaded such a termination. The sovereign 
voters were dissatisfied with this distant cannonade. They loudly de- 
manded that the champions should be brought to close quarters, so as to 
afford an opportunity of deciding their respective merits with the senses 
and by immediate contrast. Hence the political chieftains were forced 
to submit, and the primary ' pitched battle' was appointed to come off at 
Little Rock, in midsummer. 

" On the day designated, an immense concourse assembled to witness 
the trial of strength. Intense was the ferment of passionate feeling. 
Many spectators were even known to have travelled four hundred 
miles to be present on the occasion. The hunters and herdsmen who 
were too poor to pay the expense of board and lodgings at the hotels, 
* camped out ' in the woods around the town. Early in the morning it 
was discovered that no house could be procured large enough to hold a 
tithe of the people already arrived, and accordingly the place of meeting 
was changed from the city hall to a beautiful grove of pines in the 
vicinity, which, before the sun had performed three hours' space of his 
long summer journey, was densely crowded by the eager masses, the 
true rulers, whose sceptre lay in the ballot-box." 

An earnest discussion ensued, which at last became personal. 
At the close of Crittenden's second speech, he said that he 
" trusted no gentleman would utter words, in the heat of debate, 
towards him, such as could not be tolerated by the code of 
honor." Conway bounded to his feet, and poured forth a torrent 
of bitter invective, and burning denunciation. 

" Crittenden rejoined with but a single sentence : ' Your language, 
General Conway, admits of only one answer, and that, you may be sure, 



132 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

I will make right speedily.' He then descended from the platform, and, 
attended by a few select friends, hurried away to his hotel. His sec- 
ond waited on Conway the same evening, and a hostile meeting was 
arranged for the following morning. 

" A vast throng collected at the time and place appointed, to witness 
the duel. As soon as the parties appeared on the ground, they began 
to make their arrangements, and serious difficulties arose between the 
seconds on various points of order. While the dispute as to these was 
pending for almost an hour, Conway became restless, angry, and agi- 
tated, while Crittenden, trusting all to his friend, lay quiet on a blanket, 
with his eyes shut, as if enjoying a comfortable slumber. Finally every- 
thing was settled, and the principals took their positions, with their pis- 
tols cocked, and their fingers on the triggers. 

" While the two antagonists were thus standing in position, the spec- 
tators at a glance contrasted their aspect and bearing. Crittenden in- 
herited the noblest of human forms, with fair hair, blue eyes, and a lofty 
countenance, frank and open in its expression, and wearing the seal of 
death-defying bravery. He stood calm, collected, and unconcerned, 
like a rifleman about to fire at a mark. But Conway had a stern face, 
eyes dark as night, and his look of indubitable courage was perceptibly 
tinged with revenge. At length Desha gave the word, in a voice that 
rung afar over the hills like the peal of a trumpet : ' Fire ! One ! 
two ! three ! ' At the sound ' Fire,' Conway instantly raised his weap- 
on and pulled the trigger. His bullet grazed the other's breast, and cut 
a button off his coat, without more injury. But Crittenden waited till 
the last echo of the word ' two,' and then his pistol exploded. With 
the roar, General Conway dropped to the earth like lead. The ball 
had pierced through his heart." 

The survivor died of a fever a few years afterwards. He was, 
I suppose, a brother of the Hon. John J. Crittenden, the distin- 
guished statesman of Kentucky. 

COOK, ZEBEDEE, JUN. See Barrel!, George. 

COOPER, F. A., and WOOD. In England, in the year 

1825. A pugilistic encounter. The parties were Eton scholars 
of high rank : Cooper, a son of the Earl of Shaftesbury ; Wood, 
a nephew of the Marquis of Londonderry. Between the rounds, 
their schoolfellows plied them with brandy. The youth of the 
noble house of Shaftesbury was killed. The second of his an- 
tagonist was a Wellesley. 

Such a combat, on the borders of civilization in America, 
stimulated by whiskey from the hands of rough backwoodsmen, 
would be cited by some who visit us as an incident to show the 
state of American manners and morals. 

COOTE, Captain, and the Earl of WARWICK. In England, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 133 

probably in 1699. The duel, three on a side, and in the dark. 
Some or all of the parties were half drunk. Coote was killed. 
The Earl of Warwick and Lord Mohun were tried for murder, 
but acquitted. 

COPELAND, SIR JOHN. See Lorres, Sir Lancelot de. 
CORKY, . See Grattan, Henry. 

CORTES, HERNANDO. In the words of the classic author of 
the Conquest of Mexico, 

" Cortes was a knight errant, in the literal sense of the word. Of all 
the band of adventurous cavaliers whom Spain, in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, sent forth on the career of discovery and conquest, there was 
none more "deeply filled with the spirit of romantic enterprise." 

Again remarks Prescott : 

" His graver pursuits did not prevent his indulgence of the 

amatory propensities, which belong to the sunny clime where he was 
born ; and this frequently involved him in affairs of honor, from which, 
though an expert swordsman, he carried away scars that accompanied 
him to his grave." 

COTTINEAU, Captain, in the navy of the United States. See 
Landais, Pierre. 

COURCEY, H. DE. See Carter, W. H. 

COURNET and BARTHELMY. In England, in 1852, near Wind- 
sor. The parties were Frenchmen. Cournet belonged to one 
of the first families in France, was a distinguished officer in the 
navy, and among its official representatives at the coronation of 
Queen Victoria. It is said that he had been the victor in four- 
teen duels. In this he was slain. 

The difficulty which led to the meeting is understood to be 
this. Cournet went over to England, in 1851, on a visit, and 
was intrusted with a package for Barthelmy, who was already 
there, a political exile. Cournet had never seen him, and, hear- 
ing that his character was bad, determined not to deliver the 
parcel in person, and to avoid making his acquaintance. On his 
return to Paris, he stated these facts to the person who had in- 
trusted him with the package. The circumstance became known 
to Barthelmy, who sent Cournet a challenge, which seems to 
have been accepted ; but, for some reason or other, a meeting 
was prevented. 

The following year, Cournet, in turn, proscribed by the French 
government, came to England a second time. The quarrel was 
12 



134 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

there renewed ; but by the mediation of friends, adjusted. Cour- 
net, however, feeling that he had consented to an arrangement 
under a menace, immediately addressed Barthelmy a letter, 
which placed the matter upon its original ground. The terms 
of a duel, after some negotiation as to weapons, &c., were then 
settled ; the parties to commence with pistols, forty paces apart, 
to advance ten paces before the first shot, (if they chose,) to 
fire twice, and then, pistols proving ineffectual, to use swords 
to end the affair, the choice of position and of pistols, and 
the signal for firing, to be determined by u tossing up." 

" With this understanding the fatal rencontre took place. Cournet 
had the choice of position and of pistols, and his seconds also were to 
give the signal ; so that the luck seemed to run in his favor. He ad- 
vanced his ten paces and fired, but, though on fourteen similar occasions 
he had never failed to hit his opponent, this time he missed. Barthelmy 
then told him that he had his life in his hands, but would surrender his 
right to fire if Cournet would agree to terminate the duel with swords. 
Cournet declined to do so, saying that he would stand his adversary's 
fire, and take his second shot. Barthelmy then levelled his pistol, but 
it snapped. He put a fresh cap on it and it snapped a second time ; 
and it was then agreed that he should use Cournet's pistol, which was 
loaded and handed to him. Before discharging it, however, he again 
offered ineffectually to terminate the contest with swords. He then 
fired, and with fatal precision." 

Three friends of the combatants, Mons. Mourney, Baronnet, 
and Allain, were arrested, examined, and committed, the 
magistrates refusing bail. A number of French gentlemen were 
present at the examination, and among them M. Louis Blanc. 
The accused were asked, before being remanded, in the usual 
form, whether they had anything to say ; when two of them put 
in the following statement : 

" Whatever may be the consequences of the severity of the English 
law against duelling, (of which I am informed,) I declare that I was the 
second of M. Cournet on the 19ih of October; that the obligations and 
sincere friendship I entertained for him would not allow of my refusing 
to accompany him in this fatal rencontre. He was my best friend, 
and I had found so many noble qualities in him, that I did all I could 
to avoid the rencontre, but I had to obey the laws of honor, friendship, 
and the customs of French duelling. Were I to pass the remainder of 
rny life in prison, I would never disclose the name of the person who 
was the adversary of M. Cournet, now that I know the English law. 
Honor forbids my mentioning the name of an antagonist, if he will not, 
or cannot do so. I am a prisoner, but will never quit a prison by a 
declaration which is repugnant to my character and my habits. 

(Signed,) BARONNET." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 135 

" I adhere to this declaration : it is quite in conformity with my own 
sentiments. (Signed,) ALLAIN." 

An English newspaper, in an account of the proceedings of 
the coroner's inquest on the body of M. Cournet, remarks, that 
the fact carne out in evidence, that one of the pistols which were 
used in this duel, on being returned to the establishment where 
they were hired, was loaded ; and that, on drawing the charge, a 
linen rag was found, carefully folded up, in a position which ren- 
dered the discharge of the weapon impossible. This, of course, 
was Barthelmy's pistol, which missed fire twice. 

CRANE, ALFRED, and EDWARD TOBEY. In California, in 1853, 
with navy pistols, at ten paces. Crane, who was the challenged 
party, was a physician, and formerly of Louisiana ; Tobey, clerk 
of the assistant aldermen of San Francisco. Crane was shot 
through the body, and died the morning after the duel. 

CRAWFORD, Colonel. See Townshend, George. 

GREAT, . See Cearnach, Connal. 

CRITTENDEN, A. P. See Gwin, William M. 

CRITTENDEN, JOHN J., Senator in Congress from Kentucky. 
See Cilley, Jonathan. 

CRITTENDEN, ROBERT. See Conway, General. 
CROFIELD, SIR EDWARD, Baronet. See French, George. 

CROSBY, . See Barrington, Sir Jonah. 

GUMMING, Colonel. See McDujfie, George. 

CUMMINGS, . See Bouligny, Henry. 

CURIATII. See Horatii. 

CURRAN, JOHN PHILPOT. The hero, certainly, of four duels.' 
I am unable to notice them in chronological order. That with 
St. Ledger, an officer, was in the outset of Curran's professional 
career. St. Ledger had assaulted a Roman Catholic clergyman, 
and Curran was employed on the side of the prosecution. He 
took occasion to speak of St. Ledger in terms of great bitterness. 
St. Ledger gave him a challenge the next day. They met, and, 
Curran not returning his fire, the affair was concluded. " It was 
not necessary," said Curran, " for me to fire at him ; he died in 
three weeks after the duel, of the report of his own pistol" 

That with John Fitzgibbon (who was afterwards Lord Clare, 



136 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

and Lord High Chancellor of Ireland) occurred in 1785. Dur- 
ing the distracted condition of the Emerald Isle, Curran often 
defended persons accused of political offences. Fitzgibbon, then 
Attorney-General, was, of course, his opponent. In the per- 
formance of their professional duty, they came, gradually, to 
indulge in feelings of personal rancor. At last, in a discussion 
in Parliament upon " Orde's Propositions," the Attorney-General 
remarked that " Ireland was a nation easily roused, and easily 
appeased." Curran replied in a tone of great severity. Fitz- 
gibbon sent him a message. On the ground, the parties were to 
fire at pleasure. " I never," said Mr. Curran, when relating the 
circumstances of that meeting, " I never saw any one whose de- 
termination seemed more malignant than Fitzgibbon. After I 
had fired, he took aim at me nearly half a minute ; and, on its 
proving ineffectual, I could not help exclaiming, l It was not 
your fault, Mr. Attorney ; you were deliberate enough? " 

Another combat was with John Egan, an Irish barrister. 
Egan had the nickname of " Bully." He was of immense size, 
" as brawny and almost as black as a coal-porter." 

" During the temporary separation of Lord Avonmore and 
Curran, Egan, either wishing to pay his court to the Chief Baron, 
or really supposing that Curran meant to be offensive, espoused 
the judge's imaginary quarrel so bitterly, that a duel between 
the barristers was the consequence." 

On the ground, Egan complained that the disparity in their 
sizes gave his antagonist a manifest advantage. " I might as 
well fire at a razor's edge as at him," said Egan, " and he may 
hit me as easily as a turf-stack." " I tell you what, Mr. Egan," 
replied Curran, his pistol in his hand, and Egan scowling at him 

under his brows, " I wish to take no advantage of you, 

whatever ; let my size be chalked out upon your side, and I am 
quite content that every shot which hits outside that mark shall 
go for nothing." They fired, but without effect. The shots, 
after such a dialogue, were too aimless to produce injury. 

Egan was an unsuccessful candidate for Parliament, for the 
borough of Tallah ; but at the period of the " Union," he became 
a member. 

The fourth encounter of Curran was with Lord Buckingham- 
shire. Strangely enough, John Egan was his second. 

CURRY, SIR PIERS DE, and ANDREW NICOLSON. In Scotland, 
I suppose in the year 1263. Single combat, in the presence of 
opposing armies, during the invasion of Haco, King of Norway. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 137 

Sir Piers, one of the noblest of the Scottish knights, came 
upon the field, wearing a helmet inlaid in gold and set with 
precious stones, and a sword hung in a belt studded with jewels. 
His antagonist, an officer of rank and valor in the army of the 
Norsemen, irritated at his insults in riding round and round the 
circle, brandishing his spear, and trying to provoke an encounter, 
quitted the troops under his command, and attacked him with 
fury. 

Sir Piers, in passing, aimed his spear at Nicolson, who, parry- 
ing it with his sword, struck the knight a blow, which, it is 
related, severed his thigh from his body, and killed him on the 
spot. 

GUSHING, General THOMAS H., and MR. LEWIS, a member of 
Congress from Virginia. Cushing's life was saved, as supposed, 
by his watch, which was struck by his adversary's ball. It was 
remarked by one to whom the incident was related, that " it 
must be a good watch to keep time from eternity." 

CUTTING, HON. FRANCIS B., member of Congress from New 
York, and HON. JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, member from Ken- 
tucky. Difficulty in debate, March 21st and 23d, 1854. The bill 
entitled " An Act to organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kan- 
zas," coming up in the House in order, Mr. Richardson of Illinois 
moved its reference to the Committee on Territories ; and Mr. 
Cutting immediately followed with a motion that it be referred 
to the Committee of the whole House upon the State of the 
Union, and upon that motion called the previous question. In 
the course of the discussion that followed, Messrs. Cutting and 
Breckinridge indulged in remarks extremely personal, which led 
to a correspondence, and to some of the usual arrangements for 
a hostile meeting. The affair, on the part of Mr. Cutting, was 
committed to Colonel Monroe of New York, and General Shields, 
a member of the Senate from Illinois ; and on the part of Mr. 
Breckinridge, to Colonel Hawkins of Kentucky, and Hon. Wil- 
liam Preston, a member of the House from that State. The 
latter gentleman rose in his place, on the 31st of March, and 
said, he was authorized " to state that the matters in dispute had 
been settled in a ' manner which is mutually satisfactory, and 
which is conceived alike honorable to both the gentlemen who 
were engaged in the debate." 

CYRUS, King of Persia. Challenge, about 555 years B. C., to 
12* 



138 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

the King of Assyria, to terminate the quarrel between them by 
single combat. The defiance was not accepted. 

DALLAS, ALEXANDER J. See Hoole, R. A. 

DALY, RICHARD, an Irish barrister of the last century. Bar- 
rington says that, in two years, he fought three duels with sword, 
and thirteen with pistol, yet received no material harm. Daly, in 
the course of his life, figured as the patentee of the Theatre Royal, 
Dublin, and was the first to introduce on the Dublin boards Miss 
Francis, who subsequently, as Mrs. Jordan, and as the mother 
of a large family by William IV. of England (while Duke of 
Clarence) obtained an unenviable fame. See Harrington, Sir 
Jonah. 

DAMMARTIN, ANTHONY DE CHABANNES, Count of. Challenge, 
in the reign of Charles VII. of France, and about the middle of 
the fifteenth century. 

The Dauphin formed a conspiracy to deprive the King of his 
crown and personal liberty. The Count was his accuser. The 
Dauphin denied the charge, and gave the Count the lie. To this 
the Count replied with much dignity : " I know the respect 
which is due to the son of my master ; but the truth of my de- 
position I am ready to maintain, by arms, against all those of 
the Dauphin's household who will come forward to contradict 
it." The challenge was not accepted. 

DANIEL, J. M., and E. W. JOHNSON. On the Maryland line, 
near Washington, in 1852. The parties, editors of newspapers 
of opposite political sentiments, Richmond, Virginia, met in con- 
sequence of the severe articles which had appeared in their 
journals, respectively. 

The account is, that, having exchanged shots, their seconds 
induced them to become friends. Mr. Daniel, I conclude, had 
an affair, the year previous, with Mr. Scott, a member of the 
Virginia Legislature, which terminated without harm to either. 

DANIELS, THOMAS. See Ganaht, Charles. 

DANTZLER, O. M., and W. J. KEITH. In North Carolina, in 
1852. Both were citizens of South Carolina. Keith was 
wounded. 

DAVID, son of Jesse. See Goliath of Gath. 

DAVIS, S. G., a member of the Virginia Legislature, and 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 139 

% *\ 

ROBERT RIDGWAY, editor of a Virginia newspaper. At or near 
Bladensburgh, in 1853 ; with pistols. Mr. Davis, who was the 
challenger, fired, and missed. Mr. Ridgway declined to fire, 
and the two gentlemen became reconciled. 

DAVIS, Lieutenant R. See Wet-more, George Ludlow. 

DAYTON, JONATHAN. Challenge, in 1803, to De Witt Clinton. 
The gentlemen were Senators in Congress. I find in the " An- 
nals of Congress," that Mr. Dayton said in debate, October 
24th : " The custom of the gentleman from New York has 
been of late to arraign motives instead of meeting arguments," 
&c., &c. ; and that Mr. Clinton immediately rejoined : " The 
charge of the gentleman from New Jersey is totally unfounded. 
.... I am not in the habit of arraigning motives, as this Senate 
can witness, and the charge is totally untrue." On the same 
day, I find that Mr. Dayton, at the close of a speech, remarked, 
that his " high respect for the Senate restrains me from replying 
in those terms which are due to such rudeness and such inde- 
cency of language as that in which the member ' from New 
York' has indulged himself: there will be a fitter time and a 
fitter place for taking that notice of which it merits." 

A letter written at Washington at the moment contains an 
account of the result : 

" In my last I mentioned the ruffle between General Dayton and Mr. 
De Witt Clinton. It seems, that, immediately after the adjournment, 
General D. sent a card to Mr. C. requiring an explanation. No answer 
was given ; but in the evening two gentlemen waited on the General 
with a project for accommodation, which the General rejected, still de- 
manding the explanation, i. e. apology. About eleven o'clock in the 
evening, General D. sent his challenge ; and Mr. C. consented to say, in 
writing, that, in the language he had used, he had not intended the slightest 
imputation upon the veracity of General Dayton, &c., &c. This amende 
honorable was read in Senate ; but the New York Senator had left the 
city on his way home." 

DECATUR, STEPHEN, Post-Captain in the navy of the United 
States. One of the most chivalrous men of any age or country. 
He acknowledged the authority of the duello in adjusting private 
differences, and would have adopted its principles in war, ship 
against ship. 

His first affair was in 1799, when a young lieutenant ; he was 
attached to the frigate United States. While at Philadelphia, on 
the recruiting service, a party of seamen enlisted by him de- 



140 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

ceived him, and entered on board an India ship. He formally 
demanded the deserters of the first officer of the merchant-man, 
who, in the course of the interview, insulted him. He stated 
the case to his father, who considered that a duel was necessary. 
The officer of the India ship was asked to apologize. He refused, 
but accepted a challenge. Both, however, pursued their ordi- 
nary duties for several days. As soon as circumstances would 
permit, they met on the banks of the Delaware, at or near New 
Castle. Decatur disclaimed to his friends an intention to inflict 
a mortal injury, wounded his antagonist in the hip, as he said he 
would do, previous to the combat, and escaped himself without 
harm. 

The next difficulty which he proposed to settle by an appeal 
to arms occurred in 1801, while he served on board the frigate 
Essex, in the Mediterranean. The officers of a Spanish ship of 
war, under pretence of exercising the police of the port of Bar- 
celona, fired over, and brought to, the boats of the Essex, in 
passing to and from the shore at night. Decatur, on being mo- 
lested in this way, remonstrated with the proper officer, who 
treated him uncourteously. Avowing his intention to press the 
matter on the following day, he returned to his own ship. On 
repairing to the Spanish ship, as intimated, the aggressor was not 
to be found. Decatur, leaving a hostile message, went immedi- 
ately on shore, but was unsuccessful in his search there. The 
Spanish Captain-General interfering, and requesting the aid of 
the captain of the Essex, a personal conflict was prevented. 

The third was also in the Mediterranean, but as the friend of 
Midshipman Joseph Bainbridge, in the year 1803. (See Coch- 
ran.) 

When Decatur found that his young countryman had become 
involved with the secretary of Sir Alexander Ball, he proposed, 
at once, to assume the responsibility of the whole affair. As 
Bainbridge was the challenged party, the terms of the duel were 
within his control. Decatur, with the knowledge that his princi- 
pal was a novice, and that Cochran was a practised duellist, and 
sure with the pistol at ten paces, determined that the combat 
should be at four paces. Cochran's friend objected, on the 
ground that the distance was murderous ; thereupon, Decatur 
chivalrously offered- to become principal himself. His overture 
was declined, and four paces agreed upon. Cochran, as is else- 
where related in this volume, was slain. Decatur's course in 
the preliminaries, and during the combat, probably saved Bain- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 141 

bridge's life. Decatur, demanded by the British authorities, re- 
turned to the United States in the Chesapeake, that ship of ill 
omen to him and to many other gallant men. 

We are now to notice, with much brevity, a proposed combat, 
which was intended to task the skill and prowess of some fifteen 
hundred men. During the war of 1812, Decatur offered Sir 
Thomas Hardy, in a written communication, to meet the British 
frigates Endymion and Statira, with the United States, his own 
ship, and the Macedonian, under the command of Captain Jacob 
Jones. Sir Thomas declined the challenge, in the form presented ; 
but expressed his consent to a meeting between the Statira and 
the Macedonian. Decatur, anxious for the conflict, renewed the 
proposition as to the four frigates, and suggested a plan to re- 
move the objections of the British Commodore. But Sir Thomas 
again refused his assent. As, too, Decatur would not (for reasons 
quite as imperative on his part) allow Captain Jones to fight the 
Statira, the matter came to an end. 

We come to the fatal 22d day of March, 1820, when Decatur 
was slain at Bladensburg, by the hand of James Barren, a Post- 
Captain in the navy of the United States. They fought with pistols, 
at eight paces. Captain William Bainbridge was the second of 
Decatur ; Captain Jesse O. Elliot, the second of Barren. Sev- 
eral other gentlemen of the navy were near, and among them 
Captains Rodgers and Porter. Before the fire, the parties ad- 
dressed each other thus : Barren, that " he hoped, on meeting in 
another world, they would be better friends than in this " : De- 
catur, in reply, " I have never been your enemy, sir." Noth- 
ing more was said. 

At the first shot, both fell. u They fired so near together," 
says Mr. Hambleton, an eyewitness, " that but one report was 
heard." Decatur was supported a short distance, and sank 
down near his antagonist, who was severely, and, as was sup- 
posed at the moment, mortally wounded. 

That a conversation occurred between them, and that they ex- 
changed forgiveness, is certain. It is to be regretted that no 
account of this solemn interview is preserved by Mackenzie, in 
his Life of Decatur. 

Mr. Hambleton went for the carriage in which Decatur was 
placed, and heard only this, addressed by Barren to Decatur, 
" Everything has been conducted in the most honorable manner, 
and I forgive you from the bottom of my heart." 

Mr. Wirt (then Attorney-General of the United States), who 



142 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

knew in confidence of the difficulty, and who used every effort 
to prevent the duel, in a letter to Judge Carr, dated eleven days 
after the fatal combat, states, that " Decatur was apparently shot 
dead : he revived after a while, and he and Barren had a parley 
as they lay on the ground." And he continues : 

" Doctor Washington, who got up just then, says that it reminded 
him of the closing scene of a tragedy, Hamlet and Laertes. Barren 
proposed that they should make friends before they met in heaven (for 
he supposed they would both die immediately). Decatur said he had 
never been his enemy, that he freely forgave him his death, though 
he could not forgive those who had stimulated him to seek his life. 
One report says that Barren exclaimed, ' Would to God you had said 
thus much yesterday ! ' It is certain that the parley was a friendly one, 
and that they parted in peace. Decatur knew he was to die, and his 
only sorrow was that he had not died in the service of his country." 

The late Hon. Benjamin Hardin of Kentucky, in a speech in 
the Convention of that State, in 1850, is reported to have spoken 
thus : 

" Did I not know, while in Washington, Barren and Decatur, two of 
the first men at that period in America, come up in mortal array within 
sixteen feet of each other, because one was near-sighted, and the rule 
was that both should take deliberate sight before the word to fire was 
given. They both fired and fell, with their heads not ten feet from each 
other. And before they were taken from the ground, each expected 
both to die, they spoke to each other, and a reconciliation took place. 
They blessed each other, and declared that there was nothing between 
them. All that was required to have prevented the meeting was an 
explanation between them." 

For this duel there was no cause whatever. Decatur, as 
will be seen in the correspondence, "disclaimed all personal 
animosity towards " Barren. In his own words, " Between 

fou and myself there never has been a personal difference ; but 
have entertained, and do still entertain, the opinion, that your 
conduct as an officer, since the affair of the Chesapeake, has 
been such as ought to for ever bar your read mission into the 
service." In this view he declares, that he is sustained, he be- 
lieves, by every officer " of our grade," with a single exception. 
True, Barron, in his letter of November 30, 1819, regards 
Decatur's course to be inconsistent with these declarations, and 
retorts with much severity. But Decatur constantly maintained 
them. He told Mr. Wirt, that he did not wish to meet Barron, 
and that " the duel was forced upon him " ; and it is said that 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 143 

he assured Commodore Rodgers, on receiving the challenge, that 
nothing could induce him to take the life of Barron. 

On the day of his death, while at breakfast, remarks Mr. 
Hambleton, " he was quite cheerful, and did not appear to have 
any desire to take the life of his antagonist ; indeed, he declared 
that he should be very sorry to do so." To this evidence, we 
may add the reply to Barron, on the ground, once recorded, 
" I have never been your enemy, sir." 

Strangely enough, Decatur was opposed to duelling. The read- 
er will find his remarks upon the subject, in his letter of October 
31, 1819 ; and may ask why, entertaining the sentiments there 
expressed, he was so often involved in personal combats. His 
answer is found in his conversations with Mr. Wirt, and is the 
same that other distinguished men have made time and again, 
the omnipotence of public sentiment. 

" He passed," wrote Mr. Wirt, " to his own case. Fighting, he said, 
was his profession, and it would be impossible for him to keep his sta- 
tion and preserve his respectability, without showing himself ready, 
at all times, to answer the call of any one who bore the name of a gen- 
tleman." 

We turn to Barron. I believed that he was a culprit, in the 
affair of the Chesapeake, for a long time ; but now, I consider 
that he was a victim. Conversations with officers of the British 
navy, and the papers of a distinguished naval character of our 
own country, in my possession, have led me to conclude that he 
was deeply wronged. Like his adversary, on the 22d of March, 
he was averse to the practice of duelling. He held it to be '* bar- 
barous," and said that it ought not to be countenanced in " civilized 
society," even when in correspondence with the brother officer 
who fell by his hand. Why, then, did he violate his convictions 
of right ? We shall see. I quote from Mackenzie. " Some 
individual, ingenious in fomenting quarrels for others, contrived 
to make the [opinion of Decatur as to Barren's being re-employed 
in the service] the occasion of personal difficulty between Com- 
modore Decatur and Commodore Barron." In commenting 
upon the relations of the parties at a later period, and in Janu- 
ary, 1820, the biographer states, that " a letter .... to Decatur 
throws much light on a secret agency, which, not unsuspected 
by himself, had revived and fostered this difficulty until it had 
reached its present state of irritation." In this letter, Decatur 

was informed, that " is the sole instigator of the renewal 

of the correspondence, and will prevent any sort of adjustment 



144 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

if he can do so." Of the persons mentioned in this notice, Mr. 
Harden is now the sole survivor. But the individual referred 
to, whose name is suppressed by Mackenzie, is still remembered 
by many who yet live. That Barron was thus advised and 
" stimulated," gave Decatur great pain in his last moments. 

The entire correspondence follows. It is marked with unbe- 
coming asperity. How much of it was blotted out, while the 
parties to it lay weltering in their blood, will never be known. 
Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

"Hampton, Virginia, June 12th, 1819. 

" SIR, I have been informed in Norfolk, that you have said that 
you could insult me with impunity, or words to that effect. If you 
have said so, you will, no doubt, avow it, and I shall expect to hear 
from you." 

Commodore Decatur to Commodore Barron. 

"Washington, June 17th, 1819. 

" SIR, I have received your communication of the 12th instant. 
Before you could have been entitled to the information you have asked 
of me, you should have given up the name of your informer. That 
frankness which ought to characterize our profession required it. I shall 
not, however, refuse to answer you on that account, but shall be as can- 
did in my communication to you as your letter or the case will warrant. 

" Whatever I may have thought or said, in the very frequent and 
free conversations I have had respecting you and your conduct, I feel a 
thorough conviction, that I never could have been guilty of so mucli 
egotism as to say, that ' I could insult you ' (or any other man) ' with 
impunity.' " 

Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

"Hampton, Virginia, June 25th, 1819. 

" SIR, Your communication of the 1 7th instant, in answer to mine 
of the 12th, I have received. 

" The circumstances that urged me to call on you for the information 
requested in my letter would, I presume, have instigated you, or any 
other person, to the same conduct that I pursued. Several gentlemen 
in Norfolk, not your enemies, nor actuated by any malicious motive, 
told me that such a report was in circulation, but could not now be 
traced to its origin. I therefore concluded to appeal to you, supposing, 
under such circumstances, that I could not outrage any rule of decorum 
or candor. This, I trust, will be considered as a just motive for the 
course I have pursued. Your declaration, if I understand it correctly, 
relieves my mind from the apprehension, that you had so degraded my 
character as I had been induced to allege." 

Commodore Decatur to Commodore Barron. 

"Washington, June 29/7*, 1819. 

" SIR, I have received your communication of the 25th, in answer 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 145 

to mine of the 17th; and as you have expressed yourself doubtfully as 
to your correct understanding of my letter of the aforesaid date, I have 
now to state, and I request you to understand distinctly, that I meant 
no more than to disclaim the specific and particular expression to which 
your inquiry was directed, to wit, that I had said that I could insult you 
with impunity. As to the motives of the * several gentlemen of Nor- 
folk,' your informants, or the rumors ' which cannot be traced to their 
origin,' on which their information was founded, or who they are, it is a 
matter of perfect indifference to me, as are also your motives in making 
such an inquiry upon such information." 

Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

" Hampton, October 23<7, 1819. 

" SIR, I had supposed that the measure of your ambition was nearly 
completed, and that your good fortune had rendered your reputation 
for acts of magnanimity too dear to be risked wantonly on occasions 
that never can redound to the honor of him that would be great. I had 
also concluded that your rancor towards me was fully satisfied, by the 
cruel and unmerited sentence passed upon me by the court of which 
you were a member ; and, after an exile from my country, family, and 
friends, of nearly seven years, I had concluded that I should now be 
allowed, at least, to enjoy that solace with this society, that lacerated 
feelings like mine required, and that you would have suffered me to 
remain in quiet possession of those enjoyments. But scarcely had I set 
my foot on my native soil, ere I learned that the same malignant spirit 
which had before influenced you to endeavor to ruin my reputation 
was still at work, and that you were ungenerously traducing my charac- 
ter whenever an occasion occurred which suited your views, and, in 
many instances, not much to your credit as an officer, through the me- 
dium of our juniors. Such conduct cannot fail to produce an injurious 
effect on the discipline and subordination of the navy. A report of this 
sort, sir, coming from the respectable and creditable sources it did, 
could not fail to arrest my attention, and to excite those feelings which 
might naturally be expected to arise in the heart of every man, who 
professes to entertain principles of honor, and intends to act in con- 
formity with them. 

" With such feelings, I addressed a letter to you, under date of the 
12th of June last, which produced a correspondence between us, which, 
I have since been informed, you have endeavored to use to my further 
injury, by sending it to Norfolk, by a respectable officer of the navy, to 
be shown to some of my particular friends, with a view of alienating 
from me their attachment. I am also informed, that you have taunt- 
ingly and boastingly observed, that you would cheerfully meet me in 
the field, and hoped I would yet act like a man, or that you had used 
words to that effect. 

" Such conduct, sir, on the part of any one, but especially one occu- 
pying the influential station under the government which you hold, 
towards an individual situated as I am, and oppressed as I have been, 
and that chiefly by your means, is unbecoming you as an officer and 
13 



146 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

a gentleman, and shows a want of magnanimity, which, hostile as I have 
found you to be towards me, I had hoped, for your own reputation, you 
possessed. It calls loudly for redress at your hands. I consider you as 
having given the invitation, which I accept, and will prepare to meet 
you at such time and place as our respective friends, hereafter to be 
named, shall designate. I also, under all the circumstances of the case, 
consider myself entitled to the choice of weapons, place, and distance ; 
but should a difference of opinion be entertained by our friends, I flat- 
ter myself, from your known personal courage, that you would disdain 
any unfair advantage, which your superiority in the use of the pistol, 
and the natural defect in my vision, increased by age, would give you. 
I will thank you not to put your name on the cover of your answer, as 
I presume you can have no disposition to give unnecessary pain to the 
females of my family." 

Commodore Decatur to Commodore Barron. 

"Washington, October 3lst, 1819. 

" SIR, Your letter of the 23d instant has been duly received. 
Prior to giving it that reply which I intend, its contents suggest the ne- 
cessity of referring to our June correspondence. 

" On the 12th of June last, you addressed to me a note, inquiring 
whether I had said, that ' I could insult you with impunity.' On the 
17th of June, I wrote to you, in reply, as follows: 'Whatever I may 
have thought or said in the very frequent and free conversations I have 
had respecting you and your conduct, I feel a thorough conviction, that I 
never could have been guilty of so much egotism, as to say that I could 
insult you (or any other man) with impunity.' 

" On the 25th of June you again wrote to me, and stated that the re- 
port on which you had grounded your query of the 12th of June 
* could not now be traced to its origin,' and your letter is concluded by 
the following words : ' Your declaration, if I understand it correctly, 
relieves my mind from the apprehension, that you had so degraded my 
character as I had been induced to allege.' Immediately on receiving 
your letter of the 25th of June, I wrote to you on the 29th of June, as 
follows : ' As you have expressed yourself doubtfully as to your correct 
understanding of my letter of the 1 7th of June, I have now to state, and 
I request you to understand distinctly, that I meant no more than to dis- 
claim the specific and particular expression to which your inquiry was 
directed, to wit, that I had said, " I could insult you with impunity." ' 
Here ended our June correspondence, and with it all kind of communi- 
cation, till the date of your letter of the 23d instant, which I shall now 
proceed to notice. 

" Nearly four months having elapsed since the date of our last cor- 
respondence, your letter was unexpected to me, particularly as the 
terms used by you in the conclusion of your letter to me of the 25th of 
June, and your silence since receiving my letter of the 29th of June, 
indicated, as I thought, satisfaction on your part. But it seems that 
you consider yourself aggrieved by my sending our June correspond- 
ence to Norfolk. I did not send the June correspondence to Norfolk, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 147 

until three months had expired after your last communication, and not 
then until I had been informed, by a captain of the navy, that a female 
of your acquaintance had stated that such a correspondence had taken 
place. If that correspondence has, in any degree, 'alienated your 
friends from you,' such effect is to be attributed to the correspondence 
itself. I thought the papers would speak for themselves, and sent them 
without written comment. 

" With respect to the court-martial upon you, for the affair of the 
Chesapeake, to which you have been pleased to refer, I shall not treat 
the officers who composed that court with so much disrespect, as to 
attempt a vindication of their proceedings. The chief magistrate of the 
country approved them ; arid the nation approved them ; and the sen- 
tence has been carried into effect. But, sir, there is a part of my con- 
duct on that occasion, which it does not appear irrelevant to revive in 
your recollection. It is this. I was present at the court of inquiry upon 
you, and heard the evidence then adduced for and against you ; thence I 
drew an opinion altogether unfavorable to you ; and when I was called 
upon, by the Secretary of the Navy, to act as a member of the court- 
martial ordered for your trial, I begged to be excused the duty, on the 
ground of my having formed such an opinion. The honorable Secretary 
was pleased to insist on my serving. Still anxious to be relieved from 
this service, I did, prior to taking my seat as a member of the court, com- 
municate to your able advocate, General Taylor, the opinion I had formed 
and my correspondence with the Navy Department upon the subject, in 
order to afford you an opportunity, should you deem it expedient, to 
protest against my being a member, on the ground of my not only hav- 
ing formed, but expressed, an opinion unfavorable to you. You did not 
protest against my being a member. Duty constrained me, however un- 
pleasant it was, to take my seat as a member. I did so, and discharged 
the duty imposed on me. You, I find, are incapable of estimating the 
motives which guided my conduct in this transaction. 

" For my conduct, as a member of that court-martial, I do not con- 
sider myself as in any way accountable to you. But, sir, you have 
thought fit to deduce, from your impressions of- my conduct as a member 
of that court-martial, inferences of personal hostility towards you. In- 
fluenced by feelings thence arising, you commenced the June corre- 
spondence, a correspondence which I had hoped would have terminated 
our communications. 

" Between you and myself there never has been a personal differ- 
ence ; but I have entertained, and do still entertain, the opinion, that 
your conduct as an officer, since the affair of the Chesapeake, has been 
such as ought to for ever bar your readmission into the service. 

" In my letter to you of the 1 7th of June, although I disavowed the 
particular expressions to which you invited my attention, candor required 
that I should apprise you, that I had not been silent respecting you. 
I informed you that I had had very frequent and free conversations re- 
specting you and your conduct ; and the words were underscored, that 
they might not fail to attract your particular attention. Had you asked 



148 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

what those frequent and free conversations were, I should, with the 
same frankness, have told you ; but, instead of making a demand of 
this kind, you reply to my letter of the 17th of June, ' that my declara- 
tion, if correctly understood by you, relieved your mind/ etc. That 
you might correctly understand what I did mean, I addressed you, as 
before observed, on the 29th of June, and endeavored, by underscoring 
certain precise terms, to convey to you my precise meaning. To this 
last letter I never received any reply. 

" Under these circumstances, I have judged it expedient; at this time, 
to state, as distinctly as may be in my power, the facts upon which I 
ground the unfavorable opinion which I entertain, and have expressed, 
of your conduct as an officer, since the court-martial upon you, while I 
disclaim all personal enmity towards you. 

" Some time after you had been suspended from the service, for your 
conduct in the affair of the Chesapeake, you proceeded, in a merchant 
brig, to Pernambuco ; and by a communication from the late Captain 
Lewis, whose honor and veracity were never yet questioned, it appears 
that you stated to Mr. Lyon, the British Consul at Pernambuco, with 
whom you lived, ' that, if the Chesapeake had been prepared for action, 
you would not have resisted the attack of the Leopard ; assigning as a 
reason, that you knew (as did also our government) there were de- 
serters on board your ship ; that the President of the United States 
knew there were deserters on board, and of the intention of the British 
to take them ; and that the President caused you to go out in a defence- 
less state, for the express purpose of having your ship attacked and dis- 
f raced, and thus attain his favorite object of involving the United 
tates in a war with Great Britain.' For confirmation of this informa- 
tion, Captain Lewis refers to Mr. Thomas Goodwin, of Baltimore, the 
brother of Captain Ridgely, of the navy, who received it from Mr. Lyon 
himself. Reference was made to Mr. Goodwin, who, in an official com- 
munication, confirmed all that Captain Lewis had said. The veracity 
and respectability of Mr. Goodwin are also beyond question. You Avill 
be enabled to judge of the impression made upon Captain Lewis's mind 
by the following strong remarks he made on the subject. 

" ' I am now convinced that Barren is a traitor ; for I can call by no 
other name a man who would talk in this way to an Englishman, and 
an Englishman in office.' 

" These communications are now in the archives of the Navy Depart- 
ment. 

" If, sir, the affair of the Chesapeake excited the indignant feelings 
of the nation towards Great Britain, and was, as every one admits, one 
of the principal causes which produced the late war, did it not behoove, 
you to take an active part in the war, for your own sake, patriotism out 
of the question ? 

" But, sir, instead of finding you in the foremost ranks, on an occa- 
sion which so emphatically demanded your best exertions, it is said, and 
is credited, that you were, after the commencement of the war, to be 
found in command of a vessel sailing under British license ! Though 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 149 

** 

urged by your friends to avail yourself of some one of the opportunities 
which were every day occurring, in privateers, or other fast-sailing 
merchant-vessels, sailing from France and other places, to return to 
your country during the war, it is not known that you manifested a dis- 
position to do so. excepting in the single instance by the cartel John 
Adams, in which vessel you must have known you could not be per- 
mitted to return, without violating her character as a cartel. 

" You say you have been oppressed. You know, sir, that by absent- 
ing yourself, as you did for years, from the country, without leave 
from the government, you subjected yourself to be stricken from the 
rolls. You know, also, that, by the tenth article of the act for the 
better government of the navy, all persons in the navy holding inter- 
course with an enemy become subject to the severest punishment known 
to our laws. You have not for the offence before stated, to my knowl- 
edge, received even a reprimand : and I do know, that your pay, even 
during your absence, has been continued to you. 

" As to my having spoken of you injuriously to ' junior officers,' I 
have to remark, that such is the state of our service, that we have but 
few seniors. If I speak with officers at all, the probability is it will be 
with a junior. 

" On your return to this country, your efforts to re-establish yourself 
in the service were known, and became a subject of conversation with 
officers, as well as others. In the many and free conversations I have 
had respecting you and your conduct, I have said, for the causes above 
enumerated, that, in my opinion, you ought not to be received again 
into the naval service ; that there was not employment for all the 
officers who had faithfully discharged their duty to their country in the 
hour of trial ; and that it would be doing an act of injustice to employ 
you, to the exclusion of any one of them. In speaking thus, and in 
endeavoring to prevent your readmission, I conceive I was performing 
a duty I owe to the service ; that I was contributing to the preservation 
of its respectability. Had you made no effort to be re-employed, after 
the war, it is more than probable I might not have spoken of you. If 
you continue your efforts, I shall certainly, from the same feelings of 
public duty by which I have hitherto been actuated, be constrained to 
continue the expression of my opinions ; and I can assure you, that, in 
the interchange of opinions with other officers respecting you, I have 
never met with more than one who did not entirely concur with me. 

" The objects of your communication of the 23d, as expressed by you, 
now claim my notice. You profess to consider me as having given you 
1 an invitation.' You say that you have been told, that I have ' taunt- 
ingly and boastingly observed, that I would cheerfully meet you in the 
field, and hoped you would yet act like a man.' 

" One would naturally have supposed, that, after having so recently 
been led into error by ' rumors,' which could not be traced, you would 
have received with some caution subsequent rumors ; at all events, that 
you would have endeavored to trace them, before again venturing to 
act upon them as if they were true. Had you pursued this course, you 
13* 



150 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

would have discovered that the latter rumors were equally unfounded 
as the former. 

" I never invited you to the field ; nor have I expressed a hope that 
you would call me out. I was informed by a gentleman with whom 
you had conferred upon the subject, that you left Norfolk for this place, 
some time before our June correspondence, with the intention of calling 
me out. I then stated to that gentleman, as I have to all others with 
whom I have conversed upon the subject, that, if you made the call, I 
would meet you ; but that, on all scores, I should be much better 
pleased to have nothing to do with you. I do not think that fighting 
duels, under any circumstances, can raise the reputation of any man, 
and have long since discovered, that it is not even an unerring criterion 
of personal courage. I should regret the necessity of fighting with any 
man ; but, in my opinion, the man who makes arms his profession is not 
at liberty to decline an invitation from any person, who is not so far 
degraded as to be beneath his notice. Having incautiously said I 
would meet you, I will not consider this to be your case, although many 
think so ; and if I had not pledged myself, I might reconsider the case. 

" As to ' weapons, place, and distance,' if we are to meet, those points 
will, as is usual, be committed to the friend I may select on the occasion. 
As far, however, as it may be left to me, not having any particular 
prejudice in favor of any particular arm, distance, or mode (but on the 
contrary disliking them all), I should not be found fastidious on those 
points, but should be rather disposed to yield you any little advantage 
of this kind. As to my skill in the use of the pistol, it exists more in 
your imagination than in reality. For the last twenty years I have 
had but little practice, and the disparity in our ages, to which you have 
been pleased to refer, is, I believe, not more than five or six years. It 
would have been out of the common course of nature, if the vision of 
either of us had been improved by years. 

"From your manner of proceeding, it appears to me, that. you have 
come to the determination to fight some one, and that you have selected 
me for that purpose ; and I must take leave to observe, that your object 
would have been better attained, had you made this decision during our 
late war, when your fighting might have benefited your country, ns wrll 
as yourself. The style of your communication, and the matter, did not 
deserve so dispassionate and historical a notice as I have given it ; and 
had I believed it would receive no other inspection than yours, I 
should have spared myself the trouble. The course I adppted with 
our former correspondence, I shall pursue with this, if I shall deem it 
expedient." 

Commodore Decatur to Commodore Barron. 

"Washington, November 5th, '18 19. 

" SIR, Since my communication to you of the 31st ultimo, I have 
been informed by a gentleman entitled to the fullest credit, that you 
were not afloat till after the peace ; consequently, the report which 
I noticed of your having sailed under British license must be un- 
founded." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 151 

Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

"Hampton, November 20th, 1819. 

" SIR, Unavoidable interruption has prevented my answering your 
two last communications as early as it was my wish to have done ; but 
in a few days you shall have my reply." > 

Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

"Hampton, November 30th, 1819. 

" SIR, I did not receive until Tuesday, the 9th instant, your very 
lengthy, elaborate, and historical reply, without date, to my letter to 
you of the 23d ultimo ; which, from its nature and object, did not, I 
conceive, require that you should have entered so much into detail, in 
defence of the hostile and unmanly course you have pursued towards 
me, since the ' affair of the Chesapeake,' as you term it. A much more 
laconic answer would have served my purpose, which, for the present, 
is nothing more than to obtain at your hands honorable redress for the 
accumulated insults which you, sir, in particular, above all my enemies, 
have attempted to heap upon me, in every shape in which they could 
be offered. Your last voluminous letter is alone sufficient proof, if none 
other existed, of the rancorous disposition you entertain towards me, 
and the extent to which you have carried it. That letter I should no 
otherwise notice, than merely to inform you it had reached me, and 
that I am prepared to meet you in the field, upon anything like fair and 
equal grounds ; but inasmuch as you have intimated that our correspond- 
ence is to go before the public, I feel it a duty I owe to myself, and to 
the world, to reply particularly to the many calumnious charges and as- 
persions, with which your ' dispassionate and historical notice ' of my 
communication so abundantly teems ; wishing you, sir, at the same 
time, ' distinctly to understand,' that it is not for you alone, or to justify 
myself in your estimation, that I take this course. 

"" You have dwelt much upon our ' June correspondence,' as you style 
it, and have made many quotations from it. I deem it unnecessary, 
however, to advert to it, further than to remark, that, although l nearly 
four months ' did intervene between that correspondence and my letter 
of the 23d ultimo, my silence arose not from any misapprehension of the 
purport of your contumacious ' underscored ' remarks, nor from the 
malicious designs they indicated, nor from a tame disposition to yield 
quietly to the operation which either might have against me ; but from 
a tedious and painful indisposition, which confined me to my bed the 
chief part of that period, as is well known to almost every person here. 
I anticipated, however, from what I had found you capable of doing to 
my injury, the use to which you would endeavor to pervert that cor- 
respondence, and have not at all been disappointed. So soon as I was 
well enough, and heard of your machinations against me, I lost no time 
in addressing to you my letter of the 23d ultimo ; your reply to which 
I have now more particularly to notice. I have not said", nor did I 
mean to convey such an idea, nor will my letter bear the interpretation, 
that your forwarding to Norfolk our ' June correspondence ' had, in any 



152 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

degree, ' alienated my friends from me,' but that it was sent down there 
with that view. 

" It is a source of great consolation to me, sir, to know that I have 
more friends, both in and out of the navy, than you are aware of: and 
that it is not in your power, great as you may imagine your official in- 
fluence to be, to deprive me of their good opinion and affection. As to 
the reason which seems to have prompted you to send that correspond- 
ence to Norfolk, ' that a female of my acquaintance had stated, that 
such a one had taken place,' I will only remark, that she did not derive 
her information from me ; that it has always been, and ever will be, 
with me, a principle, to touch as delicately as possible upon reports said 
to come from females, intended to affect injuriously the character of any 
one ; and that, in a correspondence like the present, highly as I estimate 
the sex, I should never think of introducing them as authority. Fe- 
males, sir, have nothing, or ought to have nothing, to do in controver- 
sies of this kind. In speaking of the court-martial which sat upon my 
trial, I have cast no imputation or reflection upon the members, individ- 
ually, who composed it, (saving yourself,) which required that you 
should attempt a vindication of their proceedings, champion as you are, 
and hostile as some of them may have been to me ; nor does the lan- 
guage of my letter warrant any such inference. 

" I merely meant to point out to you, sir, what you appear to have 
been incapable of perceiving, the indelicacy of your conduct, (to say 
the least of it,) in hunting me out as an object for malignant persecu- 
tion, after having acted as one of my judges, and giving your voice in 
favor of a sentence against me, which, I cannot avoid repeating, was 
' cruel and unmerited.' It is the privilege, sir, of a man deeply injured 
as I have been by that decision, and conscious of his not deserving it, as 
I feel myself, to remonstrate against it ; and I have taken the liberty to 
exercise that privilege. 

" You say that ' the proceedings of the court have been approved by 
the chief magistrate of our country, that the nation approved of them, 
and that the sentence has been carried into effect.' It is true, the Pres- 
ident of the United States did approve of that sentence, and that it was 
carried into effect ; full and complete effect, which I should have sup- 
posed ought to have glutted the envious and vengeful disposition of 
your heart ; but I deny that the nation has approved of that sentence, 
and, as an appeal appears likely to be made to them, I am willing to sub- 
mit the question. The part you took on that occasion, it was totally 
unnecessary, I assure you, ' to revive in my recollection ' ; it is indelibly 
imprinted on my mind, and can never, while I have life, be erased. 
You acknowledge you were present at the court of inquiry in my case, 
' heard the evidence for and against me, and had, therefore, formed and 
expressed an opinion unfavorable to me ' ; and yet your conscience was 
made of such pliable materials, that because the then ' honorable Secre- 
tary was pleased to insist on your serving as a member of the court- 
martial, and because I did not protest against it,' you conceive that 
' duty constrained you, however unpleasant, to take your seat as a mem- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 153 

ber,' although you were to act under the solemn sanction of an oath, to 
render me impartial justice, upon the very testimony which had been 
delivered in your hearing, before the court of inquiry, and from which 
you ' drew an opinion altogether unfavorable to me.' 

" How such conduct can be reconciled with the principles of common 
honor and justice, is to me inexplicable. Under such circumstances, no 
consideration, no power or authority on earth, could or ought to have 
forced any liberal, high-minded man to sit in a case, which he had pre- 
judged ; and, to retort upon you your own expressions, you must have 
been ' inapable of seeing the glaring impropriety of your conduct, for 
which, although you do not conceive yourself in any way accountable 
to me,' I hope you will be able to account for it with your God and 
your conscience. 

" You say, between you and myself there never has been a personal 
difference, * and you disclaim all personal enmity towards me.' If every 
step you have taken, every word you have uttered, and every line you 
have written in relation to me ; if your own admission of the very fre- 
quent and free conversations youhave had respecting me and my con- 
duct, ' since the affair of the Chesapeake,' bear not the plainest stamp 
of personal hostility, I know not the meaning of such terms. Were you 
not under the influence of feelings of this sort, why not, in your official 
capacity, call me, or have me brought before a proper tribunal, to an- 
swer the charges you have preferred against me, and thereby give me 
a chance of defending myself? Why speak injuriously of me to junior 
officers, * which you do not deny ' ? Why the ' many frequent and free 
conversations respecting me and my conduct,' which you have taken so 
much pains to underscore? Why use the insulting expression, that you 
' entertained, and still do entertain, the opinion that my conduct, as an 
officer, since that affair, has been such as ought for ever to bar my re- 
admission into the service ' ? and that, in endeavoring to prevent it, ' you 
conceive you were performing a duty you owe to the service, and were 
contributing to its respectability ' ? Why the threat that, if I continued 
the efforts you say I have been making to be ' re-employed,' you ' cer- 
tainly should be constrained to continue the expressions of those opin- 
ions ' ? 

" Does not all this, together with the whole tenor and tendency of your 
letter, manifest the most marked personal animosity against me, which 
an honorable man, acting under a sense of public duty, by .which you 
profess to ' have been hitherto actuated,' would disdain even to show, 
much more to feel ? 

"I shall now, sir, take up the specific charges you have alleged 
against me, and shall notice them in the order in which they stand. 
The first is one of a very heinous character. It is that ' I proceeded 
in a merchant brig to Pernambuco.' Could I, Sir, during the period of 
my suspension, have gone anywhere in a national vessel? Could I, 
with what was due to my family, have remained idle ? The sentence 
of the court deprived them of the principal means of subsistence. I 
was therefore compelled to resort to that description of employment 



154 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

with which I was best acquainted ; and on this subject you should have 
been silent. But you add, that the late Captain Lewis of the navy, who 
had it from Mr. Goodwin, who heard it from Mr. Lyon, the British 
Consul at Pernambuco, with whom you undertake to say I lived, repre- 
sented me as stating, ' that, if the Chesapeake had been prepared for 
action, I would not have resisted the attack of the Leopard; assigning 
as a reason, that I knew, as also did our government, that there were 
deserters on board, and of the intention of the British ship to take them, 
and that the ship was ordered out, under these circumstances, with a 
view to bring about a contest, which might embroil the two nations in a 
war.' 

" The whole of this, Sir, I pronounce to be a falsehood, a ridiculous, 
malicious, absurd, improbable falsehood, which can never be credited 
by any man that does not feel a disposition to impress on the opinion of 
the public that I am an idiot. That I should, two years after the affair 
of the Chesapeake, make such a declaration, when every proof that 
could be required of a contrary disposition on the part of the chief mag- 
istrate had been given, cannot receive credit from any one but those 
that are disposed to consider me such a character as you would repre- 
sent me to be. I did not live with Mr. Lyon, nor did I ever hold a 
conversation with him so indelicate as the one stated in Captain Lewis's 
letter would have been. And with what object could I have made such 
a communication ? Mr. Lyon would naturally have felt contempt for a 
man that would have suffered himself to have been made a tool of in 
so disgraceful an affair. I found Mr. Lyon transacting business in Per- 
nambuco. He produced to me a letter from Mr. Hill, the American 
Consul in that country, recommending him as entitled to the confidence 
of his countrymen, every one of whom, in that port, put their business 
into his hands. I did the same, and thus commenced our acquaintance. 
He was kind and friendly to me, but never, in any respect, indelicate, 
as would have been, in a high decree, such conversation between us. 

" Of Mr. Goodwin I know nothing. I have never seen him in all my 
life ; nor do I conceive that his hearsay evidence can be of any kind of 
consequence against me. I was the first that informed the President 
and the Secretary of the Navy, that such a letter was in the department, 
even before I had seen it. And again, if the mere oral testimony of a 
British agent was to be considered as evidence sufficient to arraign an 
American officer, I think the navy would be quickly in such a state as 
it might be desirable for their nation to place it in. As to the impressions 
made upon the mind of Captain Lewis, from this information, and the 
1 strong remarks' he made upon the subject, which you have thought 
proper to quote, they by no means establish the correctness of that in- 
formation, but only go to show the effect it produced upon the mind of 
an individual, who seems to have imbibed a prejudice against me, not- 
otherwise to be accounted for, except your acquaintance with him. He 
is now in his grave, and I am perfectly disposed there to let him rest. 
You must, however, have been hard pressed indeed, to be compelled 
to resort to such flimsy grounds as those, a degree weaker than even 
second-handed testimony, to support your charges against me. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 155 

" These communications, you observe, are now in the archives of the 
Navy Department. Of this fact, Sir, I had been long apprised ; and had 
you, when searching the records of that department for documents to 
injure my character, looked a little further back, you would perhaps 
have found others calculated to produce a very different effect. Of my 
desire to return to the United States, during the late war, there are 
certificates in the Navy Department of the first respectability, which, if 
you had been disposed to find and quote, are perhaps lying on the same 
shelf from whence you took those that you appear so anxious to bring 
to public view ; I mean my letter applying for service, as soon as an op- 
portunity offered, after the term of my suspension expired ; and one 
letter, above all, you should not have passed over unnoticed, that which 
you received from my hand, of May, 1803, addressed to the Secretary 
of the Navy, which was one of the principal causes of your obtaining 
the first command that you were ever honored with ; and as you may 
have forgotten it, I will remind you, on this occasion, that, but little 
more than one month previous to the date of that letter, I, by my advice 
and arguments, saved you from resigning the service of your country 
in a pet, because you were removed from the first lieutenancy of the 
New York to that of second of the Chesapeake. But all this, and much 
more, is now forgotten by you ; yet there are others that, recollect those 
circumstances, and the history of your conduct to me will outlive you, 
let my fate be what it may. 

" The affair of the Chesapeake did certainly ' excite,' and ought to 
have excited, the indignant feelings of the nation towards Great Britain ; 
but however it may have justified a declaration of war against that 
power, it was not, as you assert ' every one admits/ one of the principal 
causes of the late war. That did not take place, Sir, until Jive years 
after, when that affair had been amicably, and of course honorably, 
adjusted between the two nations. I mention this fact, not on account 
of its importance, but because you laid so much stress upon that ' affair/ 
as a reason why I ought to have returned home during the late war, and 
to show, that, although it did happen to be your fortunate lot to have 
an opportunity of being in the foremost rank on that occasion, of which 
you seem inclined to vaunt, you are ignorant even of the causes which 
led to it. 

" Having, in your letter of the 5th instant, abandoned the charge of 
my having sailed under ' British license/ after the commencement of 
the late war, in consequence of information received by you, from a 
gentleman entitled to the fullest credit, that I was not afloat until after 
the peace, consequently the report which you noticed of my having 
sailed under British license, must be unfounded ; I have only to remark, 
on this head, that, in advancing a charge against me of so serious a na- 
ture, and designed and so well calculated as it was to affect materially 
my reputation, not only as an officer of the navy, but as a citizen of the 
United States, you should first have ascertained that jt was founded on 
fact, and not on rumor, which you so much harp upon ; and that, upon 
a proper investigation, you would have discovered your other accusations 
to be equally groundless. 



156 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

" For my not returning home during the late war, I do not hold my- 
self, to use your own expressions, ' in any way accountable to you,' sir. 
It would be for the government, I should suppose, to take notice of my 
absence, if they deemed it reprehensible ; and they no doubt would 
have done so, had not the circumstances of the case in their estimation 
justified it. That they are perfectly satisfied upon this point, I have 
good reason to believe, and trust I shall be able to satisfy my country 
also. The President's personal conduct to me, and the memorial of 
the Virginia delegation in Congress to him, prove how I stand with 
those high characters, your opinion notwithstanding to the contrary. 
I deny, sir, that I ever was ' urged ' by my friends, as you in mockery 
term them, to return home, during the late war ; nor could it have been 
requisite for me to have been 'urged' to do so by any one. Laying 
patriotism out of the question, as you observe, as well as the reasons 
why you think ' it behooves me ' to adopt that course, there were other 
incentives strong enough, God knows, to excite a desire on my part to 
return ; and I should have returned, sir, but for circumstances beyond 
my control, which it is not incumbent on me to explain .to you. 

" Had the many opportunities really presented themselves, which you 
allege were every day occurring,' of which I might have availed my- 
self to return to my country, in privateers or other fast-sailing merchant- 
vessels, from France and other places, but of which you produce no 
other proof than random assertion, on which most of your other charges 
rest ? There were no such opportunities as you say were ' every day 
occurring ' ; no, not one within my reach ; and some considerable time 
after the news of the war arrived in Denmark, it was not believed that 
it would continue six months ; but if I had received the slightest inti- 
mation from the department, that I should have been employed on my 
return, I should have considered no sacrifice too great, no exertion 
within my power should have been omitted, to obtain so desirable an 
object as any mark of my country's confidence would have been to me 
in such a moment. A gunboat, under my own orders, would not have 
been refused. But what hope had I, when my letter of application for 
service was not even honored by an answer ? In regard to the John 
Adams, I do not deem it proper, on this occasion, to explain my reasons 
for making the attempt to return in that ship ; but whenever I am 
called on by any person properly authorized to make the inquiry, I am 
confident that I shall convince him, that I had good reason to believe 
that I should obtain a passage in her, notwithstanding your great knowl- 
edge on the occasion. 

" You say, by absenting myself, for years, from the country, without 
leave from the government, I ' subjected myself to be stricken from the 
rolls.' I knew also, by the tenth article of the act for the better govern- 
ment of the navy, that all persons in the navy, holding intercourse with 
an enemy, became subject to the severest punishment known to the 
law ; and that for these offences, as you are pleased to term them, ' I 
have not received, to your knowledge, even a reprimand ' ; but I pre- 
sume, if I have not, it is not your fault. What kind and humane for- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 157 

bearance is this, after what I have already endured ! But, sir, as you 
seem to be so very intelligent upon other points, pray tell me, where 
was the necessity of my asking for a furlough until the period of my 
suspension expired, or even after having reported myself for duty, 
without being noticed ? As to the charge of my holding intercourse 
with the enemy, I am at a loss to conceive to what you allude, and 
shou!4 degrade myself by giving it any other reply, than to pronounce 
it, if you mean to insinuate there was any unlawful or improper com- 
munication on my part with the government or any individual of Great 
Britain, as a, false and foul aspersion on my character, which no conduct 
or circumstance of my life, however it might be tortured by your 
malice or ingenuity, can, in any manner, justify or support. 

" You say, also, that you do know ' that my pay, even during my 
absence, was continued to me' It is not the fact, sir. I never, and 
until very recently since my return, received but half-pay. This part 
of your letter I should not have regarded, were it not to show with 
what boldness, facility, and sang-froid, you can make assertions unsus- 
tained by the shadow of truth ; but if you had made yourself acquaint- 
ed with the circumstances relative to my half-pay, you would have 
found that not one cent of it was received by me. The government 
was so good as to pay the amount to my unfortunate female family, 
whose kindest entertainment you have frequently enjoyed. 

" Poor, unfortunate children ! whose ancestors, every man of them, 
did contribute every disposable shilling of their property, many of them 
their lives, and all of them their best exertions to establish the inde- 
pendence of their country, should now be told that the small amount 
of my half-pay was considered, by an officer of high rank, too much for 
them ! You have been good enough to inform me, that, on my return 
to this country, my ' efforts' as you have been pleased to call them, ' to 
reinstate myself in the service, were known, and became a subject of 
conversation with officers, as well as others/ and but for those ' efforts,' 
it is more than probable you would not have spoken of me. 

" This would, indeed, have displayed a wonderful degree of lenity 
and courtesy on your part, of which I could not have failed to be duly 
sensible. But, sir, I beg leave to ask how and where did you get your 
information, that such ' efforts ' were made by me ; and even admit 
they were, why should you alone, disclaiming, as you pretend to do, all 
' personal enmity' against me, have made yourself so particularly busy 
on the occasion ? Was it because your inflated pride led you to believe, 
that the weight of your influence was greater than that of any other offi- 
cer of the navy, or that you were more tenacious of its honor and ' re- 
spectability ' than the rest of the officers were ? You assure me, how- 
ever, ' that, in the interchange of opinion with other officers respecting me, 
you have never met with more than one who did not entirely concur 
with you in the opinion you have expressed of me.' Indeed ! and 
what is the reason ? It is because, I suppose, you are most commonly 
attended by a train of dependants, who, to enjoy the sunshine of your 
favor, act as caterers for your vanity, and, revolving round you like 
14 



158 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

satellites, borrow their chief consequence from the countenance you may 
condescend to bestow upon them. 

" You at length arrive at the main point ; the object of my letter of 
the 23d ultimo, which you might have reached by a much shorter route, 
and have aved me the fatigue of being compelled, in self-defence, to 
travel with you so far as you have gone. The language of defiance, 
represented to .have been used by you, ' that you would cheerfully meet 
me in the field, and hoped I would yet act like a man,' is disavowed by 
you. And you further deny having ever invited me to the field, or ex- 
pressed a hope I would call you out ; but you observe, that, ' being 
informed by a gentleman with whom I had conferred upon the subject, 
that I left Norfolk, for the seat of government, some time before our 
Juhe correspondence, with the intention of calling you out, you stated 
to that gentleman, as you have to all others with whom you have con- 
versed upon the subject, that, if I made the call, you would meet me ; 
but that, upon all scores, you would be much better pleased to have 
nothing to do with me.' 

" I certainly do not exactly know who that intermeddling gentleman 
was, with whom you say I ' conferred ' ; but if I may be allowed a con- 
jecture, I think I can recognize in him the selfsame officious gentleman, 
who, I am creditably informed, originated the report of your having 
made use of the gasconading expressions you have disowned. In this 
respect I may be mistaken. Be this, however, as it may, I never gave 
him, or any other person, to understand that my visit to Washington, 
last spring, was for the purpose of * calling you out ' ; nor did I go there 
with any such view. 

"How you can reconcile your affected indifference towards me, in 
the remark, ' that on all scores you would be much better pleased to 
have nothing to do with me,' with the very active part, it is generally 
known, and which your own letter clearly evinces, you have taken 
against me, I am at a loss to conceive. No, sir ; you feel not so much 
unconcern as you pretend and wish it to be believed you do, in regard 
to the course of conduct my honor and my injuries may, in my judg- 
ment, require me to pursue. You have a motive, not to be concealed 
from the world, for all you have done or said, or for any future en- 
deavors you may make, to bar my ' readmission ' into the service. It is 
true that you have never given me a direct, formal, and written invi- 
tation to meet you in the field, such as one gentleman of honor ought 
to send to another. But if your own admissions, that you had ' in- 
cautiously said you would meet me if I wished it,' and ' that, if you had 
not pledged yourself, you might reconsider the subject,' and all this, too, 
without any provocation on my part, or the most distant intimation from 
me that I had a desire to meet you, do not amount to a challenge, I 
cannot comprehend the object or import of such declarations, made, as 
they were, in the face of the world, and to those, in particular, who 
you knew would not only communicate them to me, but give them cir- 
culation. Under all the circumstances of the case, I consider you as 
Laving thrown down the gauntlet, and I have no hesitation in accepting 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 159 

it. This is, however, a point which it will not be for me or you to 
decide ; nor do I view it as of any other importance than as respects 
the privilege allowed to the challenged party in relation to the choice 
of weapons, distance, &c., about which I feel not more ' fastidious,' I 
assure you, sir, than you do ; nor do I claim any advantage whatever, 
which I have no right to insist upon. Could I stoop so low as to solicit 
any, I know you too well to believe you would have any inclination 
to concede them. All I demand is to be placed upon equal grounds 
with you ; such as two honorable men may decide upon as just and 
proper. 

" Upon the subject of duelling I perfectly coincide with the opinions 
you have expressed. I consider it as a barbarous practice, which ought 
to be exploded from civilized society. But, sir, there may be cases of 
such extraordinary and aggravated insult and injury, received by an 
individual, as to render an appeal to arms on his part absolutely neces- 
sary. Mine I conceive to be a case of that description ; and I feel 
myself constrained, by every tie that binds me to society, by all that 
can make life desirable to me, to resort to this mode of obtaining that 
redress due to me at your hands, as the only alternative which now 
seems to present itself for the preservation of my honor. 

" To conclude. You say, * From my manner of proceeding, it ap- 
pears to you that I have come to the determination to fight some one, 
and that I have selected you for that purpose.' To say nothing of the 
vanity you display, and the importance you seem to attach to yourself, 
in thus intimating, that, being resolved to fght myself into favor, I 
could no otherwise do, so than by fixing upon you, the very reverse of 
which you infer is the fact, I never wished to fight in this way ; and 
had you permitted me to remain at rest, I should not have disturbed 
you ; I should have pursued the ' even tenor of my way,' without re- 
garding you at all. But this would not have suited your ambitious 
views. You have hunted me out; have persecuted me with all the 
power and influence of your office, and have declared your determi- 
nation to drive me from the navy, if I should make any ' efforts' to be 
employed ; and for what purpose, or from what other motive than to 
obtain my rank, I know not. If my life will give it you, you shall have 
an opportunity of obtaining it. And now, sir, I have only to add, that 
if you will make known your determination, and the name of your 
friend, I will give that of mine, in order to complete the necessary ar- 
rangements to a final close of this affair. 

" I can make no other apology for the apparent tardiness of this 
communication, than merely to state, that, being on very familiar terms 
with my family, out of tenderness to their feelings I have written under 
great restraint." 

Commodore Decalur to Commodore Barron. 

" Washington, December 29/A, 1819. 

" SIR, Your communication of the 30th ultimo reached me as I 
was on the eve of my departure for the North, whence I did not return 



160 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

until the 22d instant. It was my determination, on the receipt of your 
letter, not to notice it ; but upon more mature reflection, I conceive 
that, as I have suffered myself to be drawn into this unprofitable discus- 
sion, I ought not to leave' the false coloring and calumnies, which you 
have introduced into your letter, unanswered. You state that a much 
more laconic reply to your letter of the 23d of October would have 
served your purpose. Of this I have no doubt ; and to have insured 
such an answer, you had only to make a laconic call. I had already 
informed you of the course I had felt myself bound to pursue respect- 
ing you, and of the reasons which induced my conduct, and that, if 
you require it, I would overcome my own disinclination, and fight you. 
Instead of calling me out for injuries, which you chose to insist that I 
have heaped upon you, you have thought fit to enter upon this war of 
words. 

" I reiterated to you, that I have not challenged, nor do I intend to 
challenge you. I do not consider it essential to my reputation that I 
should notice anything which may come from you, the more particularly, 
when you declare your sole object, in wishing to draw the challenge 
from me, is that you may avail yourself of the advantages which rest 
with the challenged. It is evident that you think, or your friends for 
you, that a fight will help you ; but, in fighting, you wish to incur the 
least possible risk. Now, sir, not believing that a fight of this nature 
will raise me at all in public estimation, but may even have a contrary 
effect, I do not feel at all disposed to remove the difficulties that lie in 
our way. If we fight, it must be of your seeking ; and you must take 
all the risk and all the inconvenience which usually attend the chal- 
lenger in such cases. 

" You deny having made the communication to the British Consul 
at Pernambuco, which Captain Lewis and Mr. Goodwin have repre- 
sented. The man capable of making such a communication would 
not hesitate in denying it ; and until you can bring forward some 
testimony other than your own, you ought not to expect that the testi- 
mony of those gentlemen will be discredited. As to the veracity of the 
British Consul, I can prove, if necessary, that you have yourself vouched 
for that. 

" You offer, as your excuse for not returning to your country during 
our war with England, that you had not been invited home by the then 
Secretary, notwithstanding you had written him, expressive of your 
wishes to be employed. You state, that, if you ' had received the 
slightest intimation from the department, that you would have been 
employed on your return, you would have considered no sacrifice too 
great, no exertion within your power should have been omitted, to 
obtain so desirable an object.' From this I would infer, that, in conse- 
quence of not receiving this intimation, you did not make the exertions 
in your power to return ; and this I hold to be an insufficient excuse. 
You do not appear to have made any attempt, except by the way of 
the cartel, the John Adams. You cannot believe, that reporting your- 
self to the department, at the distance of four thousand miles, when 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 161 

the same conveyance which brought your letter would have brought 
yourself, will be received as evincing sufficient zeal to join the arms of 
your country ; and, besides, you say it was not believed, for a consider- 
able time after the news of the war arrived in Denmark, that it would 
last six months. 

" With those impressions, you must have known that it would have 
occupied at least that time for your letter to have arrived at the depart- 
ment, you to receive an answer, and then repair to America. You 
deny that the opportunities of returning were frequent. The custom- 
house entries at Baltimore and New York alone, from the single port 
of Bourdeaux, will show nearly a hundred arrivals ; and it is well 
known, that it required only a few days to perform the journey from 
Copenhagen to Bourdeaux, by the ordinary course of post. You deny 
having been advised to return to this country, by your friends, during 
the war. Mr. Cook of Norfolk, your relative, says he wrote to you to 
that effect ; and Mr. Forbes, then our Consul at Copenhagen, who is 
now at this place, says he urged you in person to do so. 

"You have charged the officers, who concur with me in opinion 
respecting your claims to service, as being my satellites. I think I am 
not mistaken when I inform you, that all the officers of our grade, your 
superiors as well as inferiors, with the exception of one, who is your 
junior, concur in the opinion, that you ought not to be employed again, 
whilst the imputations which now lie against you remain ; nor have 
they been less backward than myself in expressing their opinions. 

" Your charge of my wishing to obtain your rank will apply to all who 
are your juniors, with as much force as to myself. You never have in- 
terfered with me in the service, and, at the risk of being esteemed by 
you a little vain, I must say I do not think you ever will. Were I dis- 
posed to kill out of my way, as you have been pleased to insinuate, 
those who interfere with my advancement, there are others, my supe- 
riors, whom I consider fairly barring my pretensions; and it would 
serve such purpose. better to begin with them. You say, you were the 
means of obtaining me the first command I ever had in the service. 
I deny it. I feel that I owe my standing in the service to my own 
exertions only. 

" Your statement, that your advice prevented me from resigning on 
a former occasion, is equally unfounded. I have never, since my first 
admission into the navy, contemplated resigning ; and, instead of being 
ordered, as you state, from the first lieutenancy of the New York to 
the second of the Chesapeake, Commodore Chauncey, who was then 
flag-captain, can testify, that I was solicited to remain as first lieutenant 
of the flag-ship ; and I should have remained as such, had it not been 
for the demand which the government of Malta made for the delivery 
of the persons who had been concerned in the affair of honor which 
led to the death of a British officer. It was deemed necessary to send 
all the persons implicated in that affair out of the way, and I went home 
in the Chesapeake as a passenger. 

" You have been pleased to allude to my having received the hospi- 
14* 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

tality of your family. The only time I recollect being at your house 
was on my arrival from the Mediterranean, in the Congress, fourteen 
years past. You came on board, and dined with me, and invited the 
Tunisian Ambassador and myself to spend the evening with you at 
Hampton. I accepted your invitation. Your having now reminded 
me of it tends very much towards removing the weight of obligation 
I might otherwise have felt on this score. 

" You speak of the good conduct of your ancestors. As your own 
conduct is under discussion, and not theirs, I cannot see how their for- 
mer good character can serve at all your present purpose. Fortunately 
for our country, every man stands upon his own merit. 

" You state, that the ' Virginia delegation in Congress' had present- 
ed a memorial in your favor. I would infer from this, that all or the 
greater part of the Virginia delegation had interposed in your behalf. 
This, sir, is not the fact. A few of them, I am informed, did take an 
interest in your case ; but being informed of the charges existing 
against you, of which they were before unapprised, they did not press 
further your claims. From the knowledge I have of the liigh-minded 
gentlemen that compose the Virginia delegation, if they would take the 
trouble to examine your case, I should, for my own part, be entirely 
satisfied to place the honor of the service upon their decision. 

" You offer, as your excuse for permitting four months to intervene 
between our June correspondence (with which, from your letter, you 
appeared to be satisfied) and your letter of the 23d of October, your 
indisposition. I am authorized in saying, that, for the greater part 
of the four months, you were out attending to your usual occupa- 
tions. 

" Your offering your life to me would be quite affecting, and might 
(as you evidently intend) excite sympathy, if it were not ridiculous. 
It will not be lost sight of, that your jeopardizing your life depends 
upon yourself, and not upon me ; and is done with a view of fighting 
your own character up. I have now to inform you, that I shall pay no 
further attention to any communication you may make to me, other 
than a direct call to the field." 

Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

"Norfolk, January 16th, 1820. 

" SIR, Your letter of the 29th ultimo I have received. In it you 
say, that you have now to inform me that you shall pay no further 
attention to any communication that I may make to you, other than a 
direct call to the field ; in answer to which, I have only to reply, that 
whenever you will consent to meet me on fair and equal grounds, that 
is, such as two honorable men may consider just and proper, you are at 
liberty to view this as that call. The whole tenor of your conduct to 
me justifies this course of proceeding on my part. As for your charges 
and remarks, I regard them not ; particularly your sympathy. You 
know not such a feeling. I cannot be suspected of making the attempt 
to excite it." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 163 

Commodore Decatur to Commodore Barron. 

" Washington, January 24th, 1820. 

" SIR, I have received your communication of the 16th, and am 
at a loss to know what your intention is. If you intend it as a challenge, 
I accept it, and refer you to my friend Commodore Bainbridge, who is 
fully authorized by me to make any arrangement he pleases, as regards 
weapons, mode, or distance." 

Commodore Barron to Commodore Decatur. 

" Norfolk, February 6th, 1820. 

" SIR, Your letter of the 29th of December found me confined to 
bed, with a violent bilious fever ; and it was eight days after its arrival 
before I was able to read it. The fever, however, about that time left 
me, and my convalescence appeared to promise a moderately quick re- 
covery. I therefore wrote you my note of the 16th ultimo. In two 
days after, I relapsed, and have had a most violent attack, which has 
reduced me very low ; but as soon as I am in a situation to write, you 
shall hear from me to the point." 

DENVER, I. W., General. See Gilbert, Hon. Edward. 

DERING, SIR CHOLMELEY, baronet and member of Parliament, ^ 
and MR. THORNHILL. In England, year 1711 ; with pistols. 
The baronet was killed. This duel was the occasion of a bill in /,/ 
Parliament against duelling, but it did not pass. 

Mr. Thornhill is introduced by the name of Spinamont in the 
Spectator, and is there made to utter the gravest self-accusations 
for unfortunately killing in single combat " the man whom of 
all men living he most loved." He bewails the event in the 
most abject distress, and says that his sorrow " is too great for 
human life to support." 

DESHA, BENJAMIN. See Conway, General. 

DESPORTES, Marquis of. See Bouteville, Charles, Count of. 

D'ESTERRE, . See O'Connell, Daniel. 

DEUJOY, MONS. See Rollin, Mons. Ledru. 

DIBBLE, GEORGE M., and E. B. LUNDY. In California, in 
1851. Lundy, a Canadian, escaped unharmed. Dibble, " for- 
merly a midshipman," was killed. The seconds were J. C. 
Morehead and C. E. G. Moore. 

DICKSON, or DICKENSON, and P. W. THOMAS. In California, 
1854. The former, a physician of the State Hospital ; the lat- 
ter, District Attorney of Placer County. Dickson was killed. 



164 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

D'ISRAELI, BENJAMIN. Challenge, in 1835, to Morgan O'Con- 
nell. The challenger, a son of the author of the celebrated 
Curiosities of Literature, has become a distinguished British 
statesman. At the outset of his political career, he was a 
Radical, and was thus associated with Dariiel O'Connell, Mr. 
Hume, and other leaders of the party. But he abandoned his 
early friends, joined the Conservatives, and indulged in severe 
personal attacks upon his former allies, and especially upon the 
great " Liberator." 

Mr. O'Connell replied in a tone of unexampled bitterness. He 
charged his assailant with apostasy and ingratitude ; and closed 
his vengeful diatribe with these terrible words. 

" I cannot," said he, " divest my mind of the belief, that, if this fel- 
low's genealogy were traced, it would be found that he is the lineal 
descendant and true heir at law of the impenitent thief who atoned for 
his crimes upon the cross." 

Mr. D'Israeli is of Jewish descent, and this sarcasm struck 
him like a poisoned arrow. In his uncontrollable madness, he 
ventured to rejoin, but to no purpose. In a letter to Mr. O'Con- 
nell, he declared his determination to seize the first opportunity 
offered him in the House of Commons, to inflict castigation for 
the insults which he had received, a pledge which, it is aver- 
red, was never redeemed. His next step was a challenge to 
Morgan O'Connell, son of his accuser, who not only declined 
his cartel, but published the correspondence in the newspapers. 
D'Israeli won no laurels in his quarrel with the O'Connells. 

DORSET, Earl of. See Bruce, Lord Edward. 

DOTY, EDWARD, and EDWARD LEISTER. At Plymouth, in 
1621. The parties were servants of Stephen Hopkins, and hav- 
ing a dispute, they settled it gentleman-like with sword and 
dagger. Both were wounded. Without a statute law on the 
subject, the whole company of Puritans assembled to consider 
and to punish the offence. The decision was the wisest that 
could have been made. Doty and Leister were ordered to be 
tied together, heads and feet, for twenty-four hours, without 
food or drink ; but the intercession of their master, their own 
humility, and promises, procured a speedy release. 

This, I suppose, was the first duel in New England. Possibly 
it was decisive. A personal combat between the renowned 
Miles Standish and John Alden, to adjust their difference about 
that arch maiden, Priscilla Mullens, would have been respect- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 165 

able, and might have afforded a precedent ; but no persons of 
standing, for a generation at least, were likely to imitate two 
serving-men, who had been doomed to a punishment so entirely 
ridiculous. We of the North are disposed to plume ourselves 
upon our freedom from the sin and folly of duelling ; but since 
the whole history of our fathers shows that they were as mar- 
tial in spirit and in deed as were the Cavaliers who founded the 
States of the South, I am not sure that the spectacle of the first 
duellists^disposed necks and heels, the objects of jeers and sneers, 
is to be disregarded in explaining the difference which has ever 
existed in the two sections of the country. 

DOUGLAS, . See Boswell, Sir Alexander. 

DOWDIGAN, door-keeper of the Senate of California, and MR. 
HAWKINS. In California, 1854 ; with rifles, forty paces. The 
former wounded in the arm. 

DOWNING and SMITH. At Gibraltar, about the year 1820. 
The first, a lieutenant in the navy of the United States ; the 
other, a lieutenant in the British army. This duel, and other dis- 
putes between officers of the two nations, caused an order of the 
British civil and naval authorities in the Mediterranean, that 
American ships of war should not enter the port of Gibraltar. 

DRAPER, SIR WILLIAM, Knight of the Bath. Challenge, in 
1769, to " Junius, stat nominus umbra" 

Junius, in the first of his celebrated Letters, which appeared 
in the Public Advertiser, spoke in terms of great severity of 
Lord Granby, the Commander-in-chief of the British army, to 
which the knight, who was a military man of some distinction, 
replied in the same paper. Junius rejoined, and the result was 
a personal controversy. 

Some months afterwards, the Letters of Junius were repub- 
lished, and a charge which Sir William pronounced " to be a 
most infamous and malicious falsehood" was retained, and 
drew from him a communication that concluded in these words. 

" I allow that Gothic appeals to cold iron are no better proofs of a 
man's honesty and veracity, than hot iron and burning ploughshares are 
of female chastity ; but a soldier's honor is as delicate as a woman's, 
it must not be suspected. You have dared to throw more than a sus- 
picion upon mine : you cannot but know the consequences, which even 
the meekness of Christianity would pardon me for, after the injury 
you have done me." 



166 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

From the general tone of the knight's letter, it is evident that 
he indulged the hope, that his relentless accuser would avow 
himself, and afford "satisfaction" ; but Junius wa_s not thus 
to be drawn from his concealment. " Your appeal to the sword," 
he said in reply, u though consistent enough with your late pro- 
fession, will neither prove your innocence, nor clear you from 
suspicion." And he further excused himself for declining the 
call, by the remark, that, 

" As to me, it is by no means necessary that I should be exposed to the 
resentment of the worst and the most powerful men in this country, 
though I may be indifferent about yours. Though you would fight, 
there are others who would assassinate." 

Still again : 

" I believe, sir, you will never know me. A considerable time must 
certainly elapse before we are personally acquainted," &c., &c. 

DRAYTON, WILLIAM HENRY. See Lee, General Charles. 

DROMGOOLE, GEORGE C., and MR. DUGGER. In 1837, in 
North Carolina ; with pistols. Mr. Dromgoole was a member 
of Congress from Virginia ; his antagonist, who was mortally 
wounded, was a gentleman of the same State. 

DRYDEN* CHARLES. Challenge, in 1701, to Lord Jefferies. 
The challenger, a son of the poet ; Jefferies, a son of the Lord 
Chancellor. The difficulty grew out of the inexcusable conduct 
of Lord Jefferies, relative to the poet's burial. 

Dr, Johnson relates the story with some particularity, in his 
Life of Dryden, but remarks that he once intended to omit it, 
as not well founded. An outline of it only belongs to this 
volume. From the account, it would seem that, on the decease 
of Dryden, the Bishop of Rochester tendered a spot in West- 
minster Abbey, and the abbey fees, without charge, and that 
Lord Halifax offered to defray the cost of a gentleman's private 
funeral, and to give a handsome sum for a monument ; which 
overtures the widow, and her son Charles, accepted, under an 
arrangement, however, (to save their feelings,) that the funeral 
should appear to the world as at the family expense. It seems 
further, that, at the moment the procession was ready to move 
from the house, Lord Jefferies, in passing, ascertained that the 
hearse contained the remains of Dryden, and the few coaches, 
the friends who were to accompany them to some burial-place ; 
that he interfered, and offered to undertake on his own account 
a proper funeral, and to appropriate the sum of a thousand 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 167 

pounds to a monument ; that, by a course of procedure with- 
out example, he finally directed the poet's corpse to be carried 
to an undertaker's for embalmment, and induced the gentlemen 
present to disperse, in order to assemble on another day ; that, 
when applied to, three days afterward, by the undertaker, he 
pretended ignorance of his previous directions, and was pleased 
to intimate, that, as he was on a drunken frolic on the day he 
disturbed the funeral arrangements, he should have nothing 
more to do with the matter. Such is the substance of the tale. 
The result was, that Dryden's widow and son, unable to satisfy 
the Bishop of Rochester and Lord Halifax, were in the greatest 
affliction ; and that the poet's body was not committed to the 
grave until the lapse of three weeks from the time of decease. 

Charles Dryden the funeral services of his father at last 
performed immediately challenged Lord JefFeries ; but re- 
ceived no answer. The challenge was renewed, and its renewal 
repeated. His lordship continued silent. Incensed beyond en- 
durance, Mr. Dryden denied all redress determined that 
(though he would observe the duello in the combat) JefFeries 
should fight him without accepting a cartel, whenever they 
should chance to meet. His lordship heard of this resolution, 
and departed London. Mr. Dryden so concludes the story 
ever after attempted to obtain satisfaction, but was disap- 
pointed to the day of his death. 

DUBERT and ELLESLER. In California, in 1854, with broad- 
swords. They had a difficulty about a lady ; and met the day 
following the dispute, in the presence of friends and spectators. 
Both were skilled in the use of the weapon, and fought several 
minutes without effect. Ellesler finally received a severe cut on 
the sword arm ; when a proposition was made to quit, and to 
" have it out" as soon as his wound should heal. In a moment, 
however, the combat was renewed with great ferocity on both 
sides. After a lapse of some twenty minutes, Dubert was 
stabbed in the side. He expired the next morning. 

DUDLEY, SIR HENRY BATE, Baronet. This personage, a cler- 
gyman in orders, and known as the " Rev. Henry Bate," and 
as " Parson Bate," was a duellist 'of no inconsiderable notoriety. 
He took the name of Dudley, in 1784, at which time he was a 
rector in the Church. In 1812, he received the living of Wil- 
lingham, in Cambridgeshire, and three years later was created 
a baronet. In 1816 he was made a prebend in Ely cathedral, a 



168 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

dignity which he retained until his decease, in 1824. At differ- 
ent periods of his life, he established and edited several news- 
papers, and was the author of a variety of dramatic pieces. At 
the time of his death, he was a magistrate for seven counties in 
England, and for four in Ireland. A more remarkable blending 
of the clerical with the worldly has seldom been seen. 

He introduced himself to the notice of the world by an uncleri- 
cal exhibition of personal prowess, in a Vauxhall squabble ; and 
subsequently fought three duels. Two of his quarrels were caused 
by the " beautiful Mrs. Hartley, an actress," who died in Eng- 
land on the same day with himself. Another affair was with 
Andrew Stoney Robinson (sometimes called Stoney Bowes), an 
officer in the British army. Robinson was determined to marry 
the Countess of Strathmore, and accomplished his purpose by 
means the most wicked imaginable. After the commencement 
of his attentions to the Countess, a series of articles appeared in 
Dudley's paper, the Morning Post, which contained the most in- 
famous attacks upon her reputation. These attacks became at 
last insupportable ; and the Countess declared that she would 
marry whoever would challenge and fight the editor of that paper. 
Robinson, himself the author of these communications, turned 
round upon the unwary Dudley, who had been his dupe, sent 
him a message, and a duel in which both were wounded followed. 
The Countess, as she had promised, was united to Robinson, but 
he treated her most brutally, and a separation ensued. 

Such was Parson Bate. Dr. Johnson entertained no respect 
for him. Boswell records a conversation in 1784, in which John- 
son said, " Sir, I will not allow this man to have merit. No, sir ; 
what -he has is rather the contrary. I will, indeed, allow him 
courage, and on this account we so far give him credit," &c. 

Sir Henry Bate Dudley, Baronet, may well be regarded as " a 
clergyman of extraordinary character." That he was " high in 
the Church, and an active and respectable magistrate," renders 
his female quarrels and his duels abominable. 

DUGGER, ; . See Dromgoole, George C. 

DUJARIER and BOUVALLON. In Paris, in 1845, with pistols. 
The parties were editors of newspapers ; the former of La 
Presse, and the latter of the Globe* 

Bouvallon was the challenger, and at the first fire shot his an- 
tagonist in the head, and killed him instantly. " The duel grew 
out of something which occurred at a dinner party given in one 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 169 

of the most celebrated establishments at the Palais Royal, at an 
expense of fifty-five francs ($11) per head ! " 

Bouvallon was tried for murder at Rouen, March, 1846. Sev- 
eral interesting incidents occurred. 

" The defence was, that the deceased was killed by the accused in a 
duel, according to the rules of honor regulating such combats. It was 
gravely objected on the part of the prosecution, that the defendant was 
not entitled to avail himself of these laws, because, at one period of his 
life, he had been guilty of stealing a icatch. And a distinguished lawyer 
said, that * a French jury would only tolerate duels among men of honor, 
and a man would forfeit his privilege to commit murder, if it was believed 
he had ever been a thief' 

" Forty-six witnesses were examined. The first was Alexander Du- 
mas, the celebrated and popular writer of the day. ' He was the com- 
mon friend of both parties engaged in the duel, and being informed that 
the weapons selected were pistols, and knowing how unskilful Dujarier 
was, sent his son with him to a shooting-gallery, where he was able to 
hit a mark as large as a man only twice in fourteen times.' But the tes- 
timony of Dumas went strongly to the respectability of the parties as men 
of honor ! " 

Another witness was Lola Montes, an artiste of the theatre 
Port St. Martin, who spoke French imperfectly. She was the 
wife or mistress of Dujarier. She took measures to prevent the 
duel, but was too late. " I was," said she, in her testimony, " A 

BETTER SHOT THAN DUJARIER, AND IF BoUVALLON WANTED SAT- 
ISFACTION, I WOULD HAVE FOUGHT HIM MYSELF." She received 
the corpse of Dujarier from the carriage. He bequeathed her 
the principal part of his estate, which was very considerable. 

The president or judge instructed the jury, that to kill a man 
in a duel is murder by the law of France, but that the jury had 
a right to declare that Bouvallon killed Dujarier under alleviating 
circumstances. The jury retired, and returned in ten minutes. 
The foreman, on being asked, " Is the accusation true ? " an- 
swered, " Upon my honor and conscience, before God and man, 
the declaration of the jury is, ' No : the accused is not guilty-' v 
But Bouvallon was fined twenty thousand francs, for the benefit 
of the mother and nephews of Dujarier, and in default of pay- 
ment was to suffer two years' imprisonment. 

Lola Montes the account is retired to Bavaria, and be- 
came the mistress of the king. She was created Countess of 
Lansfeldt, and possessed much influence in the public affairs of 
Bavaria. Such, indeed, was her ascendency, that to her was at- 
tributed the suppression of the Jesuits, the dismissal of the min- 
15 



170 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

istry, the decline of Austrian influence, and the adoption of a 
liberal and independent policy. 

The Countess became, two or three years later, a resident of 
Switzerland, arid thence proceeded to England. In 1849 she 
was arrested in London, on a charge of bigamy. Her career in 
the United States need not be related. She is now (1854) living 
in California. 

DULANY, LLOYD, and the Reverend BENNET ALLEN. In Hyde 
Park, London, in 1782. Dulany was attended on the ground by 
Mr. Delancy, and his antagonist by Mr. Robert Morris. Dulany 
and the two seconds were, I conclude, " American Loyalists," 
who had taken refuge in England. The duel was fought with 
pistols, at eight yards, and about ten o'clock in the evening. The 
reverend duellist, before firing, put on his spectacles. His shot 
was fatal. Dulany fell, but rose, ran a few yards, and fell again. 
He was conveyed to his lodgings, and expired two or three days 
afterwards, in great agony. 

< The cause of the combat was this. Allen, in 1779, published 
in a London newspaper " a variety of American characters," 
and among them that of Dulany, who, in return, called the 
anonymous writer, in the same paper, a scoundrel and a coward. 
Allen avowed himself the author in 1782 ; when, after verbal and 
written communications through their friends, the terms of a 
meeting were arranged. 

Allen, at the fall of his adversary, absconded ; but finally sur- 
rendered himself. He and his second, Morris, were indicted for 
murder, and tried at the Old Bailey. Among the witnesses were 
two ladies, and Lords Bateman and Mountrnorris, who gave the 
Reverend Bennet Allen an excellent character. Other witnesses 
swore that, a few hours previous to the duel, a man was seen 
shooting or practising at a mark, and one of them identified Allen, 
positively, as the person ; but he proved an alibi. There was 
evidence, that, while Allen was the original aggressor, he invited 
the conflict, and in the communications which preceded it ap- 
plied the most insulting epithets to the ill-fated Maryland loyalist. 
It also appeared that his second, Morris, repeatedly urged a post- 
ponement of the duel until a proper hour, the next day. 

Mr. Justice Buller, in his charge to the jury, stated that, as to 
the law, " there is not, nor ever was, any doubt, that, where two 
persons meet together deliberately to fight a duel, and one of 
them is killed, the other is guilty of murder, and his second like- 
wise." The jury, after twenty minutes' deliberation, returned a 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 171 

verdict, " Allen, guilty of manslaughter ; Morris, not guilty." 
The recorder then pronounced sentence, that the convicted party 
should pay a fine of one shilling, and be imprisoned six months 
in Newgate. 

DULONG, M., member of the Chamber of Deputies, and 
THOMAS ROBERT BUGEAUD, a Marshal of France, and member 
of the same body. In France, in 1834, with pistols. 

In 1833, the Marshal was appointed to command the citadel of 
Blaye, and to watch over the safe-keeping of the Duchess of 
Berri. The parties in opposition to the government, and to whom 
the Marshal was already sufficiently odious, represented this duty 
as degrading to him. 

Shortly after the Marshal returned from Palermo, where he 
deposited the Duchess, in obedience to his instructions, there oc- 
curred in the Chamber of Deputies a violent debate, in which he 
participated. " Before all other things," cried Bugeaud, loudly, 
" men must learn to obey." " What ! " retorted a voice from 
the opposite benches, " what, even to making themselves jail- 
ers ? " The speaker was Dulong. The Marshal demanded an 
explanation, which was given and accepted. But the quarrel, 
either by accident or design, was rekindled, and a duel followed. 
The friends of the Marshal, on the ground, were General 
Rumigny and Colonel Larry ; those of M. Dulong, George W. 
Lafayette and Colonel Bacot. Dulong was shot through the 
head. His funeral, according to the political tactics of the time, 
very nearly produced a revolution. The Marquis de Lafayette 
joined the friends of Dulong, and followed his remains to the 
grave on foot ; and, overcome with fatigue, on his return to his 
residence he took to his bed, which he never again quitted alive. 

Bugeaud continued ever after a zealous supporter of Louis 
Philippe, and succeeded Marshal Clausel in command in Algiers. 
He died in 1849. Among the distinguished men at his bedside 
in his last moments were Generals Cavaignac and Bedeau, and 
Count Mole. 

DUMONT, EBENEZER. See Lane, J. H. 

DUNCAN, ALEXANDER, Member of Congress from Ohio. See 
Cilley, Jonathan. 

DUNOVANT, JOHN. See Legare, Davidson J. 

DUNWORTH, , Lieut. See Talbut, Captain. 

DUPONT, M., and M. CHAVOIX. In France, in 1851. Dupont 



172 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

was slain. The survivor, it is stated, was doomed by the tribu- 
nals to pay a large sum to the family of his adversary. 

DURRIEU, M. XAVIER. See Bonaparte, Pierre. 
DURYEE, CHARLES H. See Miller, William, Jun. 

E., a Captain, and Captain H., of the army of the Revo- 
lution. In 1779. The affair is told in Thacher's Journal. 
Captain E, was the challenged party, and at first refused to fight, 
and was, in consequence, horsewhipped by Captain H. Captain 
E. supported the chastisement with wonderful fortitude : his 
brother officers subsequently treated him with much contempt, 
and threatened to hoot him out of camp. Captain E. finding 
that he must fight or quit the army in disgrace, concluded to 
meet his antagonist. The duel was with pistols, at ten paces ; 
neither party harmed. 

EATON, WILLIAM O. See McKie, James C. 

EDWARD III., King of England. Challenge, in 1342, to Philip 
de Valois, King of France. The crown devolved to Philip un- 
der the Salique law, he being cousin-german to Charles the 
Fair, brother of Isabella, the mother of Edward. Edward 
claimed the throne, in right of his mother, and in 1340 as- 
sumed the title of King of France. A war ensued : during a 
truce, provoked by the treacherous conduct of Philip, he pro- 
posed to determine the controversy by personal combat. The 
invitation was declined. 

In 1349, while Edward was in France, prosecuting his claim 
by arms, he gave a cartel to Eustace de Ribaumont, a French 
knight or gentleman, on the field of battle, which was accepted. 
A furious encounter ensued. The English monarch was twice 
beaten to the ground. At last, Ribaumont was compelled to 
yield. In consideration of his bravery, Edward, not only re- 
leased him without ransom, but gave him a string of pearls, 
which he took from his own head. " I know," said the King, 
" you are gay and amorous, and take delight in the company of 
ladies and damsels ; let them all know from what hand you had 
the present." 

EDWARDS, Major. See Lee, General Charles. 

EGAN, JOHN, Barrister at Law. See Curran, John Philpot. 

EGERTON, JOHN, and EDWARD MORGAN. In England, in 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 173 

1608. Egerton was the son of a baronet, and was slain. He 
had, in a previous duel, given Morgan his life. 

EGREMONT, Lord. See Wilkes, John. 
ELDON, Lord. See Mackneath, Robert. 
ELLESLER, . See Dubert. 

ELLIOT, JESSE D., Captain in the U. S. Navy. See Decatur, 
Stephen, duel with Barren. 

ESSEX, HENRY DE, hereditary standard-bearer of England, 
and ROBERT DE MONTFORD. In England, year 1158. Essex, 
in a battle in Wales, threw away the royal standard, and cried 
out that the King was slain. Montford asserted that his conduct 
was the result of treasonable designs, and offered to prove the 
truth of his accusation in single combat. Essex denied the 
charge, and accepted the challenge. The duel was fought in 
the presence of the King and his court. Essex was defeated, 
and expected to be executed ; but the monarch was satisfied with 
the confiscation of his estate, and with dooming him to the life 
of a monk. 

ESSEX, ROBERT DEVEREUX, Earl of, the well-known favorite 
of Queen Elizabeth. In 1589, a formidable armament sailed 
from Plymouth, England, having on board the claimant of the 
crown of Portugal, and many young English nobles, who panted 
to humble the pride of Spain. Essex was of the number. Ar- 
rived at the gates of Lisbon, the Earl beat a thundering sum- 
mons, challenged the governor to come forth, and encounter 
him, hand to hand, in single combat. The Spanish functionary 
who held the city took no notice of the defiance of the chival- 
ric Englishman. 

In 1591, Essex, while still abroad on the same or a similar 
romantic errand, gave a challenge to Villars, the governor of 
Rouen. The cause indicates the spirit of the time. Reproached 
with cowardice, because he had failed to avenge his brother's 
death, he proposed to Villars to meet him on horse or on foot, 
and by personal encounter to decide " which was the better 
man, fought in the better cause, or served the fairest mistress." 
The cautious governor, who cared little for knightly fame, de- 
clined the duel ; and uncourteously said, that, " as to tho beauty 
of their mistresses, it was scarcely worth his while to put himself 
to much trouble about that." 
15* 



174 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

In 1597 we find Essex inviting one of his own countrymen to 
a trial of skill with the sword. The Queen had bestowed upon 
him the dignity of Earl-Marshal, which gave great offence to 
the Lord-Admiral, Thomas Howard, Earl of Nottingham, who 
claimed the office by right of descent from Mary Plantagenet. 
Essex offered to decide the quarrel by duel, with Notting- 
ham, or his sons, or all of them ; but Elizabeth would not permit 
it, and employed Sir Walter Raleigh to bring about a reconcili- 
ation. See also Blount, Charles. 

ETEOCLES and POLYNICES, brothers, and sons of CEdipus. 
The joint sovereignty of Thebes was bequeathed them by their 
father. They quarrelled, and made war ; wearied finally with 
hostilities, it was agreed to terminate their strife by single com- 
bat. The brothers accordingly fought under the walls of Thebes. 
Both were killed. 

Eu, COUNT D', and GODEFKOI BAYNARD. This was one of the 
earliest trials by combat in England. The Count accused Bay- 
nard of being engaged in a conspiracy against William Rufus, 
and was allowed a field at Salisbury. The duel was fought in 
the presence of the King and his court. D'Eu was defeated, 
and by the King's order was cruelly mutilated. 

EURYBATES of Argos, and SOPHANES of Athens. Herodotus 
relates, that, when the Athenians besieged ^Egina, a challenge 
was given by Sophanes, which was accepted, and that Eury- 
bates, who had conquered in the Nemean games, was slain. 

EUSTON, LORD. See Burlington, Lord. 

EVANS, H. D., and F. R. WRIGHT. In California, 1851. The 
parties exchanged shots near the " Sans Souci," San Francisco, 
without death or wound. 

EVANS, W. P. See Rea, C. 

EWART, . See Sheridan, Richard Brinsley. 

F AIR? , an d GIST. In Georgia, 1832. Fair was shot 

through the heart. Three of Gist's brothers were present on the 
ground. 

FALKLAND, LORD VISCOUNT, and A. POWELL. In England, 
1809. The parties were intimate friends. They were present 
in a large company in London, when his lordship addressed^ Mr. 
Powell by a nickname, and persisted after it gave offence. This 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 175 

was the sole cause of the quarrel. Lord Falkland was mortally 
wounded, but survived two days. He was succeeded by the 
present Lord Falkland, who married a daughter of William IV. 
by Mrs, Jordan, and was some time Governor of Nova Scotia. 

FELTON, JOHN, celebrated in history as the assassin of the 
Duke of Buckingham, and in the republican party of England 
as a " Brutus." To convince his antagonist that he could hack 
his own body to avenge himself of an injury, he cut off a piece 
of one of his fingers, and inclosed it with a challenge. Felton 
was an officer, and, according to Clarendon, " of a gentleman's 
family in Suffolk, of good fortune and reputation." D'Israeli 
adds, that the Earl of Arundel was of his blood. 

FENTON, . See Hillas, Major. 

FERDINAND, King of Spain. Challenge, in 1475, to Alfonso, 
King of Portugal. Ferdinand sent a herald to defy Alfonso to 
a fair field of fight with his whole army, or, if he declined this, 
to invite him to decide their differences by personal combat. 

Alfonso accepted the challenge ; " but a dispute arising 
about a guaranty for the performance of the engagements on 
either side, the whole affair evaporated, as usual, in an empty 
vaunt of chivalry." 

FERIL, or FENIL, COUNT. An Italian nobleman in a French 
regiment, who was banished from France for killing his enemy 
in a duel. His name is mentioned in 1686, in connection with 
a plot to seize the Prince of Orange, subsequently William III. 
of England. 

FIELDING, . Challenge, in 1696, to Sir Henry Button 

Colt. Sir Henry was a justice of the peace, and gave offence 
to the challenger in the execution of the duties of his office. 
A proclamation was issued against Mr. Fielding, and a reward of 
200 offered for his apprehension. 

FINCH, WILLIAM B. See White, F. B. 

FITZGIBBON, JOHN (subsequently Lord Clare). See Curran, 
John Philpot. 

FITZHUGH, E. C. See Gwin, William M. 
FITZPATRICK, General. See Fox, Charles James. 

FITZWILLIAM, Earl of, and MR. BERESFORD. In England, 
1795. The quarrel arose about " places and pensions." Just 



176 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

as they had taken their ground, with pistols, at twelve paces, a 
magistrate interfered, and prevented further proceedings. 

FLAMARENS, MONS. See Frettes, La. 

FLANT, Doctor. See Irly, F. W. 

FLOOD, HENRY. See Grattan, Henry, and also Agar, James. 

FLORIDA : Constitutional provision : 

" No person shall be capable of holding or of being elected to any 
post of honor, profit, trust, or emolument, civil or military, legislative, 
executive, or judicial, under the government of this State, who shall 
hereafter fight a duel, or send or accept a challenge to fight a duel, the 
probable issue of which may be the death of the challenger or chal- 
lenged, or who shall be a second to either party, or who shall in any 
manner aid or assist in such duel, or shall be knowingly the bearer of 
such challenge or acceptance, whether the same occur or be committed 
in or out of the State." 

FOLSOM, Captain. See Russell, A. C. 

FORBES, , a Scotch officer in the service of France. See 

Wilkes, John. 

FORD, ROGER DU. See Bouvet, Mons. F. 

Fox, the Right Honorable CHARLES JAMES, and WILLIAM 
ADAM, member of Parliament. In England, in 1779. The ac- 
counts of the cause of this duel differ. According to Wade, it 
arose from some remarks made by Mr. Fox, which were " sup- 
posed to be personal " ; in the British Plutarch, it is said that 
Mr. Fox "severely attacked" Mr. Adam. In a biographical no- 
tice of the latter, we find it related, that, at the opening of Par- 
liament, Mr. Adam remarked in debate, that, " amongst those 
gentlemen who stood candidates for office, he could not single 
out one by whom the state was likely to be better served than 
by their present rulers " ; that the opposition to the ministry 
" had already betrayed their intentions by the abject concessions 
they would have made to our revolted subjects in America " ; 
that he expressed his fear that, should these gentlemen " be 
called to office, instead of carrying on the war with spirit and 
activity, they would terminate it with a dishonorable and humili- 
ating peace " ; and that Mr. Fox, in his reply, " commented " upon 
these sentiments very " severely." Horace Wai pole's version is, 
that " Adam, a Scot, a man of a very suspicious character, had for 
two or three years distinguished himself by absurd speeches" ; 
that, at the time in question, " he uttered a most ridiculous one, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 177 

in which he said, that, though he had left the house last year pre- 
possessed against Administration, yet he had been converted to 
them by reading the examinations of the generals, who, he per- 
ceived, had been more to blame than the ministers ; that this 
rhapsody Fox ridiculed in the highest degree, with infinite wit and 
argument ; that Adam felt the sarcasm to the quick, and after the 
debate asked an explanation ; and that Fox told him he meant 
no personal invective, and they parted." In the Continuation of 
Hume's England, we have this account: " The ministry, in their 
defence against the violent attacks of Opposition, frequently made 
use of the argument, that, bad as the ministers were, it was not 
certain that the nation would be at all bettered by taking their 
opponents. On this Mr. Fox animadverted with so much asper- 
ity, that Mr. Adam, who had made use of it in the same debate, 
called upon him for an explanation." 

It was supposed that Mr. Adam was satisfied ; but some days 
afterwards he wrote Mr. Fox, requiring him to allow the follow- 
ing paragraph to be inserted in the newspapers (in reply to an 
account of the affair in Parliament which had been published, 
much, as Mr. Adams thought, to his injury) : 

" We have authority to assure the public, that, in a conversation which 
passed between Mr. Fox and Mr. Adams, in consequence of the debate in 
the House of Commons on Thursday last, Mr. Fox declared, that, however 
much his speech may have been misinterpreted, he did not mean to throw 
any personal reflection on Mr. Adams." 

Mr. Fox declined to grant the desired liberty, and said that his 
speech, as published, was incorrect and unauthorized by him, 
and that Mr. Adam might publish the speech correctly, or the 
conversation between them in relation to it, at his pleasure. It 
is asserted, further, that Mr. Adam's "friends" not content with 
this explanation, demanded that Mr. Fox should himself disabuse 
the public mind, in the manner proposed ; and that, upon his re- 
fusal, a challenge followed. 

The two statesmen met in Hyde Park. The incidents on the 
ground, as stated by Walpole and in the Continuation of Hume, 
differ from the account of General Fitzpatrick and Major Hum- 
berston, the seconds (as quoted by the editor of Walpole), who 
say: 

" Mr. Adam fired and wounded Mr Fox, which we believe was not at 
all perceived by Mr. Adam, and it was not distinctly seen by either of 
ourselves. Mr. Fox fired without effect; we then interfered, asking 
Mr. Adam if he was satisfied. Mr. Adam replied, ' Will Mr. Fox de- 



178 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

clare he meant no personal attack upon my character ? ' Upon which 
Mr. Fox said, this was no place for apologies, and desired him to go on. 
Mr. Adam fired his second pistol without effect ; Mr. Fox fired his re- 
maining pistol in the air ; and then said, as the affair was ended, he 
had no difficulty in declaring that he meant no more personal affront to 
Mr. Adam than he did to either of the other gentlemen present. Mr. 
Adam replied, ' Sir, you have behaved like a man of honor.' Mr. Fox 
then mentioned that he believed himself wounded ; and, upon opening 
his waistcoat, it was found it was so, but, to all appearance, slightly." 

Wraxhall, in his Memoirs, remarks, that apprehensions were 
entertained for Fox's life, and that the people surrounded his 
lodgings with clamorous demonstrations of anxiety for his safety, 
and with angry reproaches against his political and personal foes. 

If we credit Walpole, who disliked Mr. Adam, (so much as to 
say that " he could not describe him, as he never extracted 
malevolence out of the fogs of the Highlands,") and who may 
be allowed, therefore, to speak in his favor, we are to ascribe 
this duel to the officious zeal of Mr. Adam's "friends" rather 
than to any wish of his own ; while we have the authority of 
one of the other writers quoted for believing that Mr. Fox, while 
on the ground, said that " he had no quarrel " with the gentle- 
man who had called him there. There was, then, no real mis- 
understanding between the parties. And what " satisfaction " 
did Mr. Adam receive ? Precisely what Mr. Fox gave him be- 
fore the combat, an assurance that no " personal affront was 
meant." The truth is, that the malign influence of party spirit 
drove Mr. Adam to risk his own life, and to aim at the life of 
his eminent adversary, in order to have a victim on one side or 
the other. As it was, the ministry were the losers ; and the 
slight injury to Mr. Fox increased the public animosity against 
them, which, in the words of the historian, " was already almost 
universal." 

Fox and RANDALL. Near Washington, in 1821. The cir- 
cumstances, as related by a gentleman who was at Washington 
at the time, are as follows. 

Randall was a clerk in the Treasury Department. He seduced 
the daughter of a lady with whom he boarded. The girl's broth- 
er, a cadet at West Point, and Randall, had a rencounter in con- 
sequence, in which the latter was severely wounded. After his 
recovery, he was assaulted in the street by a person who, as he 
supposed, was set on by a young man named Fox, who was also 
a boarder of the lady. To revenge this attack, Randall soon 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 179 

after gave Fox a caning. Fox then challenged Randall. They 
fought at eight paces, with pistols. Fox was killed on the spot. 
Randall was dismissed from the public service. 

FRANCIS, SIR PHILIP. See Hastings, Warren. 

FRANCIS I., King of France. Challenge, in 1527, to CHARLES 
V., Emperor of Germany. Historians commonly regard this 
affair as of great consequence. They suppose that it produced a 
change in manners throughout Europe, and gave countenance 
or authority to persons of inferior rank, and of all ranks, to 
adjust private differences by duel. According to some, indeed, 
modern duelling dates from the quarrel between these two mon- 
archs. As this opinion has been examined elsewhere in this 
volume, the subject may be dismissed here without further re- 
mark. 

Francis and Charles were rival claimants to the same domin- 
ions. War was proclaimed against Charles by both France and 
England, early in 1528, by heralds at his own court. The 
Emperor, in dismissing the French herald, sent a Yhessage to 
Francis, reminding him of a conversation at Madrid, before their 
alienation, and declaring that henceforth he should consider him 
not only as a base violator of public faith, but as having broken 
his word, given on the honor of a gentleman. Francis instantly 
ordered the herald to return to Charles with a cartel of defiance, 
in which he gave the Emperor the lie in form, challenged him 
to a duel, and required him to appoint the time, the place, and 
the weapons. The challenge was promptly accepted. Several 
messages followed, on both sides, relative to the arrangements 
for the combat ; but the monarchs never met. The conduct of 
Charles on this occasion was not such, probably, as to win the 
approbation of duellists ; especially if we follow Hume, who 
states that he, and not Francis, gave the first challenge. Besides, 
the Emperor's course subsequently was quite similar. In a 
speech at Rome, before the Pope and Cardinals, he proposed a 
duel, in which the magnificent prize to be fought for was the 
Duchy of Burgundy on the one part, and the Duchy of Milan on 
the other ; but on the following day he so far modified his lan- 
guage as to lead to the conclusion, that his challenge was a mere 
figure of speech, and meant nothing. 

FRETTES, LA, and CHALAIS. In France, in 1663. This was 
one of the " famous duels " of the time. Eight gentlemen were 
engaged in it; namely, two La Frettes, Saint Aignan, and Ar- 



180 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

genlieu, on the one side, and Chalois, Noirmoutier, D'Antin, and 
Flamarens on the other. I have ascertained no further particu- 
lars. 

FREEMAN, General, and General SMITH. In Mississippi, in 
1851. The Generals were the candidates of opposite parties for 
Congress. Smith was wounded at the " fifth round." The cause, 
as stated in the public prints, was that " Smith wrote a letter to 
some of the papers, in which he made injurious statements 
against Freeman." 

FRENCH, GEORGE, and SIR EDWARD CROFTON, Baronet. In 
1770. French was slain ; he was of the family of French of 
French Park, county of Roscomnon. 

FREYCHAPPEL and SWIEGEL, gentlemen of the kingdom of 
Hanover. In 1750. An affair of jealousy. Both paid assiduous 
court to the Countess of Yarmouth, mistress of George II. of 
England. Freychappel was killed. 

FROST, JOHN WILLIAM, and THOMAS HUNT. At or near New 
Orleans, in 1851, with double-barrelled guns, at forty paces. 
Frost was son of the late Dr. William Frost, of Kennebunk, 
Maine, and a student of law of the late Andrew Dunlap, of Bos- 
ton. Before removing south, he edited a paper in Maine. At 
the time of the duel, he was one of the editors of the New Or- 
leans Crescent. Hunt was a physician of New Orleans. Frost 
fell at the second fire, and died in a few minutes. His " spark- 
ling eye and silver tongue rendered him as popular with his 
school-fellows," writes his chum, " as, later in life, he was with 
juries and political assemblies." 

It appears, from several sources, that the fatal meeting arose 
from the course pursued by Frost, in regard to a candidate to 
represent the second district of Louisiana in Congress. This 
district is Whig, having been represented by the Secretary of 
War under Mr. Fillmore's administration (Mr. Conrad), and by 
Judge Bullard, immediately preceding the year 1851. The can- 
vass for a successor to the latter commenced with much acri- 
mony and personal feeling. Two gentlemen were presented for 
the suffrages of the Whigs, Colonel T. G. Hunt, and Mr. I. N. 
Marks. Frost preferred Marks, and assailed the Colonel and his 
brothers in the Crescent. Subsequently, and a few days previ- 
ous to the encounter, Frost gave additional offence, in a speech 
at a caucus called to select delegates to attend a congressional 
convention. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 181 

The following extracts from three New Orleans papers furnish 
all the additional information necessary to an understanding of 
the case. The Crescent its columns in mourning said: 

" We regret to announce the death of the principal editor of this pa- 
per, Mr. John W. Frost, who fell yesterday in a hostile meeting, arising 
out of the proceedings at the ' Shades ' on Monday night last Mr. 
Frost removed, soon after obtaining his professional education, to Geor- 
gia, where he married and settled himself in the practice of the law ; 
but was induced in a few years to remove to Shreveport, in this State, 
whence he again changed his domicile, in 1843, to the parish of Concor- 
dia ; and in 1847 he established himself in this city, where he has since 
resided. Since February, 1850, he has been connected with this jour- 
nal as its principal editor. 

" His remains will be conveyed to Alexandria, Red River, on the first 
steamboat that leaves for that place." 

The Delta of the same date contained particulars of the com- 
bat. 

" Both parties fired, in the first instance, without effect. No proposi- 
tion for an amicable arrangement came from the friends of Mr. Frost ; 
none, of course, could come from the friends of Dr. Hunt, as he was 
the challenged party. The barrels just discharged were reloaded, and 
at the second fire, Dr. Hunt's shot took effect ; his ball entered at the 
right armpit of Mr. Frost, passed through the lungs, and lodged under 
the scapular of the left shoulder. He fell, mortally wounded, and in 
some ten minutes expired. The body was carried off and placed in a 
room of the barracks. 

" Mr. Frost leaves an amiable orphan daughter, some fourteen years 
of age, to mourn a parent's premature death. 

The Picayune related incidents which are omitted in its con- 
temporaries, and show that the quarrel commenced at the Con- 
gressional election the year previous. 

" Fatal Duel. We lament to announce that the difficulties which have 
for some time existed, and with which the public has been made famil- 
iar through the press, between Mr. Frost, the editor of the Crescent, 
and Colonel T. G. Hunt, one of the candidates for the nomination to 
Congress, have had a fatal termination. Mr. Frost fought a duel yes- 
terday, at about 1 o'clock, P. M., at the United States Barracks, below 
the city, with Dr. Thomas Hunt, the brother of Colonel T. G. Hunt. 
They fought, as we hear, with double-barrelled guns, at forty paces, and 
on the second fire Mr. Frost was mortally wounded, the bullet passing 
through his left breast, and he died within half an hour. Dr. Hunt was 
unhurt. 

" The immediate cause of offence was an altercation which took place 
at the Whig meeting in Perdido Street, on Monday evening. It was, 
however, only the renewal of an ancient difficulty, arising out of the 
16 



182 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Congressional election last fall, when Colonel T. G. Hunt was a candi- 
date before the Whig Convention, and Judge Bullard, the law partner 
of Mr. Frost, obtained the nomination. Another of the brothers of 
Colonel Hunt became then involved in a personal difficulty with Mr. 
Frost, and the preliminary movements for a duel were made upon the 
part of Mr. Frost, but they failed. The ill feeling has rankled ever 
since, and the new canvass, in which Colonel Hunt is again a candidate, 
revived it, produced the collision at the ' Shades,' and has ended in this 
lamentable manner. There was a meeting between the parties on 
Wednesday, which the police interrupted, and both challenger and 
challenged were bound over. They disregarded the bonds, went almost 
directly from the Recorder's office to the United States Barracks, and 
finally closed up this most unhappy quarrel with the death of Mr. Frost 
by the hands of Dr. Hunt." 

FULLARTON, , Member of Parliament. See Shelburne, 

Earl of. 

GACE, Count de.' See Richelieu, Louis F. A. de Plessis, 
Due de. 

GALEAZZO, a distinguished general of Mantua. He was killed 
at the siege of Trecco, in 1406. Two duels in which he was 
engaged are found recorded in the account of his feats in arms. 
One was fought in France, with a gigantic Englishman, who is 
called Robinus Novellus, and who had been victorious in seven 
previous combats. The name of the Briton was so terrible, that 
no Frenchman dared to accept his challenge ; but he was van- 
quished by the skill and prowess of Galeazzo, who spared his life 
at the intercession of the King of France. 

*His second encounter was at Padua, with the Marshal de 
Boucicault (as is supposed), in the presence of many noble 
Venetians. The judges of the field interfered, and prevented 
bloodshed. 

GARDINER, COSMO. See Thomas, Colonel. 

GARDNER, Cornet. See Hill, Reverend Mr. 

GATES, General HORATIO. See Wilkinson, General James. 

GEOFFREY of Lusignan. Challenge to CONRAD, in the Holy 
Land, during the Crusade, about 1192. Guy of Lusignan, in 
full assembly of Crusaders, averred that Conrad had perverted 
law, and embezzled treasure. The accused replied, that, in right 
of his wife, the Queen Isabella, he was justified in his conduct. 
Geoffrey, brother of Guy, rose in fury ; called Conrad a perjured 
man and traitor, and, defying him, threw a glove at his feet. As, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 183 

by the laws of chivalry, a sovereign was not compelled to accept 
a challenge from a vassal, Conrad cast a scornful glance at his 
foe, and retired in silence from the assembly. 

GERMAIN, LORD GEORGE. See Lutterell, Temple. 

GERMAINE, LORD GEORGE, and Governor GEORGE JOHNSTONE. 
In England, 1770. The cause, angry words in the House of 
Commons. The second of Germaine, the Right Hon. Thomas 
Townshend : of Johnstone, Sir James Lowther, Baronet. Each 
fired two pistols. At the first fire Johnstone's ball shattered one 
of his lordship's weapons in his hand. Both escaped without 
injury. 

Germaine is better known as Lord George Sackville. John- 
stone is connected with our annals as Governor of an American 
colony, and as Commissioner of England, with Eden and Lord 
Carlisle, to attempt a reconciliation with the Colonies during the 
Revolution. 

GIBSON, . See Cocke, Samuel B. 

GIBSON, W. E. See Irving, C. 

GILBERT, . See Barrington, Colonel Jonah. 

GILBERT, HON. EDWARD, ex-member of Congress, and Gen- 
eral I. W. DENVER. In California, 1852. The Rev. M. C. 
Willing communicated to the Journal of Commerce the following 
statement: 

" The, legislature of California at its last session passed a bill to pro- 
vide for the sending of relief to the overland immigrants, who might be 
in a destitute condition or exposed to danger from hostile Indians. This 
bill required the Governor, who had made the recommendation to the 
legislature, to raise a company and supply trains sufficient to meet the 
necessities which might exist during the season. The Governor had 
obeyed these instructions, and a short time since marched in front of 
this train through Sacramento City, as it was setting out upon this hu- 
mane expedition. 

" Mr. Gilbert constantly opposed this whole measure, frankly stating 
in his editorials that he believed the movement was designed for the 
purpose of making political capital, and that it would be a very heavy 
expense to the State, and render very little aid to the immigrants. 
When the press announced the departure of the supply train, and com- 
plimented the Governor, who escorted it out of Sacramento, Mr. Gilbert 
ridiculed the parade and show that was made about it, and intimated 
that this fact proved that the whole thing was got up to increase the 
Governor's popularity. Many believe that Mr. Gilbert was entirely 



184 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

wrong in his views about this matter, and that pure motives of benevo- 
lence prompted the Governor and others. 

" General Denver, a member of the State Senate, was connected with 
the relief train, and was a personal friend of Governor Bigler, and he 
replied to Mr. Gilbert's articles by publishing a card, in which he made 
use of some uncourteous language. Mr. Gilbert replied, and General 
Denver retorted. A challenge was immediately sent to General Den- 
ver, and accepted, and rifles were the weapons selected. Mr. Gilbert 
fell at the second shot, and expired in less than five minutes. Mr. Gil- 
bert was a native of Albany, New York. He was a member of the 
Convention to form the Constitution for the State of California, and, 
immediately after her admission into the Union, he was chosen a Repre- 
sentative to Congress. He has been the pioneer of the daily press in 
California, and his paper was in advance of any west of the Rocky 
Mountains. He was only thirty-three years of age." 

GILLESPIE, Captain. See Harrington, William. 
GIRARDIN, EMILE DE. See Carrel, Armand. 

GIST, . See Fair, . 

GLOUCESTER, Duke of. See Burgundy, Duke of. 
GLYNDER, OWEN. See Sene, Howell 

GOLIATH, the Philistine, and DAVID, the Hebrew. In the year 
B. C. 1063. Some persons will smile to find a Scripture story 
in a work of tbis description. But the contest between the giant 
of Gath and the son of Jesse was a duel in every sense, and is 
therefore rightly here. 

Goliath uttered, (as recorded in Samuel,) " / defy the armies 
of Israel this day : give me a man, that we may fight together" 
This was the challenge. According to Josephus, the Philistine 
offered single combat to save the effusion of blood ; proclaiming 
to Saul and the Hebrews that there was no necessity for a battle 
between the two armies, inasmuch as the conqueror in the duel 
wbich he proposed " should have the reward of the conqueror, 
and determine the war." " And certainly," concluded Goliath, 
" it is much better, and more prudent, to gain what you desire 
by the hazard of one man than of all." 

Perhaps the motives of David, in accepting the cartel, were not 
entirely patriotic or disinterested. The account in Samuel shows 
that he was particular in his inquiries as to the reward, and 
asked more than once about Saul's offer of his daughter in mar- 
riage, and a sum of money, to whoever should slay the vaunting 
hero who, day after day, presented himself in defiance before 
the camp of Israel. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 185 

Goliath, says Josephus, felt insulted at the weapons selected 
by the shepherd-boy, as being those used in driving away and 
avoiding dogs, rather than those employed in combat between 
man and man, and so the Philistine demanded : " Dost thou take 
me not for a man, but a dog ? " To which David answered : 
" No, not for a dog, but for a creature worse than a dog" The 
giant, very angry, "cursed him by the name of God," and 
threatened to give his flesh to beasts and birds. The duel com- 
menced. A stone from the stripling's bag, hurled from his sling, 
struck the mighty one of Gath in his forehead, fractured his 
skull, and brought him to the ground. " So David ran and stood 
upon his adversary, as he lay down, and cut off his head with 
his own sword ; for he had no sword himself." 

David won the princess ; but her father was disinclined to 
fulfil his promise, and proposed new conditions. David's reply 
tells the secret of his heart : " Seemeth it to you a light thing," 
he said, " to be made the king's son-in-law 1 It does not seem 
so to me; especially when I am one of a family that is low, and 
without any glory or honor" The lowly born son of Jesse, 
and Michal, daughter of the monarch of Israel, became one in 
marriage. The path to " glory " and to " honor " was now 
open to the ambitious youth. ,In due time he wore the royal 
purple. 

GANAHT, CHARLES, and THOMAS DANIELS. In Georgia, 1852. 
Two shots were fired, without injury to either. 

GONTAUT, CHARLES DE, Duke of Biron. See Clarency, 
Prince of. 

GONZALIER, knight substitute, or champion of Ramiro, king 
of Aragon. See Bivar, Don Rodrigo. 

GORDON, Colonel. See lllo, Colonel. 

GOURGATJD, Baron de, Adjutant-General of Napoleon, and 
Count SEGUR. In 1825. The offence, a reply of Gourgaud to 
Segur's work on the Campaign of the Emperor in Russia. 

GOWER, WILLIAM, and Major ONEBY. In London, in 1725. 
They met in a tavern, Drury Lane. Gower was killed unfairly. 
Oneby was tried for murder, convicted, and sentenced for exe- 
cution, but committed suicide. Gower was of the family of that 
name, in the county of Stafford, and in right of his mother lord 
of Weston Coyney. 

16* 



186 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

GRADY, HENRY. An Irish lawyer of the last century, who, 
says Phillips, " wounded every man whom he fought." 

GRADY, HENRY DEANE, " counsel to the revenue," Ireland. 
He fought several times ; " all hits." 

GRAFTON, Duke of. See Pomfret, Earl of. 

GRAHAM, W. G., and MR. BARTON. At Hoboken, New Jersey, 
in 1827. Graham was associate editor of the New York 
Courier and Inquirer, and was slain. He admitted that he was 
in the wrong. " By giving Mr. Barton * a blow,' " said he, 

" I have forced him into the condition of a challenger ; and that by 
not doing what he has, he would have blasted his character as a gen- 
tleman, for ever. In common justice, I am bound thus to absolve him 
from all suspicion of unbecoming conduct respecting the challenge. 
The provocation, though slight, was still a provocation, which I could 
not overlook. It is out of the question for me to explain, retract, or 
apologize Mr. Barton is a talking man, who dwells very com- 
placently on his own skill as a marksman, on his experience as a duellist, 
and on his accuracy as a person of ton. I pretend to none of these, and 
therefore must oppose the most inflexible obstinacy. After he is per- 
fectly satisfied, I may, perhaps, apologize, that is, in case I am fatally 
wounded. It is needless for me to say, I heartily protest and despise 
this absurd mode of settling disputes, and salving the wounds of honor. 
But what can a poor devil do, except bow to the supremacy of cus- 
tom?" 

Comment is unnecessary. Graham, conscious to himself that 
he was in fault, would not confess it, because he feared disgrace, 
and obeyed a custom which he " despised," and against which 
he " protested " in the last hours of life ! How many cases like 
this are recorded in this volume ! 

GRAHAM, W. H., and F. LEMON. In California, 1851. Sev- 
en shots exchanged with revolvers. Lemon wounded in the 
shoulder. 

GRATTAN, HENRY. His affairs with Henry Flood, and with 
Isaac Corry are related with effect in Curran and his Contem- 
poraries. 

The first, with Flood, in 1783. In a debate in the Irish Par- 
liament, on motion of Sir Henry Cavendish, recommending 
" retrenchment," after the two members had uttered warm 
words, each of the other, Grattan addressed his antagonist in the 
most violent terms at his command, and concluded thus. " I 
will stop him in his career," said he, " and tell him, that 4 he is 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 187 

mistaken if he thinks his talents are as great as his life is infa- 
mous.' '' 

" We have seen you," he continued, " we have seen you a violent 
opposer of government, and afterward on the most trying questions 
silent, silent for years, and silenced by money ; we have seen you 
haunting this house like a guilty spirit, watching the moment when you 
should vanish from the question ; or you might be descried hovering 
about this dome, like an ill-omened bird of nio-ht, with sepulchral note, 
cadaverous aspect, and a broken beak, watching to stop and pounce 
upon your prey ; or we have detected you hid behind that chair to 
avoid a division, or feigning infirmities to excuse your absence. Influ- 
enced by place, or stung by disappointed ambition, we have seen you 
pursue a course of manifest duplicity. You can be trusted by no man: 
the crown cannot trust you ; the people cannot trust you : you have 
dealt out the most impartial treachery to both, and now you tell the 
nation she was ruined by others, when she was sold by you." 

This was, indeed, terrible invective. But his closing epi- 
thets were still more dreadful. 

" You fled," said Grattan, " you fled from the Mutiny Bill, you fled 
from the Sugar Bill, you fled from the Six Months' Money Bill : I 
therefore tell you, in the face of your country, before all the world, and 
to your beard, you are not an honest man." 

The two statesmen retired from the House. Mr. Flood, 
though arrested, escaped. A hostile meeting was appointed. 
But a judicial warrant put an end to the arrangement. 

The quarrel with Corry was several years afterwards. That, 
like the other, was in the Irish Parliament. Grattan had just 
been returned for Wicklow, and entered the House sick, trem- 
bling, attenuated, and supported by friends. 

" It was solemn midnight, in the very height of feverish excitement ; 
the question was one of life or death to Ireland, a question whether 
she was to dwindle into a province, or retain her name among the 
nations [the bill for union with England in the year 1800]. The passions 
of the assembly were mastering its reason : burst after burst, inspired 
by such a theme, was more and more inflaming them, when the wild 
cheer and almost frenzied acclamation were hushed as if by magic, 
and a spectacle was seen which was not seen without tears. Grat- 
tan had watched by the cradle of Irish independence, there he was, 
faithful to the last, gasping for breath, as if about to die for it. He 
spoke from his seat, he was too feeble to stand, his voice was 
weak, his utterance impeded ; but as he warmed with his mighty sub- 
ject, the recollection of his youthful toils and youthful triumphs revived 
his spirit, and he grew young again." 

Corry, in the course of a speech in this memorable debate, 



188 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

made a deliberate attempt to crush the great orator, and among 
other things declared, that, instead of enjoying the confidence 
of the people of Ireland, he ought to be standing at the bar of 
his country, at the bar of her criminal tribunals, to answer for 
his treasons. Grattan replied. At the close of his remarks he 
uttered, The gentleman 

" In Parliament has calumniated me to-night ; in the King's courts he 
will calumniate me to-morrow ; but had he said, or dared to insinuate, 
one half as much elsewhere, the indignant spirit of an honest man 
would have answered the vile and venal slanderer with a blow." 

A duel was inevitable. The parties went instantly from the 
House to the field, and fought by twilight. In the dimness, 
Grattan said, "The gentleman is placed too far off; I cannot 
see him plainly ; let him come nearer." Corry was wounded 
in the arm. 

GRAVES, WILLIAM J., member of Congress from Kentucky. 
See Cilley, Jonathan. 

GRAY, JOHN T. See Pope, Henry C. 

GRAY, WILLIAM, and the Earl of SOUTHESK. In England, 
1660. Gray was slain ; he was a son of Sir William Gray, of 
the lineage of the ducal families of Suffolk and Kent. 

GRAYSON, , and Lieutenant SPARLING. In England. 

Sparling refused to marry a niece of Grayson to whom he was 
engaged. Grayson thereupon threatened to chastise the delin- 
quent, " as a villain and a scoundrel." Grayson was slain. 
Sparling was tried for murder, and acquitted. 

GREEN, Doctor. See Hester, Hon. D. 

GREENE, General NATHANIEL, of the army of the Revolution. 
See Gunn, Captain. 

GRENVILLE, GEORGE, and Lord HENRY PATTLET. In 1765. 
Paulet told Grenville, in Parliament, " that, if Lord Cobham was 
to rise from the dead, he would, if he could be ashamed of any- 
thing, be ashamed of him." 

" Grenville rose in a rage, like a basket- woman," says Walpole, 
and told Lord Harry, that, " if he chose to use such language, 
he knew where to find him." " Did you ever hear of a prime 
minister," continues the brilliant letter-writer, " challenging an 
opponent, when he could not answer him ? Poor Lord Harry, 
too, was an unfortunate subject to exercise his valor upon." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 189 

GREY, , Captain in the British army, and Lord LEMPSTER. 

In England, in 1752, with swords. The quarrel was about a 
gaming debt. Grey was killed. Lord Lempster was tried at the 
Old Bailey, and found guilty of manslaughter. He became 
Earl of Pomfret, and was the second nobleman of that title. 
When, in 1765, Lord Byron was tried by his peers, for killing 
Mr. Chaworth in a duel, the Earl was absent. 

GREY, Lord of Wilton. See Southampton, Earl of. 

GRIFFITH AP GRONW, and HOWELL AP RYS. A servant of 
Griffith went to fish, and was beaten by Howell. Griffith took 
up the matter, and challenged Howell to combat. Howell re- 
fused to fight. Thereupon Griffith assembled his friends and 
retainers, assaulted Howell in his own house, and burned some 
of his outbuildings ; and while thus employed, was shot dead on 
the spot. 

GRIFFITH, THOMAS AP. In the wars between the houses of 
Lancaster and York. Antagonist unknown. Griffith was slain. 
One of his sons was ancestor of Lord Dynevor ; his second 
wife, a granddaughter of Philip, Duke of Burgundy. 

GRILLI, ANDREA, Doge of Venice. See Brunswick, Henry, 
Duke of. 

GRONARD, Colonel. See Jones, Major. 

GUBION, RALPH, Prior of Tinmouth. In England. A judi- 
cial combat. One Simon claimed a right to the maintenance of 
two persons in the Priory, which Gubion denied. The dispute 
was carried before the Abbot of St. Albans and his court baron, 
who ordered it to be tried by combat. Gubion appeared on the 
day appointed, attended by his champion, a man of gigantic 
stature. The champion was defeated. Gubion consequently 
lost his case, and, deeply mortified, immediately resigned his 
office. 

GUELDERLAND, ARNOLD, Duke of, and his son ADOLPHUS. 
About the year 1470. Adolphus asserted, that the Duke had 
reigned long enough, and designed to dethrone him. The Duke 
challenged his son to single combat. The unnatural youth ac- 
cepted the defiance ; but the Duke of Burgundy prevented the 
duel. 

GUISE, Duke of. See Upton, Sir Henry. 



190 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

GUMLEY, Colonel. See Braddock, General Edward. 

GUNN, Captain, of Georgia. Challenge, in 1785, to General 
Nathaniel Greene. Gunn, during Greene's services at the South, 
in the Revolution, had exchanged a. public horse with a brother 
officer, and, by the General's order, had been tried for the of- 
fence, and compelled to make restitution. Upon this circum- 
stance, Gunn, on Greene's removal to Georgia, based his demand 
for satisfaction, and by the hand of Colonel Jackson gave a 
formal challenge. Jackson, on ascertaining the merits of the 
case, withdrew. Gunn found a new friend in Major Fishbourne, 
and renewed his cartel. Greene, having refused the first, de- 
clined to notice the second in any way ; and thereupon Gunn 
threatened a personal assault. Greene's reply was that he al- 
ways wore his pistols. They never met. The General, under 
apprehension that his conduct might be misinterpreted by his 
brother officers, gave Washington a full history of the affair, and 
asked his opinion. 

" If," said Greene, " I thought my honor or reputation would suffer 
in the opinion of the world, and more especially with the military gentle- 
men, I value life too little to hesitate a moment to accept the challenge." 

The Commander-in-chief wrote, in answer : 

" I give it as my decided opinion, that your honor and reputation will 
stand, not only perfectly acquitted for the non-acceptance of his 
(Gunn's) challenge, but that your prudence and judgment would have 
been condemned by accepting it ; because, if a commanding officer is 
amenable to private calls for the discharge of his public duty, he has a 
dagger always at his heart ; and can turn neither to the right hand nor 
to the left, without meeting its point. 'In a word, he is no longer a free 
agent in office, as there are few military decisions which are not offen- 
sive to one party or another." 

This instance of the force of public sentiment is of great 
value. The affair with Gunn evidently gave the General much 
disquiet. His courage had never been doubted. But he dared 
not act definitely and finally without the assurance of the most 
illustrious man in history, that his " honor," his " reputation," 
would not suffer by disregarding the call. No wonder that per- 
sons in the common walks of life yield against their convictions, 
in cases of aggravated injury, when a gentleman of Greene's 
lofty character and standing, in every sense, hesitated whether 
to meet an inferior officer, under the circumstances here re- 
lated. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 191 

GUSTAVUS II., or GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, King of Sweden, and 
Colonel SEATON. The King offended the Colonel, who, a Scotch- 
man, was in his service. The Scot departed the kingdom. The 
King followed, and as he overtook him exclaimed, " Dismount, 
sir ! I acknowledge that I have injured you, and I have come 
to give you the satisfaction of a gentleman ; for we are now 
without my dominions, and Gustavus and you are equal ! " 

This was noble ; but how much more noble, had the monarch 
confessed his fault within his dominions, and in the presence of 
those who were acquainted with the insult to his officer ! 

GWIN, WILLIAM M., and J. W. McCoRKLE. In California, 
1853. The former, a Senator, the latter a Representative, in 
the Congress of the United States. Among the friends who at- 
tended them on the ground were Mr. Marshall, a member, and 
Mr. Inge, an ex-member, of Congress. The parties agreed to 
meet near the line of the counties of San Francisco and Santa 
Clara, but, apprehending interference, repaired to another place. 
The weapon, the rifle, at thirty paces, the combatants to wheel 
at the word, and fire. A number of spectators were present. 
The friends of the two gentlemen relate the sequel in the follow- 
ing card. 

"After an exchange of three ineffectual shots, between the Hon. 
William M. Gwin and Hon. J. W. McCorkle, the friends of the respec- 
tive parties having discovered that their principals were fighting under 
a misapprehension of facts, mutually explained to their respective prin- 
cipals in what the misapprehension consisted ; whereupon Dr. Gwin 
promptly denied the cause of provocation referred to in Mr. McCorkle's 
letter of the 29th of May, and Mr. McCorkle withdrew his offensive 
language uttered on the race-course, and expressed regret at having 
used it. 

(Signed,) S. W. INGE, 

F. STUART, 
E. C. MARSHALL, 
E. C. FITZHUGH, 
GEO. P. JOHNSON, 
" June 1st, 1853. A. P. CRITTENDEN." 

GWINNETT, BUTTON, and LACKLAND MC!NTOSH. In 1777. 
Gwinnett, a member of Congress, and a signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence ; his antagonist, an officer in the army 
of the Revolution. They met, with pistols, at twelve feet. Both 
were wounded ; Gwinnett mortally. The cause, personal enmity 
and rivalry. They were competitors for the office of Brigadier- 



192 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

General. Mclntosh was successful. Subsequently, Gwinnett 
failed to be elected Governor of Georgia, at which Mclntosh 
exulted, and indulged in remarks which produced a challenge. 

GRYMES, WYNDHAM, and MR. TERRELL. In Virginia, 1803. 
Grymes was the challenger. Terrell declared on the ground 
that he appeared there without enmity, and should fire with re- 
luctance. Grymes was slain ; in his last moments he exonerated 
his adversary from all blame, said the meeting was of his own 
seeking entirely, and expressed the hope that Terrell would not 
be molested. 

HALL, JANE, and CATHERINE HURLEY. In Buffalo, 1853. A 
newspaper of that city states that 

" Officer Harris ascertained to-day that a girl named Jane Hall, who 
had come from Rochester for the purpose, and Catherine Hurley, were 
to have a regular duel, having chosen seconds, and repaired to the toll- 
bridge, on Ohio Street, for the engagement. A large crowd assembled 
to witness the scene. As soon as possible, Harris was on the spot; and 
took the belligerents to the watch-house to await the attention of Justice 
Vanderpool." 

HALL, . See Leckie, Robert. 

HAMILTON, the Duke of, and Lord MOHUN. In Hyde Park, 
in 1713. This was a duel in which, as in France, the seconds 
engaged as well as the principals. Lord Mohun gave the chal- 
lenge. The parties met on Sunday morning, November 15th, 
with swords. His Grace was accompanied by his kinsman, 
Colonel Hamilton ; his Lordship by Lieutenant-General Macart- 
ney. Mohun was killed on the spot. The Duke died of his 
wounds, as his servants were carrying him from the field to his 
coach. Colonel Hamilton was wounded by Macartney, and sur- 
rendered himself in a few days. Macartney fled in disguise to 
the Continent, but finally returned to England, was tried for mur- 
der, and convicted of manslaughter. 

It may not be possible to state the cause of this combat with 
entire accuracy. The two noblemen married ladies of the same 
family, and in the course of some proceedings in chancery rela- 
tive to property to which their wives were co-heiresses, they 
quarrelled furiously. They differed also in politics. The Duke 
had just been appointed Ambassador to the Court of France, and 
was supposed to be deeply pledged to Queen Anne's plan 
for the restoration of her brother ; while Mohun was in the coun- 
sels of the opposition. The Duke was regarded as the main 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 193 

pillar of the cause of the Stuarts ; and in his fall, the Whigs, 
as is affirmed, saw the ruin of the hopes of that house to be 
certain. The family quarrel between him and Mohun furnished 
a pretence for a duel ; and his Lordship was purposely excited 
and irritated by his party, in order to bring about a hostile meet- 
ing. 

The common account is, too, that his Grace was unfairly slain ; 
and upon the testimony of his second before the Privy Council, 
the accusation is well sustained ; for Colonel Hamilton declared 
upon his oath, that, seeing the Duke fall, he ran to his aid, when 
Macartney, who had been disarmed, seized a sword which was 
on the ground, and stabbed him over the Colonel's shoulder. 
To confirm this statement, a surgeon who examined the Duke's 
death-wound expressed the opinion that it could not have been 
inflicted by Lord Mohun. 

Whatever the truth, the dispute as to the origin of the duel, 
and the manner of the Duke's death, entered into the politics of 
the time. The Tories, on the one hand, treated Macartney as a 
cowardly assassin ; and affirmed that the Whigs had posted other 
assassins all round the Park, to murder the Duke, in case he had 
slain Mohun, and escaped the treachery of Macartney. The 
Whigs, on the contrary, asserted that the combat was the result 
of a private difference ; and they not only acquitted Macartney, 
but contended that Colonel Hamilton's evidence was false, and 
was contradicted by the declarations of several persons who saw 
the duel at a distance. 

HAMILTON, Colonel. See Hamilton, Duke of. 

HAMILTON, General ALEXANDER, and AARON BURR, Vice- 
President of the United States. In New Jersey, at a place 
called Weahawk, July, 1804. This is the most memorable duel 
in our annals ; and the material facts connected with it, as found 
principally in Colemari's Collection, will be related with some 
minuteness, and, as is hoped, with accuracy. First in order, 
perhaps, is the correspondence which preceded the fatal meet- 
ing. 

On the 18th of June, 1804, Colonel Burr addressed General 
Hamilton thus : 

" SIR, I send for your perusal a letter signed Charles D. Cooper, 
which, though apparently published some time ago, has but very 
recently come to my knowledge. Mr. Van Ness, who does me the 
17 



194 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

favor to deliver this, will point out to you that clause of the letter to 
which I particularly request your attention. 

" You must perceive, sir, the necessity of a prompt and unqualified 
acknowledgment or denial of the use of any expression which would 
warrant the assertions of Dr. Cooper." 

Hamilton's reply bears date June 20th : 

" SIR, I have maturely reflected on the subject of your letter of 
the 18th instant, and the more I have reflected, the more I have become 
convinced, that I could not, without manifest impropriety, make the 
avowal or disavowal which you seem to think necessary. The clause 
pointed out by Mr. Van Ness is in these terms : ' I could detail to you 
a still more despicable opinion which General Hamilton has expressed 
of Mr. Burr.' To endeavor to discover the meaning of this declaration, 
I was obliged to seek in the antecedent part of this letter for the opin- 
ion to which it referred, as having been already disclosed. I found it 
in these words : ' General Hamilton and Judge Kent have declared in 
substance, that they looked upon Mr. Burr to be a dangerous man, and 
one who ought not to be trusted with the reigns of government? 

" The language of Dr. Cooper plainly implies, that he considered this 
opinion of you which he attributes to me as a despicable one ; but he 
affirms that I have expressed some other, more despicable, without, how- 
ever, mentioning to whom, when, or where. 'Tis evident that the 
phrase, ' still more despicable,' admits of infinite shades, from very light 
to very dark. How am I to judge of the degree intended ? or how 
shall I annex any precise idea to language so indefinite ? 

" Between gentlemen, despicable and more despicable are not worth 
the pains of distinction : when, therefore, you do not interrogate me 
as to the opinion which is specifically ascribed to me, I must conclude, 
that you view it as within the limits to which the animadversions of 
political opponents upon each other may justifiably extend, and conse- 
quently as not warranting the idea of it which Dr. Cooper appears to 
entertain. If so, what precise inference could you draw, as a guide for 
your conduct, were I to acknowledge that I had expressed an opinion 
of you still more despicable than the one which is particularized ? How 
could you be sure that even this opinion had exceeded the bounds 
which you would yourself deem admissible between political oppo- 
nents ? 

" But I forbear further comment on the embarrassment to which the 
requisition you have made naturally leads. The occasion forbids a 
more ample illustration, though nothing could be more easy than to 
pursue it. 

" Repeating that I cannot reconcile it with propriety to make the 
acknowledgment or denial you desire, I will add, that I deem it inad- 
missible on principle to consent to be interrogated as to the justness of 
the inferences which may be drawn by others from whatever I may have 
said of a political opponent, in the course of fifteen years' competition. 
If there were no other objection to it this is sufficient, that it would 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 195 

tend to expose my sincerity and delicacy to injurious imputations from 
every person who may at any time have conceived the import of my 
expressions differently from what I may then have intended, or may 
afterwards recollect. I stand ready to avow or disavow, promptly and 
explicitly, any precise or definite opinion which I may be charged with 
having declared of any gentleman. More than this cannot fitly be ex- 
pected from me ; and especially it cannot be reasonably expected that 
I shall enter into an explanation upon a basis so vague as that which 
you have adopted. I trust on more reflection you will see the matter 
in the same light with me. If not, I can only regret the circumstance 
and must abide the consequences. 

" The publication of Dr. Cooper was never seen by me till after the 
receipt of your letter." 

Burr rejoined on the 21st : 

" SIR, Your letter of the 20th instant has been this day received. 
Having considered it attentively, I regret to find in it nothing of that 
sincerity and delicacy which you profess to value. 

" Political opposition can never absolve gentlemen from the necessity 
of a rigid adherence to the laws of honor and the rules of decorum. I 
neither claim such privilege nor indulge it in others. 

" The common sense of mankind affixes to the epithet adopted by 
Dr. Cooper the idea of dishonor. It has been publicly applied to me 
under the sanction of your name. The question is not, whether he 
has understood the meaning of the word, or has used it according to 
syntax, and with grammatical accuracy ; but, whether you have author- 
ised this application, either directly or by uttering expressions or opin- 
ions derogatory to my honor. The time ' when' is in your own knowl- 
edge, but no way material to me, as the calumny has now first been 
disclosed, so as to become the subject of my notice, and as the effect is 
present and palpable. 

" Your letter has furnished me with new reasons for requiring a defi- 
nite reply." 

This letter was answered by Hamilton on the 22d : 

" SIR, Your first letter, in a style too peremptory, made a demand, 
in my opinion, unprecedented and unwarrantable. My answer, point- 
ing out the embarrassment, gave you an opportunity to take a less ex- 
ceptionable course. You have not chosen to do it ; but by your last 
letter received this day, containing expressions indecorous and improper, 
you have increased the difficulties to explanation intrinsically incident to 
the nature of your application. 

" If by a ' definite reply' you mean the direct avowal or disavowal 
required in your first letter, I have no other answer to give, than that 
which has already been given. If you mean anything different, ad- 
mitting of greater latitude, it is requisite you should explain." 

These four letters embrace, it is believed, the wbole of the 



196 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

direct communications between the principals. The affair seems 
to have been submitted to friends at the earliest moment. Burr's 
two letters were delivered by W. P. Van Ness. Hamilton con- 
sulted Nathaniel Pendleton as soon as the 22d of June, at which 
time he informed him, that he had told Mr. Van Ness that he 
considered Burr's second communication " rude and offensive," 
and that, unless it were recalled, the only answer which it 
was possible for him to make was, that " Mr. Burr must take 
such steps as he might think proper " ; and at parting Mr. Pen- 
dleton was intrusted with the General's letter of the 22d of June, 
which, in consequence of several conversations between Messrs. 
Van Ness and Pendleton, remained in the possession of the lat- 
ter until the 25th, when, as we shall find, all hope of an adjust- 
ment of the difficulty was at an end. Meantime, Mr. Van Ness 
had addressed a note to General Hamilton, in which he stated 
that he had reported to Colonel Burr the result of their last in- 
terview, and in which he asked " when and where it would be 
most convenient to receive a communication." 

It will be seen, therefore, that Colonel Burr resolved upon ex- 
treme measures before the General's letter of the 22d of June 
was delivered to him. It is important to remark, also, that, prior 
to parting with that letter, Mr. Pendleton read to Mr. Van Ness 
the following paper, as containing what General Hamilton was 
willing to concede : 

" General Hamilton says he cannot imagine to what Dr. Cooper may 
have alluded, unless it were to a conversation at Mr. Taylor's in Albany, 
last winter (at which he and General Hamilton were present). Gen- 
eral Hamilton cannot recollect distinctly the particulars of that con- 
versation so as to undertake to repeat them, without running the risk of 
varying or omitting what might be deemed important circumstances. 
The expressions are entirely forgotten, and the specific ideas imper- 
fectly remembered ; but to the best of his recollection it consisted of 
comments on the political principles and views" of Colonel Burr, and 
the results that might be expected from them in the event of his elec- 
tion as Governor, without reference to any particular instance of past 
conduct, or to private character." 

Again, after the delivery of General Hamilton's letter of June 
22d, Mr. Pendleton gave Mr. Van Ness another paper, dictated 
in the same conciliatory spirit : 

"In answer to a letter properly adapted to obtain from General 
Hamilton a declaration whether he had charged Colonel Burr with any 
particular instance of dishonorable conduct, or had impeached his pri- 
vate character, either in the conversation alluded to by Dr. Cooper, or 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 197 

in any other particular instance to be 'specified, he would be able to 
answer consistently with his honor, and the truth, in substance, that 
the conversation to which Dr. Cooper alluded turned wholly on polit- 
ical topics, and did not attribute to Colonel Burr any instance of dis- 
honorable conduct, nor relate to his private character ; and in relation 
to any other language or conversation of General Hamilton which 
Colonel Burr will specify, a prompt and frank avowal or denial will be 
given." 

A correspondence now ensued between Messrs. Van Ness and 
Pendleton. On the 26th of June, the former wrote : 

" SIR, The letter which you yesterday delivered me, and your sub- 
sequent communication, in Colonel Burr's opinion, evince no dispo- 
sition on the part of General Hamilton to come to a satisfactory accom- 
modation. The injury complained of and the reparation expected are 
so definitely expressed in Colonel Burr's letter of the 21st instant, that 
there is not perceived a necessity for further explanation on Jus part. 
The difficulty that would result from confining the inquiry to any par- 
ticular times and occasions must be manifest. The Denial of a specified 
conversation only would leave strong implications that on other occa- 
sions improper language had been used. When and where injurious 
opinions and expressions have been uttered by General Hamilton must 
be best known to him, and of him only will Colonel Burr inquire. No 
denial or declaration will be satisfactory, unless it be general, so as to wholly 
exclude the idea that rumors derogatory to Colonel Burr's honor have 
originated with General Hamilton, or have been fairly inferred from any- 
thing he has said. A definite reply to a requisition of this nature was 
demanded by Colonel Burr's letter on the 21st instant. This being 
refused, invites the alternative alluded to in General Hamilton's letter 
of the 20th. 

" It was required by the position in which the controversy was placed 
by General Hamilton, on Friday (June 22d) last, and I was immediately 
furnished with a communication demanding a personal interview. The 
necessity of this measure has not, in the opinion of Colonel Burr, been 
diminished by the General's last letter, or any communication which 
has since been received. I am consequently again instructed to deliv- 
er you a message, as soon as it may be convenient for you to receive 
it. I beg therefore you will be so good as to inform me at what hour 
I can have the pleasure of seeing you." 

Mr. Pendleton replied the same day : 

" SIR, I have communicated the letter which you did me the honor 
to write to me, of this date, to General Hamilton. The expectations 
now disclosed on the part of Colonel Burr appear to him to have 
greatly extended the original ground of inquiry, and, instead of pre- 
senting a particular and definite case for explanation, seem to aim at 
nothing less than an inquisition into his most confidential conversations, 
17* 



198 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

as well as others, through the whole period of his acquaintance with 
Colonel Burr. 

" While he was prepared to meet the particular case fairly and fully, 
he thinks it inadmissible that he should be expected to answer at large 
as to everything that he may possibly have said, in relation to the char- 
acter of Colonel Burr, at any time or upon any occasion. Though he is 
not conscious that any charges which are in circulation to the prejudice 
of Colonel Burr have originated with him, except one which may have 
been so considered, and which has long since been fully explained be- 
tween Colonel Burr and himself, yet he cannot consent to be ques- 
tioned generally as to any rumors which may be afloat derogatory to 
the character of Colonel Burr, without specification of the several 
rumors, many of them probably unknown to him. He does not, how- 
ever, mean to authorize any conclusion as to the real nature of his con- 
duct in relation to Colonel Burr, by his declining so loose and vague a 
basis of explanation, and he disavows an unwillingness to come to a 
satisfactory, provided it be an honorable, accommodation. His objec- 
tion is, the very indefinite ground which Colonel Burr has assumed, in 
which he is sorry to be able to discern nothing short of predetermined 
hostility. Presuming, therefore, that it will be adhered to, he has in- 
structed me to receive the message which you have it in charge to de- 
liver. For this purpose I shall be at home and at your command to- 
morrow morning from eight to ten o'clock." 

The final letter was from Mr. Van Ness, and dated June 
27th : 

" SIR, The letter which I had the honor to receive from you, under 
date of yesterday, states, among other things, that, in General Hamil- 
ton's opinion, Colonel Burr has taken a very indefinite ground, in which 
he evinces nothing short of predetermined hostility, and that General 
Hamilton thinks it inadmissible that the inquiry should extend to his 
confidential as well as other conversations. In this Colonel Burr can 
only reply, that secret whispers traducing his fame, and impeaching his 
honor, are at least equally injurious with slanders publicly uttered; 
that General Hamilton had, at no tune, and in no place, a right to use 
any such injurious expressions ; and that the partial negative he is dis- 
posed to give, with the reservations he wishes to make, are proofs that 
he has done the injury specified. 

" Colonel Burr's request was, in the first instance, proposed in a form 
the most simple, in order that General Hamilton might give to the affair 
that course to which he might be induced by his temper and his knowl- 
edge of facts. Colonel Burr trusted with confidence, that, from the frank- 
ness of a soldier and the candor of a gentleman, he might expect an 
ingenuous declaration. That if, as he had reason to believe, General 
Hamilton had used expressions derogatory to his honor, he would have 
had the magnanimity to retract them ; and that if, from his language, in- 
jurious inferences had been improperly drawn, he would have perceived 
the propriety of correcting errors, which might thus have been widely 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 199 

diffused. With these impressions, Colonel Burr was greatly surprised 
at receiving a letter which he considered as evasive, and which in man- 
ner he deemed not altogether decorous. In one expectation, however, 
he was not wholly deceived, for the close of General Hamilton's letter 
contained an intimation that, if Colonel Burr should dislike. his refusal 
to acknowledge or deny, he was ready to meet the consequences. This 
Colonel Burr deemed a sort of defiance, and would have felt justified 
in making it the basis of an immediate message. But as the communi- 
cation contained something concerning the indefiniteness of the request, 
as he believed it rather the offspring of false pride than of reflection, 
and as he felt the utmost reluctance to proceed to extremities, while 
any other hope remained, his request was repeated in terms more 
explicit. The replies and propositions on the part of General Hamilton 
have, in Colonel Burr's opinion, been constantly in substance the same. 

" Colonel Burr disavows all motives of predetermined hostility, a 
charge by which he thinks insult added to injury. He feels as a gen- 
tleman should feel when his honor is impeached or assailed ; and 
without sensations of hostility or wishes of revenge, he is determined to 
vindicate that honor at such hazard as the nature of the case demands. 

" The length to which this correspondence has extended only tend- 
ing to prove that the satisfactory redress, earnestly desired, cannot be 
obtained, he deems it useless to offer any proposition except the simple 
message which I shall now have the honor to deliver." 

A formal challenge accompanied the last letter of Mr. Van 
Ness, which Mr. Pendleton, in behalf of his principal, accepted. 
General Hamilton was still disposed to an accommodation ; and 
impressed with the conviction that a contingency might occur, 
even then, in which an overture on his part would be proper, he 
submitted to the discretion of his friend the " Remarks" upon 
the letter of Mr. Van Ness of June 27th which follow : 

*( "Whether the observations on this letter are designed merely to jus- 
tify the result which is indicated in the close of the letter, or may be 
intended to give an opening for rendering anything explicit which may 
have been deemed vague heretofore, can only be judged of by the 
sequel. At any rate it appears to me necessary not to be misunder- 
stood. Mr. Pendleton is therefore authorized to say, that in the 
course of the present discussion, written or verbal, there has been no 
intention to evade, defy, or insult, but a sincere disposition to avoid 
extremities if it could be done with propriety. With this view General 
Hamilton has been ready to enter into a frank and free explanation on 
any and every object of a specific nature ; but not to answer a general 
and abstract inquiry, embracing a period too long for any accurate 
recollection, and exposing him to unpleasant criticisms from, or unpleas- 
ant discussions with, any and every person who may have understood 
him in an unfavorable sense. This (admitting that he could answer in 
a manner the most satisfactory to Colonel Burr) he should deem inad- 



200 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

missible, in principle and precedent, and humiliating in practice. To 
this therefore he can never submit. Frequent allusion has been made 
to slanders said to be in circulation. Whether they are openly or in 
whispers, they have a form and shape, and might be specified. 

" If the alternative alluded to in the close of the letter is definitively 
tendered, it must be accepted ; the time, place, and manner to be af- 
terwards regulated. I should not think it right in the midst of a Cir- 
cuit Court to withdraw my services from those who may have confided 
important interests to me, and expose them to the embarrassment of 
seeking other counsel, who may not have time to be sufficiently instruct- 
ed in their causes. I shall also want a little time to make some arrange- 
ments respecting my own affairs." 

This paper of " Remarks" in General Hamilton's own hand- 
writing, was offered to Mr. Van Ness, but he declined to receive 
it, on the ground, " that he considered the correspondence as 
closed by the acceptance of the message that he had delivered." 

The course of Colonel Burr's friend without excuse al- 
lowed no further attempt at reconciliation, and the final arrange- 
ments for the hostile meeting were completed. Possibly Gen- 
eral Hamilton's first act of preparation was on the 4th of July, and 
a letter to bis wife, to be placed in her hands in the event of his 
fall. In this he states that he had endeavored by all honorable 
means to avoid the duel, and that he should not survive ; and he 
begs her forgiveness for the pain his death would cause her, and 
entreats her to bear her sorrows as one who placed a firm reli- 
ance on a kind Providence. 

Colonel Trumbull mentions,* that on the same day (July 4th) 
he dined with the Cincinnati of New York, that he met, among 
others, General Hamilton and Colonel Burr ; that the singularity 
of their manner was observed by all, though few had any sus- 
picion of the cause ; that Burr was silent, gloomy, and sour ; 
and that Hamilton entered with glee into all the gayety of a con- 
vivial party, and even sang an old military song. 

On the 9th of July, Hamilton executed his will. 

"In the name of God, amen. I, Alexander Hamilton, of the city of 
New York, Counsellor at Law, do make this my last will and testament, 
as follows : 

" First. I appoint John B. Church, Nicholas Fish, and Nathaniel 
Pendleton, of the city aforesaid, Esquires, to be executors and trustees 
of this my will ; and I devise to them, their heirs and assigns, as joint 
tenants, and not as tenants in common, all my estate, real and personal, 
whatsoever and wheresoever, upon trust, at their discretion to sell and 

* Autobiography, Reminiscences, and Letters, p. 244. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 201 

dispose of the same, at such time and times, in such manner, and upon 
such terms, as they, the survivors and survivor, shall think fit; and out 
of the proceeds to pay all the debts which I shall owe at the time of my 
decease ; in whole, if the fund be sufficient ; proportionably, if it shall 
be insufficient ; and the residue, if any there shall be, to pay and deliver 
to my excellent and dear wife, Elizabeth Hamilton. 

" Though, if it should please God to spare my life, I may look for a 
considerable surplus out of my present property ; yet, if he should 
speedily call me to the eternal world, a forced sale, as is usual, may 
possibly render it insufficient to satisfy my debts. I pray God that 
something may remain for the maintenance and education of my dear 
wife and children. But should it, on the contrary, happen that there is 
not enough for 'the payment of my debts, I entreat my dear children, if 
they, or any of them, should ever be able, to make up the deficiency. 
I, without hesitation, commit to their delicacy a wish which is dictated 
by my own. Though conscious that I have too far sacrificed the inter- 
ests of my family to public avocations, and on this account have the less 
claim to burden my children, yet I trust in their magnanimity to appre- 
ciate as they ought this my request. In so unfavorable an event of 
things, the support of their dear mother, with the most respectful and 
tender attention, is a duty, all the sacredness of which they will feel. 
Probably her own patrimonial resources will preserve her from indi- 
gence. But in all situations they are charged to bear in mind, that she 
has been to them the most devoted and best of mothers." 

General Hamilton's "remarks explanatory of his conduct, 
motives, and views," in meeting Colonel Burr, is the last docu- 
ment which remains to be inserted. It is in these words : 

" I was certainly desirous of avoiding this interview, for the most co- 
gent reasons. 

u l. My religious and moral principles are strongly opposed to the 
practice of duelling, and it would ever give me pain to be obliged to 
shed the blood of a fellow-creature in a private combat forbidden by the 



" 2. My wife and children are extremely dear to me, and my life is 
of the utmost importance to them, in various views. 

" 3. I feel a sense of obligation towards my creditors ; who, in case of 
accident to me, by the forced sale of my property may be in some de- 
gree sufferers. I did not think myself at liberty, as a man of probity, 
lightly to expose them to this hazard. 

" 4. I am conscious of no ill-will to Colonel Burr, distinct from politi- 
cal opposition, which, as I trust, has proceeded from pure and upright 
motives. 

" Lastly, I shall hazard much, and can possibly gain nothing, by the 
issue of the interview. 

" But it was, as I conceive, impossible for me to avoid it. There were 
intrinsic difficulties in the tiling, and artificial embarrassments, from the 
manner of proceeding on the part of Colonel Burr. 



202 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

"Intrinsic, because it is not to be denied, that my animadversions on 
the political principles, character, and views of Colonel Burr have been 
extremely severe ; and on different occasions I, in common with many 
others, have made very unfavorable criticisms on particular instances of 
the private conduct of this gentleman. 

"In proportion as these impressions were entertained with sincerity, 
and uttered with motives and for purposes which might appear to me 
commendable, would be the difficulty (until they could be removed by 
evidence of their being erroneous) of explanation or apology. The 
disavowal required of me by Colonel Burr, in a general and indefinite 
form, was out of my power, if it had really been proper for me to submit 
to be so questioned ; but I was sincerely of opinion that this could not 
be, and in this opinion I was confirmed by that of a very moderate and 
judicious friend whom I consulted. Besides that, Colonel Burr appeared 
to me to assume, in the first instance, a tone unnecessarily peremptory 
and menacing, and in the second, positively offensive. Yet I wished, 
as far as might be practicable, to leave a door open to accommodation. 
This, I think, will be inferred from the written communications made 
by me and by my direction, and would be confirmed by the conver- 
sations between Mr. Van Ness and myself, which arose out of the sub- 
ject. 

" I am not sure whether, under all the circumstances, I did not go 
further in the attempt to accommodate, than a punctilious delicacy will 
justify. If so, I hope the motives I have stated will excuse me. 

" It is not my design, by what I have said, to affix any odium on the 
conduct of Colonel Burr, in this case. He doubtless has heard of ani- 
madversions of mine which bore very hard upon him ; and it is probable 
that, as usual, they were accompanied with some falsehoods. He may 
have supposed himself under a necessity of acting as he has done. I 
hope the grounds of his proceeding have been such as ought to satisfy 
his own conscience. 

"I trust, at the same time, that the world will do me the justice to 
believe that I have not censured him on light grounds, nor from unwor- 
thy inducements. I certainly have had strong reasons for what I may 
have said, though it is possible that in some particulars I may have been 
influenced by misconstruction and misinformation. It is also my ardent 
wish that I may have been more mistaken than I think I have been, 
and that he, by his future conduct, may show himself worthy of all 
confidence and esteem, and prove an ornament and blessing to the 
country. 

" As well because it is possible that I may have injured Colonel Burr, 
however convinced myself that my opinions and declarations have been 
well founded, as from my general principles and temper in relation to 
similar affairs, I have resolved, if our interview is conducted in the 
usual manner, and it pleases God to give me the opportunity, to reserve 
and throw away my first fire, and I have thoughts even of reserving my 
second fire, and thus giving a double opportunity to Colonel Burr to 
pause and to reflect. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 203 

'It is not, however, my intention to enter into any explanations on 
the ground. Apology, from principle, I hope, rather than pride, is out 
of the question. 

" To those who, with me, abhorring the practice of duelling, may 
think that I ought on no account to have added to the number of bad 
examples, I answer, that my relative situation, as well in public as 
private, enforcing all the considerations which constitute what men of 
the world denominate honor, imposed on me (as I thought) a peculiar 
necessity not to decline the call. The ability to be in future useful, 
whether in resisting mischief or effecting good, in those crises of our 
public affairs which seem likely to happen, would probably be insepara- 
ble from a conformity with public prejudice in this particular. 

" A. H." 

The parties met on the Jersey shore, opposite the city of New 
York, at a place called Weahawk, on Wednesday morning, July 
llth, at the early hour of seven o'clock. The particulars of the 
duel follow, in the words of the seconds, Messrs. Pendleton and 
Van Ness : 

"Colonel Burr arrived first on the ground, as had been previously 
agreed. When General Hamilton arrived the parties exchanged salu- 
tations, and the seconds proceeded to make their arrangements. They 
measured the distance, ten full paces, and cast lots for the choice of po- 
sition, as also to determine by whom the word should be given, both of 
which fell to the seconds of General Hamilton. They then proceeded 
to load the pistols in each other's presence, after Avhich the parties took 
their stations. The gentleman who was to give the word then ex- 
plained to the parties the rules which were to govern them in firing, 
which were as follows : * The parties being placed at their stations, the 
second who gives the word shall ask them whether they are ready ; 
being answered in the affirmative, he shall say, Present; after this the 
parties shall present and fire when they please. If one fires before the 
other, the opposite second shall say, One, two, three, fire; and he 
shall then fire, or lose his fire.' He then asked if they were prepared ; 
being answered in the affirmative, he gave the word, Present, as had been 
agreed on, and both parties presented and fired in succession, the 
intervening time is not expressed, as the seconds do not precisely agree 
on that point. The fire of Colonel Burr took effect, and General Ham- 
ilton almost instantly fell. Colonel Burr then advanced towards Gen- 
eral Hamilton, with a manner and gesture that appeared to General 
Hamilton's friend to be expressive of regret, but without speaking 
turned about and withdrew, being urged from the field by his friend, as 
has been subsequently stated, with a view to prevent his being recog- 
nized by the surgeon and bargemen, who were then approaching. No 
further communication took place between the principals, and the barge 
that carried Colonel Burr immediately returned to the city. We con- 
ceive it proper to add, that the conduct of the parties in this interview 
was perfectly proper as suited the occasion." 



204 , CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Dr. David HoSack, the surgeon mutually agreed on to attend 
the parties, wrote an account of Hamilton's last moments, which 
was addressed to William Coleman, and is here inserted. It 
may be mentioned, that when the Doctor, at the call of Mr. Pen- 
dleton, hastened from his position on the field to the aid of Ham- 
ilton, he was compelled to pass Mr. Van Ness and Colonel Burr, 
and that Mr. Van Ness covered his friend with an umbrella, so 
that the Doctor should not see him, and be able to swear to his 
identity. 

" To comply with your request is a painful task ; but I will repress 
my feelings while I endeavor to furnish you with an enumeration of 
such particulars relative to the melancholy end of our beloved friend 
Hamilton, as dwell most forcibly on my recollection. 

" When called to Mm, upon his receiving the fatal wound, I found 
him half sitting on the ground, supported in the arms of Mr. Pendleton. 
His countenance of death I shall never forget. He had, at that instant, 
just strength to say, ' This is a mortal wound, Doctor' ; when he sank 
away, and became to all appearance lifeless. I immediately stripped up 
his clothes, and soon, alas ! ascertained that the direction of the ball 
must have been through some vital part.* His pulses were not to be 
felt ; his respiration was entirely suspended ; and upon laying my hand 
on his heart, and perceiving no motion there, I considered him as irre- 
coverably gone. I however observed to Mr. Pendleton, that the only 
chance for his reviving was immediately to get him upon the water. 
We therefore lifted him up, and carried him out of the wood, to the 
margin of the bank, where the bargemen aided us in conveying him 
into the boat, which immediately put off. During all this time I could 
not discover the least symptom of returning life. I now rubbed his 
face, lips, and temples with spirits of hartshorn, applied it to his neck 
and breast, and to the wrists and palms of his hands, and endeavored 
to pour some into his mouth. When we had got, as I should jiul-xe, 
about fifty yards from the shore, some imperfect efforts to breathe were 
for the first time manifest; in a few minutes he sighed, and* became 
sensible to the impression of the hartshorn, or the fresh air of the 
water. He breathed ; his eyes, hardly opened, wandered without fixing 
upon any objects; to our great joy he at length spoke: 'My vision is 



* "For the satisfaction of some of General Hamilton's friends, I examined 
his body after death, in presence of Dr. Post and two other gentlemen. I 
discovered that the ball struck the second or third false rib, and fractured it 
about in the middle; it then passed through the liver and diaphragm, and, 
as nearly as we could ascertain without a minute examination, lodged in the 
first or second lumbar vertebra. The vertebra in which it was lodged was 
considerably splintered, so that the spiculoe were distinctly perceptible to the 
finger. About a pint of clotted blood was found in the cavity of the belly, 
which had probably been effused from the divided vessels of the liver." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 205 

indistinct/ were Ms first words. His pulse became more perceptible ; 
his respiration more regular ; his sight returned. I then examined the 
wound to know if there was any dangerous discharge of blood. Upon 
slightly pressing his side, it gave him pain ; on which I desisted. Soon 
after recovering his sight, he happened to cast his eye upon the case of 
pistols, and observing the one that he had had in his hand lying on the 
outside, he said, ' Take care of that pistol ; it is undischarged, and still 
cocked ; it may go off and do harm ; Pendleton knows (attempting to 
turn his head towards him) that I did not intend to fire at him.' ' Yes,' 
said Mr. Pendleton, understanding his wish, ' I have already made Dr. 
Hosack acquainted with your determination as to that.' He then closed 
his eyes and remained calm, without any disposition to speak ; nor did 
he say much afterwards, excepting in reply to my questions as to his 
feelings. He asked me once or twice how I found his pulse ; and he 
informed me that his lower extremities had lost all feeling ; manifesting 
to me that he entertained no hopes that he should long survive. I 
changed the posture of his limbs, but to no purpose ; they had* totally 
lost their sensibility. Perceiving that we approached the shore, he said, 
' Let Mrs. Hamilton be immediately sent for ; let the event be gradu- 
ally broken to her ; but give her hopes.' Looking up we saw his friend, 
Mr. Bayard, standing on the wharf in great agitation. He had been 
told by his servant that General Hamilton, Mr. Pendleton, and myself 
had crossed the river in a boat together, and too well he conjectured 
the fatal errand, and foreboded the dreadful result. Perceiving, as we 
came nearer, that Mr. Pendleton and myself only sat up in the stern 
sheets, he clasped his hands together in the most violent apprehension. 
But when I called to him to have a cot prepared, and he at the same 
moment saw his poor friend lying in the bottom of the boat, he threw 
up his eyes and burst into a flood of tears and lamentation. Hamilton 
alone appeared tranquil and composed. We then conveyed him as ten- 
derly as possible up to the house. The distresses of this amiable family 
were such, that, till the first shock was abated, they were scarcely able 
to summon fortitude enough to yield sufficient assistance to their dying 
friend. 

" Upon our reaching the house he became more languid, occasioned, 
probably, by the agitation of his removal from the boat. I gave him a 
little weak wine and water. When he recovered his feelings, he com- 
plained of pain in his back. We immediately undressed him, laid him 
in bed, and darkened the room. I then gave him a large anodyne, 
which I frequently repeated. During the first day he took upwards of 
an ounce of laudanum ; and tepid anodyne fomentations were also ap- 
plied to those parts nearest the seat of his pain. Yet were his suffer- 
ings, during the whole of the day, almost intolerable.* I had not the 

* " As his habit was delicate, and had been lately rendered more feeble 
by ill health, particularly by a disorder of the stomach and bowels, I care- 
fully avoided all those remedies which are usually indicated on such occa- 
sions." 

18 



206 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

shadow of a hope of his recovery, and Dr. Post, whom I requested 
might be sent for immediately on our reaching Mr. Bayard's house, 
united with me in this opinion. General Rey, the French Consul, also 
had the goodness to invite the surgeons of the French frigates in our 
harbor, as they had had much experience in gun-shot wounds, to ren- 
der their assistance. They immediately came ; but to prevent his being 
disturbed I stated to them his situation, described the nature of his 
wound and the direction of the ball, with all the symptoms that could 
enable them to form an opinion as to the event. One of the gentlemen 
then accompanied me to the bedside. The result was a confirmation 
of the opinion that had already been expressed by Dr. Post and myself. 
" During the night, he had some imperfect sleep ; but the succeeding 
morning his symptoms were aggravated, attended, however, with a 
diminution of pain. His mind retained all its usual strength and com- 
posure. The great source of his anxiety seemed to be in his sympathy 
with his half-distracted wife and children. He spoke to me frequently 
of them. ' My beloved wife and children,' were always his expressions. 
But his fortitude triumphed over his situation, dreadful as it was ; once, 
indeed, at the sight of his children, brought to the bedside together, 
seven in number, his utterance forsook him ; he opened his eyes, gave 
them one look, and closed them again, till they were taken away. As 
a proof of his extraordinary composure of mind, let me add, that he 
alone could calm the frantic grief of their mother. ' Remember, my 
Eliza, you are a Christian' were the expressions with which he fre- 
quently, with a firm voice, but in a pathetic and impressive manner, 
addressed her. His words, and the tone in which they were uttered, 
will never be effaced from my memory. At about two o'clock, as the 
public well know, he expired. 

' Incorrupta fides nudaque veritas 
Quando ullum invenient parcm ? 
Multis ille quidem flebilis occidit.' " 

General Hamilton was visited, after the duel, by two distin- 
guished clergymen of New York, Bishop Moore, and the Rev. 
Dr. Mason, who also addressed communications to Mr. Cole- 
man, on the subject of their interviews. The Bishop wrote : 

" Yesterday morning, immediately after he was brought from Hobo- 
ken to the house of Mr. Bayard, at Greenwich, a message was sent in- 
forming me of the sad event, accompanied by a request from General 
Hamilton, that I would come to him for the purpose of administering 
the holy communion. I went ; but being desirous to afford time for 
serious reflection, and conceiving that, under existing circumstances, it 
would be right and proper to avoid every appearance of precipitancy 
in performing one of the most solemn offices of our religion, I did not 
then comply with his desire. At one o'clock I was again called on to 
visit him. Upon my entering the room and approaching his bed, with 
the utmost calmness and composure he said, ' My dear sir, you perceive 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 207 

my unfortunate situation, and no doubt have been made acquainted 
with the circumstances which led to it. It is my desire to receive the 
communion at your hands. I hope you will not conceive there is any 
impropriety in my request.' He added, ' It has for some time past been 
the wish of my heart, and it was my intention to take an early oppor- 
tunity of uniting myself to the Church, by the reception of that holy 
ordinance.' I observed to him, that he must be very sensible of the 
delicate and trying situation in which I was then placed ; that however 
desirous I might be to afford consolation to a fellow-mortal in distress, 
still, it was my duty as a minister of the Gospel to hold up the law of 
God as paramount to all other law ; and that therefore, under the in- 
fluence of such sentiments, I must unequivocally condemn the practice 
which had brought him to his present unhappy condition. He acknowl- 
edged the propriety of these sentiments, and declared that he viewed 
the late transaction with sorrow and contrition. I then asked him, 
' Should it please God to restore you to health, sir, will you never be 
again engaged in a similar transaction ? and will you employ all your 
influence in society to discountenance this barbarous custom ? ' His 
answer was, ' That, sir, is my deliberate intention.' 

" I proceeded to converse with him on the subject of his receiving 
the communion ; and told him that, with respect to the qualifications of 
those who wished to become partakers of that holy ordinance, my in- 
quiries could not be made in language more expressive than that which 
was used by our Church : Do you sincerely repent of your sins past ? 
Have you a lively faith in God's mercy through Christ, with a thankful 
remembrance of the death of Christ ? And are you disposed to live in 
love and charity with all men ? ' He lifted up his hands and said : 
' With the utmost sincerity of heart I can answer those questions in the 
affirmative. I have no ill-will against Colonel Burr. I met him with a 
fixed resolution to do him no harm. I forgive all that happened.' I 
then observed to him, that the terrors of the Divine law were to be an- 
nounced to the obdurate and impenitent, but that the consolations of 
the Gospel were to be offered to the humble and contrite heart ; that I 
had no reason to doubt his sincerity, and would proceed immediately to 
gratify his wishes. The communion was then administered, which he 
received with great devotion, and his heart afterwards appeared to be 
perfectly at rest. I saw him again this morning, when, with his last 
faltering words, he expressed a strong confidence in the mercy of God 
through the intercession of the Redeemer. I remained with him until 
two o'clock this afternoon, when death closed the awful scene. He ex- 
pired without a struggle, and almost without a groan. 

" By reflecting on this melancholy event, let the humble believer be 
encouraged ever to hold fast that precious faith which is the only source 
of true consolation in the last extremity of nature. Let the infidel be 
persuaded to abandon his opposition to that Gospel which the strong, 
inquisitive, and comprehensive mind of a HAMILTON embraced, in his 
last moments, as the truth from heaven. Let those who are disposed 
to justify the practice of duelling be induced, by this simple narrative, 



208 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

to view with abhorrence that custom which has occasioned an irrepar- 
able loss to a worthy and most afflicted family ; which has deprived his 
friends of a beloved companion, his profession of one of its brightest 
ornaments, and his country of a great statesman and a real patriot." 

Dr. Mason's letter was written in consequence of the appear- 
ance in the Commercial Advertiser of an imperfect account of 
his conversation with General Hamilton, the day previous to his 
decease. He said : 

" On the morning of Wednesday, the llth instant, shortly after the 
rumor of the General's injury had created an alarm in the city, a note 
from Dr. Post informed me that ' he was extremely ill at Mr. William 
Bayard's, and expressed a particular desire to see me as soon as possible.' 
I went immediately. The exchange of melancholy salutation, on enter- 
ing the General's -apartment, was succeeded by a silence which he 
broke by saying, that he ' had been anxious to see me, and have the 
sacrament administered to him ; and that this was still his wish.' I re- 
plied, that ' it gave me unutterable pain to receive from him any request 
to which I could not accede ; that, in the present instance, a compliance 
was incompatible with all my obligations, as it is a principle in our 
churches never to administer the Lord's supper privately to any person 
under any circumstances.' He urged me no further. I then remarked 
to him, that the Holy Communion is an exhibition and pledge of the 
mercies which the Son of God has purchased ; that the absence of the 
sign does not exclude from the mercies signified ; which were acces- 
sible to him by faith in their gracious Author.' ' I am aware,' said he, 
' of that. It is only as a sign that I wanted it.' A short pause ensued. 
I resumed the discourse, by observing that ' I had nothing to address to 
him in his affliction, but that same gospel of the grace of God, which it is 
my office to preach to the most obscure and illiterate ; that in the sight 
of God all men are on a level, as all have sinned, and come short of his 
glory ; and that they must apply to him for pardon and life, as sinners, 
whose only refuge is in his grace reigning by righteousness through our 
Lord Jesus Christ.' ' I perceive it to be so,' said he ; ' I am a sinner : 
I look to his mercy.' I then adverted to the infinite merit of the 
Redeemer, as the propitiation for sin, the sole ground of our acceptance 
with God ; the sole channel of his favor to us ; and cited the following 
passages of Scripture : ' There is no other namff given under heaven 
among men, whereby we must be saved, but the name of Jesus. He is able 
to save them to the uttermost who come unto God by him, seeing he ever 
liveth to make intercession for them. The blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth 
from all sin.' This last passage introduced the affair of the duel, on 
which I reminded the General, that he was not to be instructed as to 
its moral aspect ; that the precious blood of Christ was as effectual and as 
necessary to wash away the transgression which had involved him in 
suffering, as any other transgression ; and that he must there, and there 
alone, seek peace for his conscience, and a hope that should ' not make 
him ashamed' He assented, with strong emotion, to these representa- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 209 

tions, and declared his abhorrence of the whole transaction. ' It was 
always,' added he, ' against my principles. I used every expedient to 
avoid the interview ; but I have found, for some time past, that my 
life must be exposed to that man. I went to the field determined not 
to take his life/ He repeated his disavowal of all intention to hurt Mr. 
Burr ; the anguish of his mind in recollecting what had passed ; and 
his humble hope of forgiveness from his God. I recurred to the topic 
of the Divine compassion ; the freedom of pardon in the Redeemer 
Jesus to perishing sinners. ' That grace, my dear General, which brings 
salvation, is rich, rich ' ' Yes,' interrupted he, ' it is rich grace/ * And 
on that grace,' continued I, ' a sinner has the highest encouragement to 
repose his confidence, because it is tendered to him upon the surest 
foundation ; the Scripture testifying that we have redemption through the 
blood of Jesus, the forgiveness of sins according to the richness of his 
grace.' Here the General, letting go my hand, which he had held from 
the moment I sat down at his bedside, clasped his hands together, and, 
looking up towards heaven, said, with emphasis, ' I have a tender reli- 
ance on the mercy of the Almighty, through the merits of the Lord 
Jesus Christ/ He replaced his hand in mine, and, appearing somewhat 
spent, closed his eyes. A little after, he fastened them on me, and I 
proceeded. ' The simple truths of the Gospel, my dear sir, which re- 
quire no abstruse investigation, but faith in the veracity of God, who 
cannot lie, are best suited to your present condition, and they are full 
of consolation/ ' I feel them to be so,' replied he. I then 'repeated 
these texts of Scripture : ' It is a faithful saying, and worthy of all accep- 
tation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, 'and of sin- 
ners the chief. I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine 
own sake, and will not remember thy sins. Come now, and let us reason 
together, saith the Lord ; though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white 
as snow ; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.' ' This,' 
said he, 'is my support. Pray for me/ 'Shall I pray with you?' 
' Yes/ I prayed with him, and heard him whisper as I went along ; 
which I supposed to be his concurrence with the petitions. At the con- 
clusion he said, ' Amen. God grant it/ 

" Being about to part with him, I told him, ' I had one request to make/ 
He asked what it was. I answered, ' that, whatever might be the issue of 
his affliction, he would give his testimony against the practice of duelling/ 
' I will,' said he, ' I have done it. If that,' evidently anticipating the event, 
' if that be the issue, you will find it in writing. If it please God that I 
recover, I shall do it in a manner which will effectually put me out of its 
reach in future.' I mentioned, once more, the importance of renouncing 
every other dependence for the eternal world, but the mercy of God 
in Christ Jesus ; with a particular reference to the catastrophe of the 
morning. The General was affected, and said, ' Let us not pursue the 
subject any further, it agitates me/ He laid his hands upon his breast, 
with symptoms of uneasiness, which indicated an increased difficulty 
of speaking. I then took my leave. He pressed my hand affection- 
ately, and desired to see me again at a proper interval. As I was retir- 
18* 



210 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

ing, he lifted up his hands in the attitude of prayer, and said feebly, 

1 God be merciful to .' His voice sunk, so that I heard not the 

rest distinctly, but understood him to quote the words of the publican in 
the Gospel, and to end the sentence with ' me, a sinner.' 

I saw him a second time on the morning of Thursday ; but from his 
appearance, and what I had heard, supposing that he could riot speak 
without severe effort, I had no conversation with him. I prayed for a 
moment at his bedside, in company with his overwhelmed family and 
friends ; and for the rest, was one of the mourning spectators of his 
composure and dignity in suffering. His mind remained in its former 
state : and he viewed with calmness his approaching dissolution. I left 
him between twelve and one, and at two, as the public know, he 
breathed his last." 

The intelligence of Hamilton's fall paralyzed the country. He 
was the disciple who had leaned upon Washington's bosom. 
His remains were interred in the family vault, Trinity Church- 
yard, New York, on Saturday, July 14th. The funeral proces- 
sion was immense. The streets were lined with people, and 
even the house-tops were covered with spectators, who had 
thronged to the city to witness the melancholy ceremonies. 

Gouverneur Morris delivered an extemporary funeral oration 
on a stage erected in the portico of Trinity Church, in presence 
of the assembled thousands. Four of General Hamilton's sons, 
the eldest about sixteen, and the youngest about six years of age, 
were seated near the orator, who concluded in these words : 

" You all know how he perished. On this last scene, I cannot, I 
must not dwell. It might excite emotions too strong for your better 
judgment. Suffer not your indignation to lead to any act which might 
again offend the insulted majesty of the law ; on his part, as from his 
lips, though with my voice, for his voice you will hear no more, let 
me entreat you to respect yourselves. 

" And now, ye ministers of the everlasting God, perform your holy 
office, and commit these ashes of our departed brother to the bosom of 
the grave ! " 

The reader cannot have failed to notice, tbat, in the correspond- 
ence between Burr and Hamilton which preceded the duel, the 
cause of offence is stated to consist in certain expressions uttered 
by the latter in tbe presence of Dr. Cooper. But we are not to 
limit General Hamilton's animadversions to a single case or oc- 
casion, since he himself admits, in the paper which contains his 
Remarks explanatory of his motives and views, that his unfavor- 
able criticisms had been frequent and severe. Reference to the 
published correspondence* of Hamilton will show, that as early 

* Works, Vol. V. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 211 

as the year 1792, or twelve years previous to the fatal meeting, 
he expressed himself thus : 

" Mr. Burr's integrity as an individual is not unimpeached. As a 
public man, he is one of the worst sort, a friend to nothing but as 
suits his interest and ambition. Determined to climb to the highest 
honors of the state, and as much higher as circumstances may permit, 
he cares nothing about the means of effecting his purpose. 'T is evi- 
dent that he aims at putting himself at the head of what he calls the 
4 popular party/ as affording the best tools for an ambitious man to work 
with. Secretly turning liberty into ridicule, he knows as well as most 
men how to make use of the name. In a word, if we have an embryo 
Caesar in the United States, 'tis Burr." 

These general sentiments were repeated subsequently, in the 
same year, in two other letters to distinguished men of the time. 
And besides, it is fair to presume from other facts, which I 
have not room to cite, that the relations between the two gen- 
tlemen were never intimate or confidential, at any period. They 
entertained different sentiments towards the illustrious Com- 
mander-in-chief, in the Revolution, and were original leaders of 
opposite political parties in New York, at the peace and ever 
afterwards. It was not strange, that two such men should come 
to an open rupture. Nor can we wonder that Burr should have 
demanded " satisfaction," according to the duello. But we have 
a right to condemn Hamilton for accepting the call. He was 
not a duellist. True, in his youth (1778) he acted as second in 
the combat between Colonel Laurens and General Lee ; but we 
have his express declaration, in the Remarks just referred to, that 
" his religious ana 1 moral principles were strongly opposed to the 
practice of duelling." He met his antagonist, who, in his judg- 
ment, was a corrupt man, for what ? Because, to use his own 
words, " his relative situation, as well in public as private," im- 
posed upon him, as he thought, " a peculiar necessity not to de- 
cline " ; and because, regarding u what men of the world denom- 
inate honor," he considered that " his ability to be in future 
useful, whether in resisting mischief or effecting good, in those 
crises of our public affairs which seem likely to happen, would 
probably be inseparable from a conformity with public prejudice 
in this particular." He violated, then, his religious and moral 
principles, rather than not conform to " public prejudice." 

Hamilton, in the deepest sorrow be it uttered, though one 
of the illustrious of the world, and to live for ever in our annals, 
was hardly less than a suicide. When dying, he declared, 



212 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

that " he had found, for some time past, that his life must be ex- 
posed " to Burr ; and yet he resolved to go out and be shot 
down, without remonstrance or resistance. This is undeniably 
true. Without remonstrance, for " explanation on the ground" 
was, he said, " out of the question." Without resistance, for 
he affirmed, in his last hours, to Dr. Hosack, that " Pendleton 
knew that he did not intend to fire at " Burr, to Bishop Moore, 
that " he met him with a fixed resolution to do him no harm," 
and to Dr. Mason, that " he went to the field determined not to 
take his life." 

An examination of the course of his opponent allows us, after 
the lapse of half a century, to repeat an emphatic remark of the 
time, that he was a victim to " a long meditated and predeter- 
mined system of hostility on the part of Mr. Burr, and his confi- 
dential advisers." 

Burr arrived first at the lonely spot designated, and, calmly 
divesting himself of his coat, cleared away the bushes, limbs of 
trees, and other obstructions ; and in the combat raised his arm 
slowly, and took deliberate and fatal aim. Nothing -but Hamil- 
ton's death would satisfy him. When abroad, and in 1808, he 
gave Jeremy Bentham an account of the duel, and said, " he was 
sure of being able to kill him" ; and " so," records Bentham, " I 
thought it little better than a murder" Posterity will not be 
likely to disturb the judgment of the British philosopher. 

HANDEL, GEORGE FREDERIC, and M. MATHESON. In 1704, 
at Hamburg, with swords. The immortal author of the Mes- 
siah, and Matheson, the composer, were friends. A breach 
of etiquette, during the performance of the latter's opera of Cle- 
opatra, produced a quarrel which terminated in a duel. Mathe- 
son's weapon broke against one of his adversary's buttons, which 
put an end to the combat. 

HARDING, HENRY. See Harrington, Sir Jonah. 

HAROLD, the last Saxon king of England. See William the 
Conqueror. 

HARRIS, JOHN S., and MR. RUGGLES. In 1852, at Atalanta. 
The first a lawyer, the latter an editor. Neither harmed. 

HARVEY, " TOM." See Bunbury, Reverend Sir Willian. 

HASTINGS, SIR THOMAS, Admiral in the British Navy. Chal- 
lenge, in 1850, to Richard Cobden, member of Parliament. The 
Admiral, before a committee of Parliament, (of which Cobden 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 213 

was a member,) made some remarks relative to a large appro- 
priation of money for the naval service, which his friends sup- 
pressed, on the ground that they were not proper for the public 
eye, and would be injurious to the Admiral himself. Mr. Cob- 
den, however, mentioned the circumstance to Mr. Bright, who 
related it in a speech at Manchester. The orator, required to 
give his authority, named his informant. Mr. Cobden was asked 
to retract. He declined, and was invited to single combat. He 
declined this also, and published the whole affair. 

HASTINGS, WARREN, Governor-General of British India, and 
SIR PHILIP FRANCIS, one of the supposed authors of Junius. In 
India, in 1783. Sir Philip was a menber of the Governor's 
Council. The two gentlemen had long hated one another, but 
had been induced by mutual friends to come to an apparent 
reconciliation. It would seem from the account of the Gov- 
ernor, that Sir Philip violated his pledges almost immediately, for 
the former said in July, 1783, "I do not trust to his promise of 
candor, convinced that he is incapable of it. I judge of his pub- 
lic conduct by my experience of his private, which I find to be 
void of truth and honor." This accusation produced a challenge 
from Sir Philip, which Hastings accepted. Sir Philip was se- 
verely wounded, and returned to England. 

HAWKINS, S. M., an officer of the 97th regiment, foot, British 
army, and Lord Viscount MALDEN. In England, 1851. His 
Lordship seduced the wife of Hawkins. The seconds, E. L. 
Denys and Captain Brownrigg. Lord Maiden received the fire 
of his adversary, and discharged his own pistol in the air. 

HAWKINS, . See Dowdigan. 

HAYES, THOMAS, and JOHN NUGENT. In California, in 1853, 
with pistols. Hayes, an assistant alderman of San Francisco ; 
Nugent, editor of the Herald. Nugent gave the challenge in 
consequence of a card which Hayes published in the Whig. 
Nugent was dangerously wounded at the second fire. 

HAYES, , Solicitor. See Brie, . 

H., a Captain, and S., a Lieutenant, of the first Massachusetts 
regiment, in the war of the Revolution. In 1782. Thatcher re- 
lates the story thus : 

" Captain H. was esteemed a man of modest merit and unexception- 
able character ; he had long commanded a company, and proved him- 
self brave in the field, and a good disciplinarian. Lieutenant S., though 
a good active officer, is assuming, nigh-spirited, and values himself on 



214 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

what he deems the principles of honor and the gentleman. He aspersed 
the character of Captain II. with unfounded calumnies. Friends inter- 
posed, and a reconciliation was apparently made. Lieutenant S., how- 
ever, retained his old grudge, and renewed his slanders. Captain H., 
contrary to his principles, felt compelled to fight. He obtained a fur- 
lough, visited his friends in Massachusetts, made his will, and arranged 
his worldly affairs. They met, and Captain H. received a mortal wound, 
and died in three hours. His friends endeavored to bring Lieutenant 
S. to punishment by legal process ; but he drew his sword upon the 
sheriff who came to arrest him, and the civil officer retired. But Lieu- 
tenant 8. was punished by public sentiment. In 1786 a regiment was 
raised in Massachusetts for an Indian expedition, and though Lieutenant 
S. was one recommended for a commission by several general officers, 
the Governor and Council rejected his application with disdain." 

HEATH, JOHN, captain of marines, and OLIVER H. PERRY, 
post-captain in the navy of the United States. In New Jersey, 
near the city of New York, in 1818. The quarrel arose while 
the two officers were in the Mediterranean, in 1815. Perry, in 
referring to it, said, " I did, in a moment of irritation, produced 
by strong provocation, raise my hand against a person honored 
with a commission." A court-martial followed the difficulty, and 
both were privately reprimanded by Commodore Chauncey, who 
commanded the American squadron in that sea. Some time after 
their return to the United States, Heath sent a challenge. Perry, 
in remarking upon his course in the combat, declared, u I cannot 
consent to return his fire, as the meeting on my part will be en- 
tirely as an atonement for the violated rules of the service." 
Heath fired and missed. Perry, in accordance with his deter- 
mination, discharged his pistol in the air; and Decatur, his sec- 
ond, then effected an adjustment. 

HECKERNAN, Baron de. See Pouchkin, . 

HENLEY, ROBERT, Lord Northington. See Reeve, Zephaniah. 

HENDERSON, W., and H. MORGAN. In Georgia, in 1851, with 
rifles. Two shots were exchanged. The parties retired friends. 

HENNIS, , and SIR JOHN JEFFCOTT. In England, in 1833. 

Hennis, a physician ; Sir John, chief judge of the jice-admiralty 
court, Sierra Leone. Hennis was mortally wounded. Sir John 
absconded. The seconds were tried and acquitted. 

HENRIQUEZ, . See Phillips, Charles. 

HENRY IV., King of England, and THOMAS MOWBRAY, Duke of 
Norfolk, Earl Marshal of England. In England, year 1397, reign 
of Richard II., and while Henry was Duke of Hereford. The 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 215 

two dukes, embroiled in a mortal quarrel, arranged under the 
royal sanction a trial of combat, with all the preliminary forms 
and solemnities of the time. The parties, with their retinues, 
most of the peers of the realm, and about ten thousand other 
persons, repaired to the place appointed for the duel, when King 
Richard put an end to the proceedings, and proclaimed sentence 
of banishment against the noble combatants, who departed the 
kingdom accordingly. Norfolk soon died at Venice. Hereford 
having succeeded to the title of Duke of Lancaster, returned to 
England in 1399, drove Richard from the throne, and was him- 
self crowned as Henry IV., on the second anniversary of the day 
on which he went into banishment. The civil wars between the 
houses of York and Lancaster followed. The arrangements for 
the combat between Norfolk and Hereford are related in Shake- 
speare's best manner in Richard II. (For further particulars 
of Henry IV., see Orleans, Duke of, and also Rothsay, Duke of.) 

HENRY V., of England. Challenge, in 1414, to the Dauphin 
of France. Henry claimed the crown of France, as heir of Isa- 
bella, daughter of Philip V. The Dauphin, in derision, sent him 
some tennis-balls, thinking him fitter for play than war. Henry, 
a few months afterwards, sent a challenge to the Dauphin, to de- 
cide by single combat the difference between them as to the 
throne of France. No answer was returned. 

HERBERT, Lord. In England, year 1606. A gentleman of 
the bed-chamber of James I. seized and bore away the " top- 
knot " of Mary Middlemore, a damsel of the court. Lord Her- 
bert demanded the prize, and was refused; he thereupon seized 
the aggressor by the throat and nearly strangled him. They 
were parted by friends, lest they should incur the penalty of 
losing their hands, by blows in the palace. But they exchanged 
a cartel to fight unto death in Hyde Park. James interfered, and 
sent both to the Tower for a month. 

HERRIES, Lord. See Lindsay, Lord. 

HERVEY, Lord. See Bath, William Pultney, Earl of. 

HESTER, HON. D., and DR. GREEN. At or near Shreveport, 
in 1849 or early in 1850. Both killed. 

HICKEY, Colonel, and JOSEPH MOSES. Near the Rio Grande, 
in 1849. Hickey, who was formerly editor of the Vicksburg 
Sentinel, was killed. 



216 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

HILL, REV. MR., and Cornet GARDNER. In England, 1764. 
The clergyman was slain. 

HILLAS, Major, and FENTON. In Ireland, I suppose in 

1812. Hillas was killed. He said on the ground to the by- 
standers : " I am sorry the mistaken laws of honor oblige me to 
come here to defend myself; and I declare to God, I have no 
animosity to man or woman on the face of the earth." The 
cause of this duel does not very clearly appear; but the Major 
had given offence by " his humane efforts to protect the ship- 
wrecked." Fenton was tried for murder. Judge Fletcher pre- 
sided, and in his summing up to the jury thus spoke : 

" Gentlemen, it is my business to lay down the law to you, and I will. 
The law says the killing a man in a duel is murder, and I am bound 
to tell you it is murder ; therefore, in the discharge of my duty, I tell 
you so ; but I tell you at the same time, a fairer duel than this I never 
heard of in the whole coorse of my life." 

HOLLAND, Lord, and Lord WESTON. In England, about 1633. 
Lord Weston was resident ambassador of Charles I. at Paris. 
The Queen, Henrietta Maria, a French princess, intrusted some 
letters to her mother and relatives in France to Lord Holland for 
transmission ; but they fell into the hands of Lord Weston, who 
returned them to Charles. The two noblemen became involved 
in a quarrel. Charles justified Lord Weston, and placed Lord 
Holland under arrest, for offering " to fight the ambassador to 
the death." 

HOLMAN, Captain. See Shrewsbury, Earl of. 

HOOLE, R. A., and ALEXANDER J. DALLAS. In 1851. The 
parties differed at the National Hotel, Washington, and in con- 
sequence arranged a meeting at Bladensburg. They were 
arrested at or near the spot selected, and held to keep the 
peace. 

HOPE, JAMES, and J. P. JONES. In Virginia, 1849. Both 
wounded, the former dangerously. It is stated that Mr. Jones, 
who is a midshipman in the navy, used the pistol that killed 
Commodore Decatur. 

HOPKINS, , and MR. TAYLOR. In California, 1851. The 

parties were officers of the customs ; the first a deputy collector, 
the latter an inspector.. A difficulty arose between them which 
they agreed to settle with pistols at Benicia. Mr. Taylor was, 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 217 

however, arrested by the civil authorities, and put under bonds 
to keep the peace. 

HOPKINS, EDWARD, of Maryland, and . In 1814, 

near Bladensburg. Hopkins was an ensign of infantry in the 
army of the United States, and was killed. 

HORATII, the, and the CURIATII. In the 87th year of Rome, 
and 667 years B. C. In the war between the Romans and the 
Albans. The general in command of the forces of the latter 
proposed to the King of Rome to refer the destiny of both people 
to three combatants on each side, and that empire should be the 
prize of the conquering party. The overture was accepted. 
The Roman champions were the three Horatii ; those of Alba, 
the three Curiatii. In the duel which followed, five were slain. 
Horatius, the survivor, saved Rome. On his return to the city 
in triumph, he met his sister, the destined spouse of one of the 
Curiatii ; and enraged at the manifestations of her grief for her 
loss, he slew her with his sword. " Begone to thy lover," said 
he, " and carry him that degenerate passion which makes thee 
prefer a dead enemy to the glory of thy country." Horatius 
was seized, tried, and condemned to die, for the murder. He 
appealed from the tribunals to the people, who, superior to the 
laws, commuted his punishment to passing under the yoke, and 
at the same time decreed him a trophy. 

, . Challenge to HON. SAM HOUSTON, late President 

of Texas, and now a Senator in Congress from that State. I in- 
troduce the name of this distinguished gentleman, to place on 
record in these pages his sentiments on the subject of personal 
combat, as found in a speech delivered by him in the Senate, 
July 15th, 1854. It appears that Commodore E. W. Moore, of 
the Texan* navy, had addressed him a letter, in which he stated 
that he would have demanded of him 

" That redress which one gentleman has a right to expect from an- 
other who has abused, vilified, and misrepresented him, as you have me 
on so many occasions, in public bar-rooms, in the streets, and evett in 
the presence of ladies, but for the well-known fact that you have refused 
to render satisfaction to General Lamar, Judge Burnett, and Dr. 
Archer, for gross and flagrant acts of injustice which you have done 
them," &c., &c. 

This letter was dated in 1845, but Mr. Houston had not re- 
ceived it, nor had he any knowledge of it, until a very recent 
day, when it was found among some public papers furnished by 
the Commodore to Mr. Pearce, Senator from Maryland. In com- 
19 



218 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

meriting upon it he said that he had " never had a correspond- 
ence with General Lamar, or Mr. Archer, or a quarrel with 
either of the three named " ; though he had received a verbal 
challenge from one of them, which he declined. It was sent ori 
Saturday night, and proposed a meeting the next day. 

" I objected to it," he remarked, " first, on the ground that we were 
to have but one second, and that was the man who brought the chal- 
lenge. Another objection was, that we were to meet on Sunday morn- 
ing, and that I did not think anything was to be made by fighting on 
that day. The third objection was, that he was a good Christian, and 
had had his child baptized the Sunday before. The fourth was, that I 
never fought down hill, and I never would. I must, at least, make char- 
acter, if I did not lose my life ; and therefore I notified him in that way. 
He seemed to be satisfied with this good-humored answer, and it is the 
only challenge I have ever received in Texas." 

Mr. Houston, in a previous part of his speech, observed : 

" 1 will avail myself of this occasion now to declare that I never made 
a quarrel with a mortal man on earth ; nor will lever do anything to origi- 
nate a quarrel with any man, woman, or child living. If they quarrel 
with me, it is their privilege : but I shall try to take care that they do me 
no harm." 

HOWARD, SAMUEL, and JOSEPH WELCHER. In Georgia, 1803. 
The parties were members of the city council, Savannah, and a 
dispute arose in that body. Howard dangerously wounded. 
The seconds, George M. Troup, who was subsequently Gover- 
nor of Georgia, and George D. Sweet. 

HOWARD, LORD BERNARD. See Shrewsbury, Earl of. 
HOWDEN, LORD. See Soule, Pierre. 
HUBERT, NUMA. See Hunt, George T. 

HUGHES, JAMES, and MR. TUCKER. In Virginia, 1803. Hughes 
killed ; Tucker wounded. 

HUMBERSTON, Major. See Fox, Charles James. 

ftuNT, GEORGE T., and NUMA HUBERT. In California, in 1854, 
with pistols, ten paces. The former, ex-member of the legis- 
lature ; the latter, late of the army. In consequence of a diffi- 
culty at the theatre, San Francisco. Hunt was mortally wounded 
at the third fire. 

HUNT, THOMAS. See Frost, John William. 
HUNTER, CHARLES G. See Miller, William, Jr. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 219 

HUNTER, WILLIAM, and DAVID B. MITCHELL. In Georgia, 
1802. Both citizens of Savannah ; the former, under the ad- 
ministration of Mr. Adams, navy agent of that port. They 
fought with pistols, at ten paces, to advance t\vo paces at each 
fire. At the first shot, Mitchell missed ; Hunter's ball struck 
in Mitchell's side, but stopped in a fold of his shirt. At the 
second fire, Mitchell was again hit full in the thigh, but' the ball 
again failed to penetrate ; Hunter was shot through the heart, 
and died on the spot. 

HURLEY, CATHARINE. See Hall, Jane. 

HUSTON, Lieutenant NATHANIEL, of Pennsylvania, and En- 
sign BRADSHAW. In the " Western army," 1794. Both officers 
in the " U. S. Legion," under General St. Clair. Both killed. 

HUTCHINSON, FRANCIS HELY. See Mountmorris, Lord. 

HUXTON, MILTON, of New York, cornet of dragoons, army 
of the United States. In 1809. He died of his wounds at Car- 
lisle, Penn. Antagonist unknown. 

ILLINOIS : Constitutional provision : 

" Any person who shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, fight 
a duel, or send or accept a challenge for that purpose, or be aider or 
abetter in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any 
office of honor or profit in this State, and shall be punished otherwise, 
in such manner as may be prescribed by law." 

And every person appointed or elected to office is required to 
take the following oath : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I have not 
fought a duel, nor sent or accepted a challenge to fght a duel, the probable 
issue of which might have been the death of either party, nor been a second 
to either party, nor in any manner aided or assisted in such duel, nor been 
knoioingly the bearer of such challenge or acceptance, since the adoption 
of this Constitution ; and that I will not be so engaged or concerned, di- 
rectly or indirectly, in or about any such duel, during my continuance in 
office. So help me God" 

ILLO, a colonel in the service of the Emperor of Austria, in 
the " thirty years' war." Challenge, in 1634, to Colonel Gor- 
don, a Scotch officer in the same service. Count Wallenstein 
and Duke of Friedland, generalissimo of the Austrian army, 
revolted. Illo followed his general, and was created a field-mar- 
shal. With other confidential friends of Wallenstein, he was 
invited to a feast in the castle of Egra, by the Count's enemies, 



220 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

though under color of friendship to him, and of favoring his 
plans. While at table, the hall was filled with armed men, who, 
on a concerted signal, placed themselves behind the chairs of the 
doomed guests. Illo alone had the presence of mind to defend 
himself. He placed his back against a window, reproached 
Gordon in bitter terms for his treachery, and finally defied him 
to a fair and honorable fight. The challenge was not noticed. 
Illo made a gallant resistance, and slew two of his assailants. 
He fell at last, overpowered with numbers, and pierced with ten 
wounds- 

INGE, SAMUEL W., member of Congress from Alabama. See 
Stanly, Edward, and also Gwin, William M. 

INNES and CLARKE. In Hyde Park, in 1748 ; with pistols. 
The quarrel between these gentlemen, who were captains in 
the British navy, was caused by the animosities which arose be- 
tween Admiral Knowles and several of his officers, while em- 
ployed against the possessions of Spain in the West Indies. 
The Admiral accused some of his captains of misconduct, and 
they, in turn, impeached him ; and on the return of the fleet to 
England, a court-martial was the consequence of their mutual 
accusations. Those who espoused the side of the Admiral were 
met with the most angry spirit by those who assailed him. A 
bloodless encounter occurred between the Admiral and Captain 
Powlet ; and finally a duel between Innes and Clarke. Innes was 
mortally wounded : his antagonist was tried for murder, and con- 
victed, but received the royal pardon. 

IOWA : Constitutional provision : 

" Any citizen of this State who may hereafter be engaged, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, in a duel, either as principal or accessory before the 
fact, shall for ever be disqualified from holding any office under the 
Constitution and laws of this State." 

IRBY, F. W., and Doctor FANT. In Alabama, 1854. The 
two gentlemen had been rival candidates for the legislature of 
that State. The difficulty was political. Irby was killed at the 
first fire. 

IRVING, C., and W. E. GIBSON. In Arkansas, 1849. The 
former, previously editor of the Memphis Inquirer. At the first 
fire, he received the contents of his antagonist's pistol in the 
abdomen. A reconciliation was effected. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 221 

ISAAC, Emperor of Cyprus. See Richard I. of England. 
ISAACS, . See Ladd, J. B. 

ISIDORE, MONS., and MONS. ALPHONSE. In France, in 1853, 
or early in 1854. They were both in love with a married lady. 
Invited to her house with a large company, they were thrown by 
accident into immediate contact, in the circle which surrounded 
the object of their devotion, who appeared to favor Alphonse. 
Isidore became irritated, and selected a card from a vase on a 
table, and, with evident affectation, commenced crushing it in his 
hands. Alphonse saw that the card was his own, and readily 
understood the act. Directly the eyes of the rivals met, when 
Isidore threw the card into the fire. Alphonse approached and 
whispered, " I fear, monsieur, you did not read my address on 
my card, here 's another : at what time to-morrow shall I have 
the honor of seeing two of your friends with two of mine ? " 
" Ten o'clock," was the response. They met the next day in the 
fosse of the fortification near Vincennes, with swords. Isidore 
was wounded in the shoulder. 

ISTURITZ, Senor. See Mendizabal, Prime-Minister of Spain. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. Unable 
to obtain authentic accounts of the affairs with which he was 
connected in early life, and unwilling to do so distinguished a 
person injustice, I deem it best to use no part of the fragmen- 
tary materials in my possession, and to ask the reader's indul- 
gence until better success shall attend my researches. 

JACKSON, JAMES, an officer in the army of the Revolution, a 
Major-General in the militia, a Governor of Georgia, and a Sen- 
ator in Congress. Two duels. The first, in 1780, with Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Wells of Georgia. Wells lost his life, and 
Jackson was badly wounded in both knees. The second, in 
1802, with Colonel R. Watkins, in consequence of a political 
controversy. Jackson was wounded. 

JARNAC, MONS., and MONS. DE LA CHAISTAIGNERIE. In 
France, 1547. A judicial combat or duel ; and the last which 
occurred in France, authorized by a magistrate. 

JAY, HON. JOHN. See Littlepage, Lewis. 
JEFFCOTT, SIR JOHN. See Hennis. 
19* 



222 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

JEFFREY, FRANCIS, Lord-Advocate of Scotland. See Moore, 
Thomas. 

JEFFRIES, LORD. See Dryden, Charles. 

JENKINS, SIR JONES. See Shrewsbury, Earl of. 

JESUP, General. See Clay, Henry, and John Randolph. 

JOHN, King of England. Challenge to Philip, King of France, 
in 1195, or the year following, and in the reign of Richard I. 
Philip informed Richard that Prince John had maintained secret 
correspondence with him, and was in a league to overthrow his 
brother. Richard, indignant at the intelligence, deprived John 
of all his lands in England and Normandy, which he held of 
the crown. John denied the accusation, and sent a challenge to 
Philip, in which he claimed to be allowed to prove his innocence 
by combat, either in person or by champion. The King of 
France neither complied nor made answer to the message. 
See also Lusignan, Count Hugh de. 

JOHNSON, BENJAMIN. See White, T. 
JOHNSON, E. W. See Daniel, J. M. 
JOHNSON, GEORGE P. See Gwin, William M. 

JOHNSTON, SIR JAMES, and the seventh LORD MAXWELL. In 
Scotland, about the year 1613. Possibly a meeting without the 
preliminaries of a duel. In the feud between the two families, 
the head of the house of Johnston was slain. Lord Maxwell 
fled, but was betrayed by the Earl of Caithness, tried, and be- 
headed. 

JOHNSTON, ZACHARIAH F. See Stanly, Falius. 

JOHNSTONE, Governor GEORGE. See Germaine, Lord George. 

JONATHAN, a Jew, and PUDENS, a Roman. The Jew, accord- 
ing to Josephus, was contemptible alike in character, family, stat- 
ure, and general appearance. But he seems to have had suffi- 
cient courage to defy the best of the Romans to single combat. 
So mean a foe was despised, and his challenge declined, until 
Pudens, a horseman, " out of his abomination " of Jonathan's 
words, and " perhaps out of an inconsiderate arrogance," went 
out to fight him. Pudens was slain ; and his adversary, while 
exulting in his victory, was pierced through by a dart shot from 
the bow of Priscus, a centurion ; and both Jews and Romans set 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 223 

up a shout, the one at the fall of Pudens, the other at the success 
of the centurion. 

JONES, GEORGE W., Delegate in Congress from Wisconsin. 
See Cilley, Jonathan. 

JONES, J. P. See Hope, James. 

JONES, WILLIAM H., and JOHN S. NUGENT. In California, 
1852. The former wounded. 

JONES, Major, and Colonel GRONARD. In Florida, 1852, with 
bowie-knives. Jones killed. 

KEITH, W. J. See Dantzler, O. M. 
KELLEY, JOHN. See Spear, W. S. 

KELLY, JOSEPH, an officer in the British army. His antago- 
nist was slain. Kelly was tried and narrowly escaped conviction. 
Subsequently, he was in service under Wellington, and partici- 
pated in the battle of Waterloo. Though personally known to 
the Duke, he received no advancement. He was killed at Paris, 
by a commissary with whom he had quarrelled. 

KEMBLE, E. C., and editor of the Alia newspaper, and Col- 
onel McDouGAL. In California, 1851. Kemble the challenger. 
The parties were arrested on the field. 

KENNEDY, Doctor. See Walker, Judge. 

KENTUCKY : Constitutional provisions : Members of the 
General Assembly, and all officers, before they enter upon the 
execution of the duties of their respective offices, are required to 
swear or affirm, 

" That since the adoption of the present Constitution, I, being a citizen 
of this State, have not fought a duel with deadly weapons, within this State 
nor out of it, with a citizen of this State, nor have I sent or accepted a 
challenge tojight a duel with deadly weapons, with a citizen of this State ; 
nor have I acted as second in carrying a challenge, or aided or assisted 
any person so offending. So help me God" 

And a second article provides, that 

" Any person who shall, after. the adoption of this Constitution, either 
directly or indirectly, give, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge to 
any person or persons, to fight in single combat with a citizen of this 
State, with any deadly weapon, either in or out of this State, shall be 
deprived of the right to hold any office of honor or profit in this Com- 
monwealth, and shall be punished otherwise in such manner as the 
General Assembly may prescribe by law." 



224 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

KERR, LORD MARK, a British nobleman, and a French officer. 
In 1743. The quarrel arose at a dinner given by the Earl of 
Stair, commander-in-chief of the British forces in Germany. 
Wraxhall, in his Memoirs, thus relates the occurrence. 

I* A difference of opinion having arisen during the repast, on some 
point which was maintained by one of the French officers, with great 
pertinacity, Lord Mark Kerr, in a very gentle tone of voice, ventured 
to set him right on the matter of fact. But the Frenchman, uncon- 
scious of his quality, and perhaps thinking that a frame so delicate did 
not inclose a high spirit, contradicted him in the most gross terms, 
such as are neither used nor submitted to among gentlemen. The 
circumstance took place so near to Lord Stair, as unavoidably to 
attract his attention. No notice whatever was taken of it at the time, 
and after dinner the company adjourned to another tent, where coffee 
was served. Lord Mark coming in about a quarter of an hour later 
than the others, Lord Stair no sooner observed him, than, calling 
him aside, ' Nephew,' said he, ' I think it impossible for you to pass by 
the affront that you have received from the French officer at my table. 
You must demand satisfaction, however much I regret the necessity of 
it.' ' O my lord,' answered Lord Mark, with his characteristic gentle- 
ness of manner, ' you need not be under any uneasiness on that subject. 
We have already fought. I ran him through the body. He died on 
the spot, and they are at this moment about to bury him. I knew too 
well what I owed myself, and I was too well convinced of your lord- 
ship's way of thinking, to lose a moment in calling the officer to ac- 
count.' " 

KIER, SIR WILLIAM. See Montgomery. 

KILKENNY, Earl of, and MR. BALL, an attorney. At the time 
of the combat, the Earl was known as Lord Mountgarret. His 
lordship had several insolvent tenants whose suits in law with 
him were gratuitously managed by Ball and other members of 
the Irish bar. In this circumstance, the difficulty originated. 
Ball was the challenged party. They exchanged two shots. 
His lordship was wounded each time. Ball escaped unharmed. 

KIRKALDY of Grange. See Both-well, James Hepburn, Earl of. 
KNIGHT, Captain. See Sheridan, Richard Brinsley. 
LACOMBE, Mons. See Blanc, Mons. Charles. 

LADD, J. B., and MR. ISAACS. In South Carolina, in 1786. 
Ladd was a physician, and utterly opposed to duelling ; he was 
mortally wounded. 

LAFAYETTE, the Marquis of. Challenge, in 1778, to the Ear] 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 225 

of Carlisle. The Earl was one of the Commissioners of Eng- 
land to the United States, during the Revolution, to effect a 
reconciliation between the two countries. In an address to 
Congress, after the failure of the mission, the Commissioners 
used the following expressions : 

" They remain astonished at the calamities in which the unhappy people 
of these Colonies continue to be involved, from the blind deference which 
their leaders profess towards a power that has ever shown itself an enemy 
to all civil and religious liberty, and whose offers, his Majesty's Commis- 
sioners must repeat, whatever may be the pretended date and present form 
of them, were made only in consequence of the plan of accommodation 
concerted in Great Britain, and with a view to prevent the reconciliation 
proposed, and to prolong this destructive war" 

These terms were deemed highly derogatory to France, by 
the French officers in the service of Congress, and the Marquis, 
as the highest in rank, in behalf of his country, sent the Earl a 
chivalrous note requiring personal satisfaction. The Earl very 
properly declined to make private and individual atonement for 
an act performed with others in the discharge of a public duty. 

The course of Lafayette was in opposition to the advice of 
Washington, and of the Count d'Estaing. The Commander-in- 
chief, in reply to a communication on the subject, addressed to 
him by the Marquis, without directly condemning the practice 
of duelling, presented various considerations against a challenge 
in that particular case ; and subsequently, in a letter to the 
Count, he observed that he had " omitted neither serious rea- 
soning nor pleasantry to divert the Marquis from a scheme in 
which he could be so easily foiled, without having any credit 
given him by his antagonist for his generosity and sensibility." 
Lafayette had expressed a wish to be governed by the opinion 
of Washington ; but believing that he had committed himself 
too far to retract with decency, he persisted in his purpose. 
Washington, however, derived consolation from the reflection 
that the Earl would decline ; and that, 

" while our friend gains all the applause which is due to him for 
wishing to become the champion of his country, he will be secure from 
the possibility of such dangers as my fears would otherwise create for 
him, by those powerful barriers which shelter his lordship, and which 
I am persuaded he will not in the present instance violate." 

The Count entertained the same sentiments ; and wrote to the 
Commander-in-chief, that " ambassadors, commissioners, and 
men in office, are supposed to speak only in consequence of 



226 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

orders which they have received " ; that, " as public organs, 
they owe an account only to their own government of the things 
which they hazard " ; and that he could not, therefore, presume 
that Lord Carlisle would accept the invitation of the Marquis. 
As his lordship declined on the grounds anticipated by the two 
distinguished personages who were consulted by the sensitive 
French noble, he could but have stood justified, even in the 
judgment of the most scrupulous advocate of the duello. 

LAFAYETTE, GEORGE W. See Dulong, Mons. 
LAFRETTE, Mons. See Bouteville, Count Charles. 

LAMARTINE, ALFONSE DE, and GABRIEL PEPE. In 1825, 
Lamartine was appointed Secretary to the French Legation at 
Florence, and, in a poem written in imitation of Byron's Childe 
Harold, indulged, in conclusion, in an eloquent tirade upon the 
degradation of Italy. Colonel Pepe, a Neapolitan officer, took 
offence, and in the name of his country " demanded satisfac- 
tion." The poet and the soldier me^;. The former was danger- 
ously wounded ; before his recovery was complete, he gener- 
ously interceded with the Grand Duke in behalf of his adversary. 

LANDAIS, PIERRE, and CAPTAIN COTTINEAU. In Holland, in 
1778. Both were officers in the navy of the United States. 
Landais was the challenger. They met with small swords. 
Landais was a master of the weapon, and gave his antagonist a 
severe wound. 

Landais, in the celebrated battle between the Bon Homme 
Richard and the Serapis, behaved infamously. He was in com- 
mand of the frigate Alliance, and, disobeying the signal of John 
Paul Jones, who was commander of the little American squadron, 
he placed his ship in a position where he could be a spectator 
of the fight, until the Richard and Serapis had grappled, when 
he ran down under easy sail, and deliberately fired into the 
Richard, killing several on board of her. The attack was de- 
signed ; for he would not desist, though hailed from the Richard, 
and told that his fire was upon the Commodore's ship instead of 
the enemy's. 

Landais was accordingly, and upon charges preferred by the 
officers of the American ships, summoned to Paris by Franklin, 
to answer for his baseness. Cottineau was a witness against 
him ; and this circumstance, with the differences which had 
occurred during the cruise, gave rise to the duel. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 227 

It was the opinion at the time, that Landais intended to kill 
Jones, and disable the Bon Horn me Richard, in order to finish, 
himself, the conquest of the Serapis. As it was, he claimed the 
merit of the victory, on the ground that he gave a raking fire 
which caused the Serapis to surrender. 

Landais, elated by his success in the affair with Cottineau, 
sent a challenge to Jones. But the Commodore despatched 
officers to arrest him, when he made his escape. 

LANE, J. H., Lieutenant-Governor of Indiana, and Colonel 
EBENEZER DUMONT, a member of the legislature. In 1851. 
The account is, that the Lieutenant-Governor was the challenger, 
and that, after the parties arrived on the ground, he withdrew 
his challenge. 

LANUSSE. See Marigny, Gustavus. 
LARRY, Colonel. See Dulong, Mons. 

LAS CASES, son of Emanuel A. D., Count and Marquis Las 
Cases. Challenge, in 1823, to Sir Hudson Lowe. The Count, 
in his Memorial de Sainte Helene, a work which appeared 
originally in eight volumes, spoke in severe terms of the Eng- 
lish Governor's treatment of Napoleon ; to which allegation Sir 
Hudson published an insulting answer. The Count's son 
thereupon repaired to England, and sent his father's adversary 
a cartel. Sir Hudson declined, and took measures to remove 
the challenger from the country. 

LATJDERDALE, Lord, and General BENEDICT ARNOLD. In 
1792, in England. That such a man as his lordship's antag- 
onist was so far recognized as a gentleman as to be permitted 
to fight a duel, is wonderful. 

LAUDERDALE, Lord. See Richmond, Duke of. 

LAURENS-, Colonel JOHN. See Lee, General Charles. 

LAURY, Mons. See Vieyra, Mons. 

LA w> JOHN, the financier. See Wilson, Edward. 

LAWSON, Lieutenant, Navy of U. S. See McKnight, James. 

LECKIE, ROBERT, and HALL. In Charleston, S. C., 

1852. The Mercury of that city published the following : 

" The parties had met the day previous, and offensive language had 
passed between them. Yesterday, Mr. Leckie, expressing a determi- 



228 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

friend, which he carried to a gunsmith, by whom it was put in order 
and loaded. Armed with this weapon, and accompanied by a friend, 
he proceeded to Mr. Hall's place of business in King Street, called him 
to the door, and demanded satisfaction. Mr. Hall expressed his willing- 
ness to give him all the satisfaction he desired, but reminded him that 
this was no proper place for the settlement. 

" The parties then moved along King Street and turned into Beaufain 
Street. Here Mr. Leckie repeated his demand for satisfaction, on 
which Mr. Hall faced about, and the parties, about six feet apart, sim- 
ultaneously drew their revolvers, and exchanged two shots in rapid 
succession. At Mr. Hall's second shot, Mr. Leckie, placing his hand to 
his right side, retreated into the store of Mr. C. W. DeLand, by the 
side door. After a brief pause Mr. Hall passed by the door, on his 
return to Kingr Street, which Mr. Leckie observing, stepped out, fired a 
third shot at his antagonist's back, and then retreated within the door. 
Mr. Hall turned and fired in reply, his ball grazing the edge of the 
doorway. Mr. Hall's second shot was the only one that took effect. 
It entered the right side of Mr. Leckie, passed through the liver, and 
resulted in his death in less than thirty minutes after he received the 
wound. 

LEE, CHARLES, a Major-General in the army of the Revolu- 
tion. His affairs of honor were numerous. It is believed that 
he was engaged in several before he came to America. The 
last, with an Italian officer, who was killed, compelled him to 
flee ; and in 1773 he sailed from London for New York. 

In 1778, after he was tried for his conduct at Monmouth, 
he published a Defence ; in which he spoke of Washington in 
terms of censure and abuse. Colonel John Laurens, an aid of 
the Commander-in-chief, was impelled to notice it, and accord- 
ingly wrote to Hamilton upon the subject. 

"You have seen," he said, "and by this time considered, General 
Lee's infamous publication. I have collected some hints for an answer ; 
but I do not think, either that I can rely upon my own knowledge of 
facts and style to answer him fully, or that it would be prudent to un- 
dertake it without counsel. An affair of this kind ought to be passed 
over in total silence, or answered in a masterly manner." 

His letter concludes with an intimation, that, as Hamilton 
held " the pen of Junius," he should use it to expose the false- 
hood and inconsistency of Lee's pamphlet. The task was 
never, I suppose, undertaken. But Laurens sent Lee a chal- 
lenge, which was accepted. A Narrative of what occurred 
on the ground, signed by the seconds, is to be found in the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 229 

Works of Hamilton. It is here inserted entire. It bears date, 
Philadelphia, December 24th, 1778. 

" General Lee, attended by Major Edwards, and Colonel Laurens, 
attended by Colonel Hamilton, met agreeable to appointment on Wed- 
nesday afternoon at half past three, in a wood, situate near the four-mile 
stone on the Point-no Point Road. Pistols having been the weapons 
previously fixed upon, and the combatants being provided with a brace 
each, it was asked in what manner they were to proceed. General 
Lee proposed to advance one upon another, and each fire at what time 
and distance he thought proper. Colonel Laurens expressed his pref- 
erence of this mode, and agreed to the proposal accordingly. 

" They approached each other within about five or six paces, and ex- 
changed a shot almost at the same moment. As Colonel Laurens was pre- 
paring for a second discharge, General Lee declared himself wounded. 
Colonel Laurens, as if apprehending the wound to be more serious than 
it proved, advanced towards the General to offer his support. The same 
was done by Colonel Hamilton and Major Edwards, under a similar ap- 
prehension. General Lee then said the wound was inconsiderable ; less 
than he had imagined at the first stroke of the ball, and proposed to fire 
a second time. This was warmly opposed both by Colonel Hamilton 
and Major Edwards, who declared it to be their opinion that the affair 
should terminate as it then stood. But General Lee repeated his 
desire that there should be a second discharge, and Colonel Laurens 
agreed to the proposal. Colonel Hamilton observed, that, unless the 
General was influenced by motives of personal enmity, he did not think 
the affair ought to be pursued any further ; but as General Lee seemed 
to persist in desiring it, he was too tender of his friend's honor to per- 
sist in opposing it. The combat was then _going to be renewed ; but 
Major Edwards again declared his opinion that the affair ought to end 
where it was. General Lee then expressed his confidence in the honor 
of the gentlemen concerned as seconds, and said he should be willing to 
comply with whatever they should coolly and deliberately determine. 
Colonel Laurens consented to the same. 

" Colonel Hamilton and Major Edwards withdrew, and, conversing 
a while on the subject, still concurred fully in the opinion, that for the 
most urgent reasons the affair should terminate as it was then circum- 
stanced. This decision was communicated to the parties, and agreed to 
by them, upon which they immediately returned to town ; General Lee 
slightly wounded in the right side. 

" During the interview, a conversation to the following purport passed 
between General Lee and Colonel Laurens. On Colonel Hamilton's 
intimating the idea of personal enmity, as before mentioned, General 
Lee declared he had none, and had only met Colonel Laurens to defend 
his own honor, that Mr. Laurens best knew whether there was any 
on his part. Colonel Laurens replied, that General Lee was acquainted 
with the motives that had brought him there, which were, that he had 
been informed from what he thought good authority, that General Lee 
20 



230 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

had spoken of General Washington in the grossest and most opprobri- 
ous terms of personal abuse, which he, Colonel Laurens, thought him- 
self bound to resent, as well on account of the relation he bore to Gen- 
eral Washington, as from motives of personal friendship and respect 
for his character. General Lee acknowledged that he had given his 
opinion against General Washington's military character to his particular 
friends, and might perhaps do it again. He said every man had a right 
to give his sentiments freely of military characters, and that he did not 
think himself personally accountable to Colonel Laurens for what he 
had done in that respect. But he said he had never spoken of General 
Washington in the terms mentioned, which he could not have done ; as 
well because he had always esteemed General Washington as a man, as 
because such abuse would be incompatible with the character he would 
ever wish to sustain as a gentleman. 

" Upon the whole," concludes the Narrative, " we think it a piece of 
justice to the two gentlemen to declare that, after they met, their con- 
duct was strongly marked with all the politeness, generosity, coolness, 
and firmness that ought to characterize a transaction of this nature." 

In recording an account of this duel, Graydon in his Memoirs 
remarks, as every one will now do : 

" And so the affair ended, without the smallest "bearing on the point in 
controversy, namely, whether General Lee was right or wrong in speaking 
reproachfully of the Commander-in-chief, and only establishing the fact, 
that the combatants could risk their lives with the gallantry and self- 
possession of soldiers and men of honor" 

And besides, it is to be observed that General Lee, while 
upon the ground, maintained the propriety of his course, and 
gave a significant intimation that he should not abandon it. In 
one word, THE COMBAT SETTLED NOTHING. 

General Lee, not long after his duel with Colonel Laurens, 
became embroiled in a quarrel with William Henry Drayton, 
Chief Justice of South Carolina. The Judge, in a charge to the 
grand jury, took occasion to censure the General for his con- 
duct in New Jersey, and especially for his deportment at the 
battle of Monmouth. The Judge, who, as a member of Con- 
gress, had been one of the General's most active and determined 
adversaries, was required to explain. No satisfactory answer 
was obtained ; and a challenge followed. The Judge declined 
the call, because duelling did not comport with his official sta- 
tions, and because he was not bound to "sacrifice his public 
reputation, and outrage his public character, merely to gratify 
General Lee in the line of his profession." These reasons 
were conclusive. Well for society, if every man of standing 
possessed the courage to act in the same way. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

LEGARE, J. DAVIDSON, and JOHN DUNOVANT. Near Charles- 
ton, S. C., in 1853, with pistols. Legare was killed at the first 
fire. It is probable that there were several causes for this duel. 
First, the excitement of a newspaper controversy between 
Messrs. Alfred M. Rhett and Isaac M. Dvvight, of South Caro- 
lina, which was political, and related to the " Union " and 
" Nullification " parties in that State ; second, the alleged 
remarks of Dunovant of a personal nature, which seriously 
injured Legare's character ; and third, the rival claims of the 
two gentlemen to the affections of a lady. 

LEGGETT, WILLIAM, and JOHN MORRISON. In California, 1852. 
Three shots exchanged. Leggett killed on the spot, at the third 
fire. 

LEISTER, EDWARD. See Doty, Edward. 

LEMERY, General. See Auger o, Mons. 

LEMON, F. See Graham, W. H. 

LEMPSTER, Lord. See Grey, Captain in the British Army. 

LENOX, Colonel. See Richmond, Duke of. 

LEON, PONCE DE. See Velasco. 

LEONISSA, GENTILE, General. See Sforza, Francesco. 

LESSESS, and - . At or near New Orleans, in 1853. 
Lessess killed. Both young men and minors. 

LEVY, . See McCain. 

LEWIS, , member of Congress from Virginia. See Gush- 
ing, General Thomas H. 

LHAM-DREAG, a name signifying a bloody hand. This person- 
age is of elfin chivalry. The fable is, that he was to be en- 
countered in the forest of Glenmore, Scotland ; that, arrayed as 
an ancient warrior with a bloody hand, he insisted upon single 
combat with every person he met. 

LIGONIER, Lord. See Alfieri, Vittorio, Count. 

LINDSAY, Colonel W. M., and A. H. DAVIDSON. In Arkansas, 
1854, with pistols, at fifteen paces. Shots exchanged without 
effect. Mutual friends interposed, and arranged the difficulty. 

LINDSAY, Lord. Challenge to Lord HERRIES, in Scotland, in 
1568. Lord Herries had said that Morton and Maitland were 



- 

232 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

guilty of the murder of Lord Darnley, a crime which Murray 
and his associates, as will be remembered, charged upon the ill- 
fated Mary of Scotland. Herries scornfully refused the chal- 
lenge, but offered to fight the persons whom he had accused. 
(See Bothwell.) 

LITTLEPAGE, LEWIS. Challenge to JOHN JAY, in New York, 
1785. When, in 1780, Mr. Jay was Minister at the Court of 
Spain, he took Littlepage into his family, and, to relieve his 
necessities, made a considerable advance to him in cash. The 
debt remained unpaid ; and after both returned to the United 
States, Mr. Jay resorted to a suit to recover it. This act pro- 
duced a challenge from Littlepage, which was declined. The 
correspondence between them was published in 1786, in which 
year Littlepage became confidential secretary to the King of 
Poland, and was sent on a diplomatic mission to Russia. Mr. 
Jay considered that his confidence and kindness were much 
abused, and bitterly spoke of his challenger, as one " with my 
money in his pocket, and my meat still sticking in his teeth." 

LITTLETON, ADAM. Antagonist unknown. He was slain. 
He was son of the second Sir Edward Littleton, of the noble 
house of Hatherly. 

LITTLETON, WALTER, a brother of the preceding, and a major 
in the army. In the time of the Stuarts. He was killed. His 
wife was a daughter of the Earl of Banbury. 

LLOYD, . See Ackland, . 

LOBENSTAT, Count de, a Prussian nobleman. In 1828. He 
slew his adversary, and was convicted. The king deprived him 
of his honors, and ordered him to be imprisoned for life. Other 
persons concerned in the affair were sentenced to confinement 
for various periods. 

LOCHIEL, SIR EWAN. He was chief of the clan Cameron, 
during the civil wars, and adhered to the Stuarts until their cause 
was hopeless. He was engaged in a duel or single combat with 
an English officer, who was one of the strongest and bravest men 
in the army. They fought long, furiously, desperately. Lochiel 
finally disarmed his antagonist, when they wrestled and fell to 
the ground in each other's arms. In the struggle which followed, 
the Englishman got uppermost. Lochiel, whose hands were 
free, seized him by the collar, and, fastening his teeth upon his 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 233 

throat, brought away a mouthful of flesh, which, he said, was 
" the sweetest bit he ever had in his life." 

LONDEN, J. S., and DAVID E. HACKER. In California, 1854. 
Cause political. The former killed. 

LONDONDERRY, Marquis of. See Battier, . 

LORN, Lord of. See Campbell, Sir Colin. 

LORRES, SIR LANCELOT DE, a French knight, and SIR JOHN 
COPELAND, an Englishman. In France, in 1379. The French 
and English cavalry met, and immediately prepared for battle. 
Sir Lancelot cried aloud, that his mistress was more beautiful 
than the mistress of any of his adversaries. Sir John denied the 
statement, and, engaging with the French knight, laid him dead 
at his feet. 

LOUISIANA : Constitutional provisions. The members of the 
General Assembly, and all officers, before they enter upon the 
duties of their office, are required to take the following oath or 
affirmation : 

" That, since the adoption of the present Constitution, I, being a citizen 
of this State, have not fought a duel with deadly weapons within this State, 
nor out of it, with a citizen of this State ; nor have I sent or accepted a 
challenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons with a citizen of this State ; 
nor have I acted as a second in carrying a challenge, or aided, advised, or 
assisted any person thus offending : so help me God" 

By another article, it is provided : 

" Any citizen of this State, who shall, after the adoption of this Con- 
stitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons with a citizen of this State, 
or send or accept a challenge to figlit a duel with deadly weapons, either 
within this State or out of it, with a citizen of this State, or who shall 
act as second, or knowingly aid and assist in any manner those thus 
offending, shall be deprived of holding any office of trust or profit, and 
of enjoying the right of suffrage under this Constitution ; and the office 
of any State officer, member of the General Assembly, or of any other 
person holding office of profit or trust under this Constitution and the 
laws made in pursuance thereof, shall be ipso facto vacated by the fact 
of any such person committing the offence mentioned in this article ; 
and the legislature shall provide by law for the ascertaining and decla- 
ration of such forfeiture." 

LOWE, SIR HUDSON. See Las Cases, . 

LOWTHER, SIR JAMES, Baronet. See Germain, Lord George. 

LOYOLA, IGNATIUS, or (as his name stands in judicial acts) 
20* 



234 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

DON INIGO DE RECALDE. The youngest son of the house of 
Loyola, and the founder of the Jesuits. No man of his time, in 
the early part of his career, was more ambitious of knightly re- 
nown. His arms and his horses were the best. Deeds of valor, 
love, and the adventures of the duel, were the great objects of 
life. He celebrated an Apostle in a chivalric romance. He 
called out a Moor for denying the divinity of our Saviour. As 
the leader of the sect or order in the Church which has made his 
name memorable, he and his personal associates pleased them- 
selves with the idea of making war against Satan ; and, in ac- 
cordance with his military propensities, assumed the name of the 
lk Company of Jesus."" 

LUNA, Count of, and the Count of VALENCIA. The parties 
were nobles of Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella, to put an end to 
duels among the nobility, approved of an act of the Cortes which 
subjected both principals and seconds to the penalties of treason. 
But the Counts, disobeying this law, exchanged a cartel of defi- 
ance, and were imprisoned. 

LUNDY, E. B. See Dibble, George M. 

LUSIGNAN, HUGH DE, Count of, surnamed LE BRUN. A noble 
of France, of great power and influence. Challenge to King 
John of England, in the year 1200. The incidents here to be 
related are among the most romantic in all history. Isabella of 
Angouleme, of royal lineage, was affianced to Lusignan, and, 
according to the custom of the time, under his protection for the 
purpose of education. The English monarch saw her at a high 
festival in France, became madly enamoured of her, and deter- 
mined to win her. The parents of Isabella encouraged his suit, 
while she, ambitious to share the triple crown of England, Nor- 
mandy, and Aquitaine, denied that her faith was plighted to Lu- 
signan, and married John at Bordeaux, in August, 1200. 

Lusignan challenged the royal interloper to mortal combat. 
John, on receiving the cartel, proposed to appoint a champion to 
meet Lusignan, but the injured noble indignantly refused to fight 
a substitute. The king and his bride departed ; and in October 
of the same year, Isabella was crowned Queen of England. In 
the course of events, Lusignan was the prisoner of John, and, 
refusing submission to the man who had robbed him of his be- 
trothed, was immured in an English prison for several years. 
At last the unfortunate lover was released, and became the ally 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 235 

of John. But he remained unmarried, " in order to remind all 
the world of the perfidy of that faithless beauty who had broken 
her betrothment for a crown." 

In the lapse of years, Lusignan stipulated to aid John in the 
restoration of the revolted French provinces, on condition that 
the eldest daughter of the monarch and of Isabella should be 
given to him in marriage. The king complied ; and the princess 
was committed to his care, to be educated in one of his castles, 
as her mother had been before her. 

King John, the most contemptible of men and of monarchs, 
died in 1216 ; and within a year Isabella returned to France, 
where she met Lusignan, her former lover, but now the affianced 
of her daughter. The old passion revived on both sides ; and 
" the Helen of the Middle Ages," who at the age of thirty-four 
retained her marvellous beauty, became the wife of Lusignan. 
As the marriage of the queen was without the consent of 
any one in England, her dower in that kingdom was with- 
held. 

In 1244 the life of Louis, King of France, was twice at- 
tempted, and, as was alleged, at the instigation of Isabella. 
Lusignan made an appeal to battle, and offered to prove in com- 
bat that his wife was falsely accused. The accuser declined the 
duel, on the ground that Lusignan had forfeited his honor. There- 
upon, Isabella's son Hugh offered to fight, and the time and place 
were appointed, but the accuser withdrew a second time, on the 
plea of the infamy of the family. Isabella died broken-hearted 
two years afterwards ; her husband followed in 1249. Such are 
the outlines of the strange story of Isabella of Angouleme, and 
Hugh, Count de Lusignan. 

LUTTERELL, TEMPLE, and Lord GEORGE GERMAIN. Quarrel 
in Parliament, in 1778. General Burgoyne, after his surrender, 
returned to England on parol ; and, refused an audience by the 
king, endeavored to obtain a hearing in Parliament. In the de- 
bate which arose upon a motion for an inquiry into his conduct, 
Lutterell made an attack upon Lord George, who, in reply, 
declared that, u old as lie was, he would meet that fighting 
gentleman, and be revenged" The House interposed ; an apol- 
ogy from both, and a promise that the affair should proceed no 
further, followed. 

MACARTNEY, General. See Arran (Charles Hamilton), Count 
of, and also Hamilton, Duke of. 



236 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

MACDONNELL of Glengarry, and Lieutenant McLEOD. In 
Scotland. A dissension of no moment occurred between these 
gentlemen at a ball and supper. The most that Macdonnell 
could allege was that McLeod gave him an " impertinent ZooA;.". 
The gentlemen present saw no cause of offence. But Mac- 
donnell struck McLeod with his cane, kicked him with his foot, 
and drove him out of the room. A challenge ensued, and the 
parties met. Macdonnell at last, however, saw the matter in its 
true light, and offered any apology which, as a gentleman, he 
could or was bound to make. McLeod was advised to reject a 
verbal atonement, without also receiving into his own hand the 
weapon used by Macdonnell at the ball, with liberty to return blow 
for blow, as he should please. To these terms Macdonnell 
would not accede. In the exchange of shots which followed, 
McLeod received a wound in the breast of which he died. Mac- 
donnell was tried and acquitted. 

MACEDO, a Portuguese Jesuit. Challenge to Cardinal Norris. 
The parties engaged in a controversy relative to St. Austin, and 
the ecclesiastical power interfered. Macedo, forbidden to write 
against the Cardinal, sent him a challenge. The woods of Bou- 
logne were designated as the place of meeting ; but an edict 
put an end to the duel, much to the chagrin of the holy father 
Macedo. 

MACKNEATH, ROBERT, member of Parliament. Cartel, in 1793, 
to Scott, the Solicitor-General, and subsequently Lord Eldon. 
Mackneath was sentenced to pay a fine of .100, and to be im- 
prisoned for six weeks. Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the 
Chancellors of England, without mentioning the name of the 
challenger, refers to this case, I suppose, when he says that 
Eldon's 

" last prominent act as Solicitor-General was, very properly, to ap- 
peal to the laws of his country against a gentleman who sent him a 
challenge for words spoken by him as counsel, strictly in the discharge 
of his professional duty. There was no reason to doubt his personal 
courage, but a display of it on such an occasion would have been a 
wanton exposure of his own valuable life, and would have established a 
precedent highly detrimental to the interest of suitors in courts of justice. 
His conduct was entirely approved of by the Bar and by the public. 
The challenger, who thus sought to restore his reputation from the dis- 
grace which the evidence in the cause had cast upon him, was sentenced 
by the Court of King's Bench to fine and imprisonment." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. - 237 

MACNAMARA, Captain in the British Navy. See Montgomery. 
MACOMB, CHARLES M., a native of New York, and an officer 
in the army of the United States. He fell in a duel in 1814. 
MACRAE, Captain. See Ramsay, Sir George. 

MACUIRE, RICHARD DE. He was the companion in arms of 
Aubry, a French knight of the time of Charles V., and, accord- 
ing to tradition, basely murdered Aubry, whose dog discovered 
the crime. The King compelled Macuire to fight a duel with 
his canine accuser, in order to decide the case. The murderer 
was conquered. The German drama, The Dog of Aubry, or 
the Wood of Bondy, is founded upon this story. 

MALDEN, Lord Viscount. See Hawkins, S. M. 

MANUEL, a Roman Emperor, of the twelfth century. He 
slew in a single battle " above forty barbarians," and remarks 
Gibbon, " He was ever foremost to provoke or to accept a single 
combat, and the champions who encountered his arm were trans- 
pierced by the lance, or cut asunder by the sword, of the invin- 
cible " Emperor. 

MANUEL, Mons., and' Mons. BEAUMONT. At or near Paris, in 
1821. Both were bankers of the highest standing. Manuel 
was a Jew of Poland, married, the father of six children, and a 
man of immense wealth. Beaumont was unmarried, a native 
of Genoa, and possessed of a large fortune ; he seduced Man- 
uel's wife. The two gentlemen met on 'Change in Paris, after 
Manuel had proof of his wife's infidelity, when a violent alter- 
cation ensued. A challenge followed. It was agreed, in the 
terms of the meeting, that one at least, should not survive the 
combat. Manuel was killed on the spot : he was an excellent man, 
and his fall was deeply mourned by all classes. He proffered 
forgiveness to his frail wife, before the duel, on condition that 
she would abandon Beaumont : she declined. Wade states that 
the remains of Manuel were refused burial by the clergy, be- 
cause of the manner of his death. 

MANZINI, Signor, Minister of Finance, Rome. In 1849, he 
addressed the following note to the editor of the London Times. 

" SIR, As I am a native of Rome, and consequently an Italian, and 
being grossly insulted by Lord Brougham and his companions, I give 
you notice our intention is to have a duel to repair mine and my coun- 
try's honor, and, as an English nobleman, I hope he will not refuse the 
invitation." 



238 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

MANLIUS, TITUS. In the year of Rome 392, a Gaul of enor- 
mous size, whose huge limbs intimidated the stoutest, defied the 
bravest of the Romans to single combat. Manlius, by leave of 
his general, accepted the challenge, and slew his adversary. The 
surname of Torquatus was given him, and descended to his pos- 
terity, in consequence of the achievement. The Gauls, dis- 
couraged by the fall of their champion, abandoned their camp 
at night, and fled. 

MAQUIRE, HUGH. See St. Leger, Sir Warliam. 

MARIGNY, GUSTAVUS, and LANUSSE. At or near New 

Orleans, in 1830. They fought first with the small sword, then 
resorted to the pistol, but ended the combat with the sword. 
Both were wounded. Marigny died in a few minutes. 

MARION, FRANCIS, a general officer in the war of the Revo- 
lution. During his service at the South, he expelled two officers 
from his brigade for numerous offences against humanity ; and 
posted upon trees and houses, in public places, proclamations, 

that Major and Captain were robbers and thieves, and 

as outlaws might be killed wherever found. One of them chal- 
lenged him to single combat ; but he treated the call with con- 
tempt. Subsequently, Marion received a cartel from Major 
Mcllraith, of the royal army, to meet in combat in the open 
field. Marion, in reply, expressed his readiness for a fight be- 
tween twenty picked soldiers on each side, according to the cus- 
tom of the days of chivalry. Mcllraith assented, and agreed 
upon a spot near an oak-tree (which was standing in 1821) ; but 
after the parties had been selected, and formed for combat, he 
reconsidered the proposal, and withdrew his own men without 
firing a gun. 

MARLBOROUGH, Duke of. Challenge to the Earl of Paulett, 
in 1712. The Tories of England, as early as 1706, commenced 
their clamors against the Duke, who, they declared, was governed 
by selfish motives, and sacrificed the interests of his country for 
his own private advantage. Three years later, the public senti- 
ment had become general, and he was accused, on all hands, of 
prolonging the war, and of sacrificing human life to increase his 
property and reputation. In 1710, he became an object of de- 
rision. Instances of his fraud, avarice, and extortion, of his 
cruelty and misconduct, were related everywhere. The year 
following, the Earl of Anglesey said in Parliament, that " a good 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 239 

peace might have been obtained, but for the conduct of some 
persons who prolonged the war, for their own private ends." 
The Duke could not misunderstand the insinuation, and vindicated 
himself in a long speech. Finally, in 1712, the Earl of Paulett 
ventured to utter in his place, that the Duke of Ormond " was not 
like a certain general who led troops to the slaughter, to cause 
a great number of officers to be knocked in the head, that he 
might fill his pockets by disposing of their commissions." Marl- 
borough remained silent. But as soon as the Lords adjourned, 
he sent Lord Mohun to the Earl of Paulett, with an invitation * to 
go and take the air in the country." The Earl inquired, whether 
he should take the invitation to mean a challenge. " The mes- 
sage," replied Mohun, " requires no explanation ; I shall accom- 
pany the Duke of Marlborough, and your lordship will do well 
to provide a second." The Earl was unable to conceal his 
emotion ; and his wife communicated the affair to the Earl of 
Dartmouth, Secretary of State, who informed the Queen. Her 
Majesty desired the Duke to relinquish his design, and he accord- 
ingly abandoned it. This, as is supposed, is the first party or 
political duel ever contemplated. 

MARLBOROUGH, Duke of. See Mitchell, Sir John, Baronet. 

MARTIN, an English painter. In 1740, while at Florence, he 
sent a challenge to a Florentine cavalier or nobleman, for say- 
ing that he " was no gentleman." The Florentine repaired to 
the house of Horace Mann, the British Minister, to inquire into 
the standing of Martin, for he could not, he declared, consent to 
fight with one who was no cavalier. It does not appear that he 
was satisfied with the information obtained, or that he met the 
painter, who, wrote Horace Walpole, appeared at the place and 
hour appointed, " pale, but cross, with beard unshaved and hair 
uncombed, a slouched hat, and a considerable red cloak, in 
which was wrapped, under his arm, the fatal sword that was to 
revenge " his honor. 

MARTIN, SAMUEL. See Wilkes, John. 

MARS, ROBERT, and W. S. STINET. In Kentucky, 1851 ; with 
pistols. Mars was wounded in the throat ; Stinet in the body. 

MARSHALL, E. C. See Gwin, William M. 

MARTINA, Duke of, champion of the Prince of Francavilla. 
See Conversano, Count of. 



240 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

MARYLAND : Constitutional provision : 

" Any citizen of the State who shall, after the adoption of this Con- 
stitution, either in or out of this State, fight a duel with deadly weapons, 
or send or accept a challenge so to do, or who shall act as second, or 
knowingly aid or assist in any manner those thus offending, shall ever 
thereafter be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under this 
State." 

MASON, General AHMISTEAD T., Senator in Congress from 
Virginia, and JOHN M. M'CARTY. Near Washington, in 1819, 
with muskets. These gentlemen were relatives, and it is be- 
lieved cousins. The dispute was political. Several friends of 
Mason endeavored to persuade him, by the most earnest appeals, 
to adjust the difference without a hostile meeting. He persisted. 
In a letter addressed to M'Carty, which it would seem was never 
read by him, Mason said : 

" SIR, I have resigned my commission for the special and sole pur- 
pose of fighting you ; and I am now free to accept or send a challenge, 
and to fight a duel. The public mind has become tranquil, and, all sus- 
picion of the further prosecution of our quarrel having subsided, we 
can now terminate it without being arrested by the civil authority, and 
without exciting alarm among our friends. 

" This effort has been delayed by my anxiety to effect such an ar- 
rangement of my affairs as my duty to my family required. That ar- 
rangement is just effected. I am extremely anxious to terminate at 

once and for ever this quarrel. My friends, and , are fully 

authorized to act for me in every particular. Upon receiving from you 
a pledge to fight, they are authorized and instructed at once to give the 
challenge for me, and to make immediately every necessaiy arrange- 
ment for the duel on any terms you may prescribe." 

And, in his letter of instructions to the " friends " referred to, 
which bears the same date (January 9th, 1819), he remarks : 

" GENTLEMEN, You will present the inclosed communication to 
Mr. John M'Carty, and tell him at once that you are authorized by me 
to challenge him, in the event of his pledging himself to fight. If he 
will give the pledge, then I desire that you will instantly challenge him, 
in my name, to fight a duel with me. You are not authorized to give a 
verbal challenge. It must be reduced to writing. Agree to any terms 
that he may propose, and to any distance ; to three feet, his pretended 
favorite distance, or to three inches, should his impetuous and rash cour- 
age prefer it. To any species of fire-arms, pistols, muskets, or rifles, 
agree at once." 

On receiving the challenge, M'Carty proposed to fight on a 
barrel of powder, or with dirks. Both modes were objected to, 
on the part of Mason's seconds, as not in accordance with estab- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 241 

I 

lished usage. M'Carty, finally, in the following written commu- 
nication, accepted the cartel, and stated the terms of the com- 
bat. 

" GENTLEMEN, I agree to meet and fight your friend, General A. 
T. Mason, to-morrow evening, at five o'clock, at Montgomery Court- 
House. As I am at liberty to select the weapon with which I am to 
fight, I beg leave to propose a musket charged with buckshot, and at 
the distance of ten feet. 

"February 4, 1819." 

The seconds of the parties subsequently agreed upon a short 
postponement of the time, to substitute a single ball for buckshot, 
and to increase the distance to more than twelve feet. General 
Mason was killed. It was alleged that he received three balls ; 
but it was ascertained, after a minute dissection of his remains, 
that only one entered his body. Again, the Hon. Ben. Hardin is 
reported to have said in the Kentucky Convention, 1850, that he 
had been informed by Mr. M'Carty, that " the duel was forced 
upon him by one of Mason's seconds." In contradiction, we 
have the declaration of the two gentlemen concerned, that they 
did not urge " the affair to its unfortunate issue." Mr. M'Carty 
was severely wounded in the left arm, which, it is believed, was 
amputated. 

MATHESON, M. See Handel, George Frederic. 

MATHEWS, THOMAS, Captain. See Sheridan, Richard Brins- 
ley. 

MAXIMILIAN, Emperor of Germany, and CLAUDE DE BATRE, a 
French knight. In 1495. The duel was in presence of all the 
electors and princes of the German Diet. The Emperor by this 
act, not only waived his own rank, but put in peril the existence 
of the royal house. 

MAXWELL, Lord. See Johnston, Sir James. 

MAY, Colonel, and EDWARD HOWE. In California, 1853. 
Howe was wounded in the neck ; Colonel May, a member of 
the Senate of California, escaped unhurt. 

McCAiN, Doctor, and LEVY. In South Carolina, 1849. 

MCCALLUM, DONALD, and ALISTER. McCoL, or COLKITTO. In 
1647. McCallum was killed ; he was of the lineage of Malcom 
of Pottallock. 

M'CARTY, JOHN M. See Mason, General Armistead T. 
21 



242 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

McCoL, ALISTER. See McCallum, Donald. 

McCoRKLE, J. W., member of Congress from California. See 
Gwin, William M. 
McDouGAL, Colonel. See Kemble, E. C. 

McDuFFiE, GEORGE, a distinguished statesman of South Caro- 
lina, and Colonel GUMMING, of Georgia. Near " Sister's Ferry," 
South Carolina, June 8th, 1822, with pistols. An article ap- 
peared in a Georgia paper in favor of the pretensions of Mr. 
Crawford, and against those of Mr. Calhoun, to the Presidency 
of the United States, which drew a reply from a gentleman of 
South Carolina. The Georgia writer rejoined, assuming that 
the South Carolina writer was Mr. McDuffie ; while that gentle- 
man replied, in the belief that his opponent was Colonel Gum- 
ming. Both were mistaken ; but no explanation was made on 
either side, though it is understood that Mr. McDuffie assented 
and Colonel Gumming objected to a proposition to submit the 
dispute to the decision of friends. 

Colonel Gumming desired to fight in round jackets, or shirt- 
sleeves ; his opponent suggested, u or frock or surtout coat." 
The change was assented to, and the former appeared on the 
ground in frock and pantaloons of cotton and linen ; the latter in 
similar garments of silk. The preliminaries arranged, the par- 
ties were summoned to their places, and exchanged shots, at a 
distance of ten paces. Mr. McDuffie's ball struck the ground 
about four paces from his own feet ; while the bullet of his an- 
tagonist entered his back obliquely, just below the short ribs, 
and inflicted a wound from which he never recovered. 

This duel gave rise to much newspaper wit and gossip. The 
Chronicle, published at Augusta, Georgia, gave the public, as it 
stated, an " authentic account of the affair," in which it was 
said that Colonel Cumming's pistol was loaded "for the side, 
not for the back, for the resistance of common drapery, not of 
several folds of strong silk," &c., &c. The general tone of 
this article was against Mr. McDuffie, and gave the impression 
that his conduct was dishonorable, not only in the preparation 
of his dress, but in retiring from the field after a single shot. 
These statements were assumed to be true by editors in different 
parts of the country, and afforded materials for free and severe 
comments. But it may well be doubted whether the distin- 
guished statesman of South Carolina is justly liable to censure 
upon either accusation. As regards the discontinuance of the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 243 

combat, it is in proof that he acted upon the opinion of the sur- 
geons of both parties, who, as the result of a consultation, de- 
clared his inability to proceed ; while, in the matter of dress, 
there is no evidence as I am aware that his silk frock had 
more than a single and a common lining. That the surgeons 
were right in their conclusion is manifest ; for Mr. McDuffie's 
wound, as already remarked, was the cause of serious physical 
prostration his life long. 

MC!LRAITH, Major, British army. See Marion, General 
Francis. 

MC!NTOSH, LACKLAND. See Gwinnett, Button. 

McKEE, F. S. See Murphey, Joseph. 

McKENziE, Lieutenant. See Harrington, William. 

McKiE, JAMES C. , Challenge to William O. Eaton, Boston, 
1852. McKie was held to bail in the sum of two thousand dol- 
lars ; his letter to Eaton was in these words : 

" SIR, I demand satisfaction for the ' cowardly ' manner in which 
you attacked me last evening. Were you a gentleman, I should send 
a friend to wait upon you, but I would not compromise my friend's 
character so much as to ask him to call on such a ' disgrace ' to society. 
I leave all the arrangements but one in your hands, and that one is the 
' time,' which will be as soon as you can possibly make arrangements 
for a meeting." 

MCKNIGHT, JAMES, a captain of marines, and Lieutenant 
LAWSON, of the navy of the United States. At Leghorn, in 
1802. Both were officers of the frigate Chesapeake. McKnight 
was killed ; his wife was a sister of Stephen Decatur, a captain 
in the navy of the United States. 

McLEAN. In England, 1750. Having a dispute with a Brit- 
ish officer, at Putney Bowling-green, he challenged him ; but the 
officer, distrusting his respectability, declined the call. McLean 
was soon afterward arrested for highway robbery. His father 
was an Irish dean, and a brother was a minister of reputation. 
After his detection, it was ascertained that he had robbed several 
gentlemen of rank, and was one of two highwaymen who had 
caused much fear in and about London. 

McLEOD, Lieutenant. See Macdonnell of Glengarry. 
McNALLY, LEONARD. See Barrington, Sir Jonah. 



244 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

MCNAMARA, JOHN. Challenge, in 1806, or the year following, 
to Sir Samuel Romilly. The offence of Romilly was profes- 
sional. In the time of Lord Eldon, a Miss Purcell had filed a 
bill against McNamara, in the Court of Chancery, to set aside, 
as fraudulent, certain deeds of estates in the West Indies, and 
had obtained a decree with costs. On the succession of Lord Ers- 
kine, McNamara petitioned for a rehearing. Romilly appeared 
for Miss Purcell ; and while in the performance of his duty to 
his client, received a hostile message, which, unlike Thurlow, in a 
similar case, he declined. McNamara, remarks Sir Samuel, 

" who 'had been concerned in the course of his life in several duels, 
had vainly attempted during the hearing of the cause to intimidate 
Miss Purcell's counsel from doing their duty. Some years afterwards, 
having recovered from a dangerous illness, he wrote a letter to a friend 
of mine, in which, after telling how near dying he had been, he added, 
' but I was prepared to meet the event like a man of honor' 1 ' 

MEAD and WOODWARD. Both were celebrated physicians in 
England at a time when " doctors met in consultation with drawn 
swords." They fought according to appointment, under the 
gate of Gresham College. Woodward slipped and fell. " Take 
your life," exclaimed his antagonist. " Anything but your 
physic," replied the prostrate doctor. 

MEATH, WILLIAM, ninth Earl of, was slain in a duel, year 
1797. Unmarried, he was succeeded by his brother John. 

MEDGE, an Irish lawyer, and finally a Baron. Three duels ; 
one with -his own brother-in-law. 

JVlELANTHUS, a Messenian prince, and the King of Boeotia. In 
ancient history. In war, the armies of Athens and Boeotia met. 
The king, who commanded the latter, proposed to Thymoetes, 
his brother monarch, to decide the dispute Between the two 
States, by a combat between themselves. Thymoetes declined 
the cartel ; but Melanthus, " who had his fortune to seek," 
offered to become the Athenian king's champion, and was 
allowed the honor. The Boeotian was slain. Melanthus ruled 
Athens, as his reward ; for Thymretes was deposed, and his 
family lost the succession. 

MENDIZABAL, Prime Minister of Spain, and SENOR ISTURITZ. 
At or near Madrid, in 1835. The meeting was caused by an 
altercation in the CJhamber of Deputies. Isturitz retracted the 
expression deemed offensive by the Minister, and the affair 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 245 

ended, after the exchange of shots. Mendizabal soon after 
resigned, and was succeeded by Isturitz. 

MENEFEE, RICHARD, member of Congress from Kentucky. 
See Cilley, Jonathan. 

MICHIGAN : Constitutional provision : 

" Any inhabitant who may hereafter be engaged in a duel, either as 
principal or accessory before the fact, shall be disqualified from holding 
any office under the Constitution and laws of this State, and shall not 
be permitted to vote at any election." 

MILANS DEL BOSCH, Colonel. See Soule, Neville. 

MILBANKE, RALPH, cup-bearer of Mary, Queen of Scotland. 
In consequence of a duel in his native country, he fled to Eng- 
land. Mark, his great-grandson, was created a Baronet, in 
1661. 

MILLER, Major. See Smith, Major. 

MILLER, WILLIAM, junior, of the Philadelphia bar, and 
CHARLES G. HUNTER, midshipman in the navy of the United 
States. In 1830, Miller was forced into the affair, in which 
originally he appears tp have had nothing to do except as peace- 
maker. Three other officers of the navy were implicated in 
the duel, namely, Lieutenants Edmund Byrne and Hampton 
Westcott, and Passed Midshipman Charles H. Duryee. 

Mr. Branch, the Secretary of the Navy, on learning the facts, 
recommended that the names of the four officers be stricken 
from the navy list. To this, the President replied in these 
words : 

" Let the above-named officers of the navy be stricken from 
the roll. March 31, 1830. ANDREW JACKSON." 

The matter was considered by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
and the dismissal of the officers approved by both branches. 

The President intended, it was thought at the time, to estab- 
lish the precedent, that no duel, challenge, or defiance to a duel, 
would thereafter be tolerated, on the part of the officers of the 
navy or army, with per sons in the private walks of life, if, under 
any circumstances whatever, between themselves. 

MILLS, . In England, last century. Antagonist un- 
known. Mills was slain. 

MISSISSIPPI : Constitutional provision : 
** The Legislature shall pass such laws to prevent the evil practice of 
21* 



246 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

duelling as they may deem necessary, and may require all officers, 
before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, to take the 
following oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I have not 
been engaged in a duel, by sending or accepting a challenge to fight a 
duel, or by fighting a duel, since the first day of January, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, nor ivill I be so en- 
gaged during my continuance in office. So help me God" 

MISSOURI : Constitutional provision : 

" Any person who, after the ratification of this Constitution, shall be 
engaged in a duel, either as principal, second, surgeon, accessory, or 
abettor, or in giving, accepting, or knowingly carrying a challenge to 
fight a duel, shall be disqualified from holding any civil or military ap- 
pointment in this State ; and if any person thus disqualified shall receive 
an appointment, election, or commission, the same shall be void. 

" It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by law for 
the mode and manner in which the survivor of a duel, and his estate, 
shall be rendered responsible to, and be charged with a compensation 
for, the wife and children of the deceased whom he has slain." 

MITCHELL, DAVID B. See Hunter, William. 

MITCHELL, SIR JOHN, Baronet. In early life, while an officer 
in the Scotch Grays, he sent a challenge to the Duke of Marl- 
borough, in consequence of some remarks of his Grace, in con- 
tempt of Scotland ; for which he was dismissed from the army. 
Subsequently, after succeeding to the title of baronet, he was 
attainted. Still later, and in 1770, so utter was his poverty, 
that he appeared in the streets of Edinburgh a common beggar. 

MOAWIYAH, . See AIL 

MOHUN, Lord. See Hamilton, Duke of. 

MONCELET, Mons. CHARLES. See Angier, Mons. Emile. 

MONTFORT, ROBERT DE, and HENRY DE ESSEX. In England, 
in 1158. A judicial duel. Essex was hereditary standard- 
bearer of England ; in a battle in Wales, he threw away the 
royal standard, cried out that the king was slain, and fled. 
Montfort charged that his conduct was the result of treasonable 
intentions, and offered to prove his accusation by combat. Es- 
. sex denied tbe charge, and accepted the challenge. The duel 
was witnessed by King Henry II. and all his court. Essex 
was defeated, and expected to be put to death. The monarch 
spared his life, but confiscated his estate, and doomed him to the 
habit and duties of a monk of Reading Abbey. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 247 

MONTGOMERY and MACNAMARA. In England, 1803. Tho 
former was colonel of the ninth regiment, British army ; the lat- 
ter, a captain in the British navy. This volume contains no case 
which better illustrates the sin and folly of duelling. The two 
gentlemen were riding in Hyde Park, accompanied by their dogs. 
The animals quarrelled ; and the testimony before the coroner's 
inquest was, that the Colonel was requested by the Captain to 
call his dog off, which he declined to do, and that the following 
conversation ensued. 

Montgomery. " If your dog hurts mine, I '11 knock him down." 

Macnamara. " Sir, if you knock my dog down, you must knock me 
down also." 

Montgomery. " Why did you not dismount and take your dog 
away ? " 

Macnamara. " I am an officer in his Majesty's navy, and unaccus- 
tomed to such arrogant language." 

Montgomery. " Sir, if you conceive yourself injured, you know where 
I live : you ought to take care of your dog." 

Macnamara. " I shall do that without your permission." 

Colonel Montgomery, as he uttered the last words, gave Mac- 
namara his card of address. Arrangements for a duel to adjust 
the dispute, were immediate. They met in two hours, and both 
rode to the ground selected with great speed, each striving to 
arrive there first. They fought with pistols, at twelve paces. 
Captain Barry, of the navy, acted as the friend of Macnamara ; 
Sir William Kier, as the second of Montgomery. It was agreed 
that the principals should fire together. They did so, and both 
were wounded. Montgomery fell without uttering a word ; 
rolled over two or three times, and groaned ; was carried to a 
neighboring house, and expired in a few minutes. 

Montgomery had served in Holland, Egypt, and Malta, with 
distinguished reputation ; he was thought to be one of the hand- 
somest men in the kingdom ; and was a great favorite with the 
Prince of Wales (George IV.) and the Duke of York. He was 
but twenty-eight years of age. 

Macnamara, equally distinguished, had fought several naval 
battles ; was also young, and about to be married to a lady with 
a fortune. of ten thousand pounds. As soon as his wound would 
admit, he was tried at the Old Bailey for manslaughter. At the 
close of the case for the government, he requested, in a subdued 
tone, to read a paper in defence, and addressed the jury thus : 

" I appear before you with the consolation that my character has al- 
ready been delivered, by the verdict of a grand jury, from the shocking 



248 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

imputation of murder ; and that, although the evidence against me was 
laid before them without any explanation , or evidence of the sensations 
which brought me into my present unhappy situation, they made their 
own impression ; and no charge of criminal homicide was found against 
me. I was delivered at once from the whole effect of the indictment. I 
therefore now stand before you upon the inquisition only, taken before the 
coroner, upon the view of the body, under circumstances extremely 
affecting to the minds of those who were to deliberate on the transac- 
tion, and without the opportunity which the benignity of the law affords 
me, at this moment, of repelling the inference of even sudden resent- 
ment against the deceased, which is the foundation of this inquest of 
manslaughter. 

" The origin of the difference, as you see it in the evidence, was in- 
significant. The heat of two persons, each defending an animal under 
his protection, was natural, and could not have led to any serious con- 
sequences. It was not the deceased's defending his own dog, nor his 
threatening to destroy mine, that led me to the fatal catastrophe ; it 
was the defiance which most unhappily accompanied what was said. 
Words receive their interpretation from the avowed intention of the 
speaker. The offence was forced upon me by the declaration that he 
invited me to be offended, and challenged me to vindicate the offence 
by calling upon him for satisfaction. ' If you are offended with what 
has passed, you know where to find me.' These words, unfortunately 
repeated and reiterated, have over and over, and over again, been con- 
sidered by criminal courts of justice as sufficient to support an indict- 
ment for a challenge. The judgments of courts are founded upon the 
universal understandings and feelings of mankind, and common candor 
must admit that an officer, however desirous to avoid a quarrel, cannot 
refuse to understand what even the grave judges of the law must inter- 
pret as a provocation and a defiance. I declare, therefore, most sol- 
emnly against the deceased ; nothing, indeed, but insanity could have 
led me to expose my own life to such immense peril, under the impulse 
of passion from so inadequate a cause as the evidence before you ex- 
hibits, when separated from the defiance which was the fatal source of 
mischief, and I could well have overlooked that too, if the world, in its 
present state, could have overlooked it also. I went into the field, there- 
fore, with no determination or desire to take the life of my opponent, or 
to expose my own. I went there in hopes of receiving some soothing 
satisfaction for what would otherwise have exposed me in the general 
feelings and opinions of the world. The deceased was a man of popular 
manners, as I have heard, and with a very general acquaintance. I, on 
the other hand, was in a manner a stranger in this great towa, having 
been devoted from my infancy to the duties of my profession in distant 
seas. If, under these circumstances, the words which the deceased in- 
tended to be offensive, and which ne repeatedly invited to be resented, 
had been passed by, and submitted to, they would have passed from 
mouth to mouth, have been ever exaggerated at every repetition, and 
my honor must have been lost. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 249 

" Gentlemen, I am a captain in the British navy. My character you 
can only hear from others ; but to maintain my character and station, I 
must be respected. When called upon to lead others into honorable 
danger, I must not be supposed to be a man who had sought safety by 
submitting to what custom has taught others to consider as a disgrace. 
I am not presuming to urge anything against the laws of God or of this 
land. I know that, in the eye of religion and reason, obedience to the 
law, though against the general feelings of the world, is the first duty, 
and ought to be the rule of action. But in putting a construction upon 
my motives, so as to ascertain the quality of my actions, you will make 
allowances for my situation. It is impossible to define in terms the 
proper feelings of a gentleman ; but their existence have supported this 
happy country many ages, and she might perish if they were lost. 

" Gentlemen, I will detain you no longer ; I will bring before you 
many honorable persons who will speak what they know of me in my 
profession, and in private life, which will the better enable you to judge 
whether what I have offered in my defence may safely be received by 
you as truth. Gentlemen, I submit myself entirely to your judgment. 
I hope to obtain my liberty through your verdict ; and to employ it with 
honor in the defence of the liberties of my country." 

At the conclusion of this address, several witnesses of the 
highest rank were called to testify to his character ; among tbem 
were Nelson, Lords Holham, Hood, and Minto, Admiral Sir Hyde 
Parker, Captain Trowbridge, and General Churchill. Nelson, 
after bestowing high praise as to his professional standing, said, 
" As I now stand before God and my country, I believe him to 
be incapable of insulting man, woman, or child." He was ac- 
quitted. 

MOORE, DUDLEY, and Cornet CASTINE. In 1714. Dudley 
was slain ; he was of the noble house of Charle-sdlle. 

MOORE, JAMES, and BINGHAM. Moore was a member of 

Parliament, the son of a baronet, and was slain. 

MOORE, THOMAS, the poet, and FRANCIS JEFFREY, Lord Advo- 
cate of Scotland. In England, 1806. Jeffrey, who at that time 
was editor of the Edinburgh Review, wrote an article for that 
work in which he attacked with great severity a volume of 
Moore's poems and other writings. This was the cause of a 
challenge from the poet to the critic. Moore, in the note which 
he sent, purposely cut off all chance of a peaceable reconciliation. 
After adverting to some assertion in the article, which accused 
him of a deliberate intention to corrupt the readers of his book, 
he wrote to Jeffrey : 

" To this, I beg leave to answer, you are a liar: yes, sir, a liar; and 



250 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

I choose to adopt this harsh and vulgar mode of defiance, in order to 
prevent at once all equivocation between us, and to compel you to adopt, 
for your own satisfaction, that alternative which you might otherwise 
have hesitated in affording to mine." 

Jeffrey accepted the call. As the parties met on the ground, 
they exchanged bows ; and while the seconds were making the 
necessary arrangements, they were left alone. Jeffrey spoke 
and said, " What a beautiful morning it is." " Yes," replied 
Moore, with a slight smile, " a morning made for better pur- 
poses " ; to which his antagonist made " a sort of assenting sigh." 
Their friends were slow in the task of preparation, and they con- 
tinued to walk and talk together. Once they came in sight of 
the seconds, and observed their operations, when Moore related, 
as rather apropos to their own case, what Egan, the Irish barris- 
ter remarked, while sauntering about on a similar occasion, in 
reply to his antagonist, a fiery little fellow, who called out to him 
angrily, as their friends were loading the pistols, to keep his 
ground, " Don't make yourself unaisy, my dear fellow," said 
Egan ; " sure, is n't it bad enough to take the dose, without being 
by at the mixing up ? " 

As Moore finished this story, the seconds, at last ready, placed 
them at the stipulated distance, and put the weapons in their 
hands. They raised their pistols, and stood waiting the signal to 
fire, when the police rushed upon them, and conveyed them to 
Bow Street, as prisoners. 

This duel caused infinite amusement, for it was everywhere 
stated that the pistols contained paper pellets instead of bullets. 
Moore, in a letter to Lady Donegal, denied the truth of the re- 
port, and promised a formal contradiction by the seconds. No 
such document ever appeared. A paper was, however, drawn 
up and signed by the friend of Jeffrey, and properly attested by 
a magistrate ; but the second of Moore declined to affix his name 
to it, for reasons so unsatisfactory to the poet, as to occasion an 
entire alienation for a period of thirty years. Moore and Jeffrey, 
through the interposition of Rogers the poet, became reconciled, 
and maintained the most friendly relations. 

MOORE, THOMAS, and Lieutenant BUCK, of the United States 
army. At or near Natchez, in 1803. Moore was slain. 

MORGAN, EDWARD. See Egerton, John. 
MORGAN, H. See Henderson, W. 

. Challenge to SIR GEORGE THEOBALD, one of 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 251 

the servants of the king of England, in 1634. Morley was fined 
ten thousand pounds ; his offence consisted in " reviling, chal- 
lenging, and striking " Sir George. 

MORNINGTON, Earl of. Challenge to the Earl of SHAFTES- 
BURY, in 1853. The offence consisted in remarks of Shaftesbury 
in the House of Lords, which he refused to explain. He declined 
the call, and his course subsequently was stigmatized by Lord 
Mornington as " absurdly impertinent." 

MORRIS, ABRAHAM. See O'Leary, Cornelius. 

MORRIS, ROBERT. See Dulany, Lloyd. 

MORRISON, JOHN. See Leggett, William. 

MORTON, Earl of. See Bothwell, James Hepburn, Earl of. 

MOSES, JOSEPH. See Hickey, Colonel. 

MOUNTGARRET, Lord, and JOHN BYRNE, Attorney for the 
Crown, Ireland. Byrne was wounded. When asked during his 
illness how he felt at the time the bullet struck him, he replied, 
" As if I had been punched by the mainmast of a man-of-war." 

MOUNTMORRIS, Lord, and FRANCIS HELY HUTCHINSON, Col- 
lector of the Customs, Dublin. In Ireland. His lordship rose 
from dinner, entered a coach, and drove to the ground appointed 
for the meeting, accompanied by the Marquis of Ely. His com- 
panions at table, suspecting a duel, followed. Mountmorris was 
wounded in the side, and fell. On rising, he had some conver- 
sation with his antagonist, when both bowed, and separated. 

MOURNEY, Mons. See Cournet. 

MOUSSIN, an opera-singer of France, in the last century. 
This woman was the great heroine of the duello. She acquired 
the use of the sword under the instruction of Serane, a fencing- 
master of celebrity, and one of her lovers. Having killed " her 
three men," she " fled to Brussels, and became the mistress of 
the Elector of Bavaria." 

MOYSTON, General. See Pomfret, Earl of. 
MUNCASTER, Lord. See Tollemache, John. 

MURAT, JOACHIM, King of Naples. In his youth one of the 
greatest duellists of modern times. He was intended for the 
Church ; and while designated as the " Abbe Murat," he fell in 



252 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

love with a pretty girl of Toulouse, fought a duel for her, and 
carried her off. The notoriety of this affair put an end to all his 
ecclesiastical hopes, and he entered the army. In a month after 
becoming a soldier under Napoleon, he fought no less than six 
duels ; all of which were occasioned by political differences. 

MURPHEY, JOSEPH, and F. S. MC!VEE. In Kentucky, 1852 
Four shots were exchanged, and both were severely wounded. 
It is said that a negro woman was killed wliile looking on. 

MURRAY, of Tullibarden. See Bothwell, James Hepburn ^ 
Earl of. 

NAISI, nephew of King Conner, of Ulster. However fabulous 
the story of Deidre, the Helen of Ireland, it may be related very 
briefly in these pages. 

Deidre was daughter of Feidhlim, the prime minister of Con- 
ner. At her birth it was predicted by a seer of the time that 
her beauty would inflame the hearts of princes and chieftains 
with the fires of love, revenge, and jealousy, and prove disas- 
trous to the kingdom. To avoid these calamities, the instant 
death of the child was recommended by the holy man, to the dis- 
pleasure of Conner, who declared that he would adopt her as his 
own, and perhaps marry her when she should arrive at a suitable 
age. He accordingly took her to one of his palaces or castles, 
and permitted no one to see her but her governors^ except by his 
written order. She grew up very beautiful. In her fifteenth 
year she witnessed from the windows of her apartment the chiv- 
alric feats of the knights, as they contended for prizes before the 
king and nobles. Naisi, the nephew of Conner, particularly ar- 
rested her attention ; she became enamored of him, and found 
means to obtain an interview. Naisi avowed his love for her. 
An elopement was arranged and effected. They fled to Albania 
and became the guests of the king, who, falling desperately in 
love with Deidre, resolved to seduce her from her husband. 
She communicated the king's first note to Naisi, who, indignant 
at the insult, challenged the king to single combat. The call 
was declined. Naisi and Deidre quitted the court of Albania. 
Conner at last had tidings of their adventures, and was entreated 
by his courtiers to forgive them, and to allow them to return to 
_ Ulster. Conner, resolved to possess Deidre, assented, but sent 
an emissary to murder Naisi. The plan succeeded ; but a civil 
war was the result of the base deed ; and Deidre not only re- 
jected the addresses of her husband's murderer, bat pined in 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 253 

l 

grief, and soon, in Jier anguish, obliterated all traces of her 
beauty. Conner, desisting for himself, finally gave her to Eogan, 
the emissary employed to slay Naisi. She was forced into 
Eogan's chariot, but, rather than become his mistress, she leaped 
out and was killed. 

NARVAEZ, Senor. See Pavia, General. 
NESLE, Lady de. See Polignac, Countess of. 

NEUHOF, THEODORE, of Westphalia. The readers of this vol- 
ume have found an instance of sudden rise to fortune and dis- 
tinction, following, as if by direct result, the killing of a fellow- , 
man in a duel, in the notice of John Law, the celebrated 
financial projector, who, it will be recollected, fled from England 
to the Continent, and engaged in operations which astonished the 
world. 

x The case of Neuhof is quite similar. While a student at a 
college of Jesuits, he slew in a duel a young man of distinguished 
family, and fled to the Hague ; where, through the mediation of 
the Spanish minister, he received a commission in the Spanish 
army, destined to act against the Moors in Africa. He rose 
rapidly ; and in 1736 was crowned King of Corsica. But, like 
Law, he fell. Driven from the throne by adverse events, he 
sought refuge in England. Pursued thither by his creditors, he 
was committed to prison. 'Released, finally, he died in 1756, of 
grief. 

NEVE, OLIVER DE. See Buckinghamshire, Sir Henry. 

NEWCASTLE, Duke of. See Wales, Prince of. 

NICOLSON, ANDREW. See Curry, Sir Piers de. 

NICUESA, . See Ojeda. 

NIENKERKE, Count, and PIERRE BONAPARTE, a nephew of the 
Emperor Napoleon. At or near Paris, 1851, with swords. The 
duel was occasioned by a previous duel between a brother of 
Bonaparte and a son of Rossi: The Count was wounded in the 
thigh, when- the seconds interfered, and declared the combat at 
an end. 

NIXON, Colonel HENRY G. In Georgia, in 1829. A friend 
who accompanied him to the ground wrote his father thus : 

^ ^ There was an incident in the occurrence of the contest I cannot 
fail to record. After your son received the most deadly and severe 
wound, he fired his pistol, and, keeping erect, grasped his other pistol, 
22 



254 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

and died in the attitude of manly resistance and determined purpose of 
character. In life and death he was noble, brave, magnanimous. I shall, 
at a more leisure moment, publish such a notice of our friend as his high 
claims to distinction demand, and my own feelings would dictate." 

A gentleman at Augusta said, in a letter to a correspondent : 
" We had a show here two or three days ago. A party from Cam- 
den came here to fight a duel ; and, after preparing themselves, went to 
the ground at noonday, through JBroad Street, with as much parade 
as if Lafayette had been coming. Carriages, gigs, sulkies, and horse- 
men following to witness the bloody deed. One of the combatants was 
killed instantly; the other ran as hard as he could to the river, and 
crossed. The magistrates were close after to arrest him, and contem- 
plated petitioning Governor Forsyth to demand the gentleman from 
the Governor of South Carolina. The late Governor of that State was 
second to the deceased." 

NOAILLES, Viscount de. See Barnave^ Ant. Pierre Jos. 
Marie. 

NOIRMOUTIER, Mons. See Frettes, La. 

NORBURY, Lord, Chief Justice of Court of Common Pleas. His 
family name was John Toler. He used to boast that he " began 
the world with fifty pounds and a pair of hair-trigger pistols." 
It is a fact, says a contemporary, that these " pistols " were the 
immediate cause of his elevation to the bench. Lord Norbury 
founded two peerages, and was the testator of an enormous for- 
tune. As a wit, he had wide celebrity. 

NORFOLK, THOMAS MOWBRAY, Duke of. See Henry IV. of 
England. 

NORRIS, Cardinal. See Macedo, a Jesuit. 

NOTTINGHAM, THOMAS HOWARD, Earl of. See Essex, Earl of. 

NOURSE. In England, 1741. He was a gambler. He had 
a quarrel with Lord Windsor, for saying that a member of Par- 
liament, and his lordship's friend, " only pretended to be ill." 
He sent Lord Windsor a challenge, which was declined. He 
went home in a rage, and cut his own throat. 

NUGENT, JOHN, of California. He seems to have fought once 
in 1852, and again in 1853. The incidents of the first combat 
are related by the San Francisco Whig. The writer, after em- 
barking in a steamer, 

" learned that the preliminaries of a duel had been arranged between 
John Nugent, editor of the Herald, and John Cotter, Alderman of the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 255 

Fourth Ward. The causes which led to this encounter are well known 
to the community and need no repetition. The principals had gone to 
Contra Costa the evening previous. The surgeons, seconds, and nu- 
merous friends of both parties were on board the steamer, which arrived 
at the wharf about half past eleven. The hour for the duel was fixed 
at twelve. Immediately after the landing, a scramble ensued for horses 
and carriages, and in a few moments nearly two hundred persons were 
in full gallop for the field, which was understood to be about two miles 
distant. At five minutes before twelve, Mr. Cotter and friends were on 
the ground, but owing to some misunderstanding, Mr. Nugent did not 
arrive until half past two o'clock. As soon as Mr. Nugent arrived, the 
ground was selected, distance (ten paces) measured, pistols loaded, and 
preliminaries arranged. The seconds of Mr. Nugent won the word. 
At ten minutes before three, the first shots were fired, but without effect, 
and were simultaneously discharged. At the second discharge, both 
evidently endeavoring to reserve, Nugent fired first, missed, and, un- 
bending to cock his pistol the third time, received Cotter's second ball 
in the left thigh, producing a compound fracture of the limb. Had he 
not thrown his leg from the line, the shot would have passed by without 
effect. On receiving the ball Nugent fell, and was at once in the hands 
of the surgeons, Doctors Hastings, H. M. Gray, Bowie, and Mills. 
Each party displayed all the coolness, nerve, and bravery that men 
could upon such an occasion. The ball was extracted, and the wounded 
party brought to the city." 

The second affair was with Alderman Hayes, who was ag- 
grieved by statements which appeared in the Herald. This 
duel was with rifles, at twenty paces. Nugent fell at the second 
fire, severely wounded. A large number of spectators, it is 
said, " raised a savage yell " as they saw the result. 

NUNEZ. In Mexico, year 1521. A Mexican of great prowess, 
and armed with sword and buckler, defied the Spaniards to meet 
him in single fight. Nunez, a young page of Cortes, obtained 
permission to accept the challenge. The struggle was desper- 
ate ; but the page slew his antagonist, and bore to his master's 
feet tbe spoils of his victory. 

O. and MR. P. In 1780. Both belonged to Colonel May- 
land's regiment of dragoons, in the army of the Revolution. 
The day before tbe duel, they were " on the most intimate terms 
of friendship." O. killed bis antagonist on tj^e spot, and was 
himself dangerously wounded. The duel was caused by a " triv- 
ial misunderstanding." The survivor " discovered no sorrow," 
no " remorse." The story is related by Thacher, with the ini- 
tial letters here used. / 



256 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

O'CALLAGAN, an Irish counsellor of the last century. When 
Lord Clanmorris horsewhipped- Curran in a public street, re- 
marks Harrington, O'Callagan acted as pacificator, and prevented 
a hostile meeting ; but his own brains were literally scattered 
about the ground, soon afterward, by an attorney with whom he 
fought a duel. 

O'CONNELL, DANIEL, and D'ESTERRE. In 1815. O'Connell, 
in one of his many speeches, called the corporation of Dublin 
" a beggarly corporation." D'Esterre, a member of that body, 
treated the sneer as a personal affront, and fastened a quarrel on 
the offender. O'Connell, anxious to avoid a call, declared re- 
peatedly that he intended nothing personal to D'Esterre. They 
met at Bishop's Court, with pistols, at twelve paces. O'Connell 
said to Counsellor Phillips on the ground : " This seems to me 
not a personal, but a political affair. I am obnoxious to a party, 
and they adopt a false pretence to cut me off. I shall not sub- 
mit to it/ They have reckoned without their host, I promise you. 
I am one of the best shots in Ireland at a mark, having, as a 
public man, considered it a duty to prepare, for my own protec- 
tion, against such unprovoked aggression as the present." D'Es- 
terre made a short speech on the ground also, in which he 
disclaimed all hostility to his Catholic countrymen. He was 
supposed to be an unerring marksman. As he took his station, 
he crossed his pistols upon his bosom, " somewhat theatrically." 
The parties, by the terms arranged, were at liberty to discharge 
their weapons at pleasure, after a signal. They fired almost 
together. D'Esterre fell, mortally wounded. Not long after- 
ward, a dispute arose between O'Connell and Sir Robert Peel, 
which led to an appointment. O'Connell, in his latter years, de- 
clined duelling. He said, in the House of Commons, that, " hav- 
ing blood upon his hands, he had registered a vow in heaven" 
His enemies accused him of cowardice, and insisted even 
that his want of courage impelled him to fight D'Esterre. What- 
ever the truth, the reason which he assigned was sufficient. 
There was " blood upon his hands " ; and it is admitted by 
those who enjoyed his confidence, that he endured much anguish 
in consequence, to the latest hour of his life. See Peel, Sir 
Robert, and also Stevenson, Andrew. 

O'CONNELL, MORGAN. See Alvanley, Lord, and also D'ls- 
raeli, Benjamin. 

O'DONAHOE, PATRICK. See Treanor, Barnard S. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 257 

OHIO : Constitutional provision : 

" No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as 
second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, shall 
hold any office in this State." 

OJEDA. Challenge to Nicuesa, in the year 1509. Both were 
" Companions of Columbus," and, subsequently, rival governors 
of San Domingo. To adjust a dispute between them, Ojeda, 
who could fight better than he could argue, proposed a single 
combat. His rival, though brave, was disinclined to use his 
sword in such an affair, and, acquainted with the poverty of 
Ojeda, suggested, as a preliminary to the duel, that each should 
furnish a sum of money (equal to about twenty-five thousand 
dollars) to be the prize of the victor. This proposition gave a 
temporary check to the fiery valor of Ojeda, as intended. Juan 
de la Cosa interposed, and put an end to the contemplated 
meeting. 

O'LEARY, CORNELIUS, of Raleigh, County of Cork, Ireland. 
Challenge to Abraham Morris, of the same county. For the 
act, he was proclaimed a " Tory," and shot down by the mili- 
tary. He had been an officer in the Hungarian service. His 
wife was Ellen O'Connell, a relative of Daniel, the " Irish 
Agitator." 

ONEBY, Major. See Gower, William. 

ORLEANS, Louis, Duke of. Challenge, in 1402, to King 
Henry IV. of England. Isabella of Valois, and daughter of 
Charles VI. of France, became the bride of Richard II. of Eng- 
land, when a mere child, and in the eighth year of her age. In 
the civil war which followed, Richard was deposed. In the year 
1400 he died, probably by the hands of assassins. Isabella was 
a widow at thirteen. Henry IV., who succeeded her husband, 
desired to promote a match between her and his son ; but she 
rejected the overture with horror, for to the house of Lancaster 
she owed her many sorrows, and her widowhood. Isabella 
finally returned to her native country. The Duke of Orleans, 
anxious that she should marry his promising heir, undertook to 
avenge her wrongs. He sent a challenge to Henry, defying 
him as the plunderer of the young Queen and the murderer of 
her husband, and offered to meet and fight him in the lists. The 
monarch declined. " He knew of no precedent," he said, 
" which offered the example of a crowned king entering the 
22* 



258 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

lists to fight a duel with a subject, however high the rank of that 
subject might be." 

ORLIFF, ALEXIS. See Potcmkin, Prince. 

OSBORN, Lieutenant Marine Corps U. S. See Vandyke. 

OSSORY, Lord, and Lord CLARENDON. In the reign of Charles 
II. of England. The quarrel was political, and arose upon a 
measure in Parliament, for the prohibition of the importation of 
Irish cattle. 

O 1 SuLLivAN and CALDWELL. In Canada, in 1819. The for- 
mer an attorney, the latter a physician. An article appeared 
in a Montreal newspaper from the pen of Caldwell, which con- 
cerned the honor and character of O'Sullivan. Both were 
severely wounded. 

OSWALD, Colonel. See Carey, Mathew. 
OXFORD, Earl of. See Sidney, Sir Philip. 

PAGET, Lord, and Captain CADOGAN. In 1809. The story is 
long and sad. His lordship entertained " a romantic attachment" 
for the wife of the Hon. H. Wellesley, which he sought in vain to 
overcome in the turmoils of the war on the Continent ; and dur- 
ing the retreat to Corunna he was so reckless of life as to ac- 
quire the reputation of " a rash and adventurous gallantry." The 
husband recovered < 20,000 damages in a suit of crim. con. 
His lordship, as another "incident" of his passion, was called 
out by Captain Cadogan, whose wife was a sister of Lady 
Wellesley. 

PALATINE, Elector. See Turenne, Viscount and Marshal. 

PALMER, HON. , and HON. GEORGE COLES. Prince Ed- 
ward Island, 1851. It appears, that, at an election, Mr. Palmer 
called Mr. Coles " a coward," for declining a challenge sent by 
a servant, who entered Coles's house in his shirt-sleeves. Coles 
demanded a recall of the offensive remark, or a meeting. The 
latter alternative was accepted, and the parties met. Palmer 
fired without effect. Coles refused to fire, and threw his pistol 
into the air. Palmer had held the office of Solicitor-General of 
the colony. 

PARIS, ROBERT OF, a French baron. In the year 1097 he gave 
a general challenge to meet him in single combat. He com- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 259 

plained that he could meet no one who would accept his univer- 
sal cartel. 

PARK, J. W., and M. C. BRAZER. In California, 1854. Both 
members of the Legislature. Neither harmed. 

PARKER, HON. ROBERT. See Coffin, John. 

PATTERSON, , Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Ire- 
land. In Barrington's time. Three duels while at the bar ; one 
with guns, another with swords. He wounded his antagonists 
in all. 

PAUL, Emperor of Russia. In the year 1800, and but a little 
time previous to his unnatural death, he published a sort of mani- 
festo, in which the sovereigns of Europe were invited to settle 
their disputes, at St. Petersburg, in a combat, with Pitt, Bernstoff, 
and Talleyrand as seconds. The idea was grand. 

PAUL, JAMES. See Burditt, Sir Francis. 
PAULETT, Lord HENRY. See Grenville, George. 
PAULETT, Lord. See Marlborough, Duke of. 
PAUMIER, . See Sheridan, Richard Brinsley. 

PAVIA, General, and the Senor NARVAEZ. In Spain, in 
1851, or early in 1852. Both gentlemen of high consideration 
at the Spanish court. A long quarrel existed between them. 
Pavia gave the challenge. Four general officers acted as sec- 
onds. Mutual explanations terminated the dispute finally, with- 
out the use of weapons. 

PEACHY, A. C., and JAMES BLAIR. In California, 1852. The 
first a member of the legislature, the latter an officer of the 
navy. 

PECQUIGNY, the Duke of. In England, in 1764. This per- 
sonage, says Walpole, " seems a genius of the wrong sort." 
Lord Garlis (afterwards the Earl of Galloway) handed 'his part- 
ner down to supper at Lord Milton's ball, to the great displeasure 
of the Duke, who was " on the point of a duel," to revenge the 
impertinence of the English nobleman. The same year, we 
find him involved in an affair with Mons. Virette, " an equivocal 
being," with whom the Duke gambled and was a loser. Words 
occurred at the opera, and the Duke asked the Marquis of Tavis- 
tock to " see him fight Virette " ; but the Marquis declined to 



260 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

be a witness. To prevent the duel, Mons. de Guerchy sent the 
Duke away ; but he met Virette at Dover, begged his pardon, 
owned himself in the wrong, and then fought him. The com- 
bat was with swords, and the Duke received four wounds in the 
arm. The titled " genius of the wrong sort," and the " equivo- 
cal being " returned to London, " with their honors as white as 
snow." 

PEEL, SIR ROBERT, Prime-Minister of England, and DANIEL 
O'CoNNELL, the Irish " Liberator." Probably about the year 
1830. The offence was on the part of O'Connell, while Peel 
was Secretary for Ireland, and consisted, it is believed, in the 
flippant remark, that the Secretary was " the son of a cotton- 
jenny." The fact of an agreement for a hostile meeting became 
public, when the authorities interposed ; but the engagement was 
renewed, and some place on the Continent designated. As, 
however, O'Connell was arrested in London, and held to bail, 
they did not meet. 

PELLEW, EDWARD, and THEOPHILUS WALSH. At or near 
Paris, in 1819. Both were officers in the British army, and in 
the same regiment. Pellew was killed ; he was of the noble 
house of Exmouth. 

PENDLETON, NATHANIEL. See Hamilton, Alexander. 

PENNANT, PETER, an officer in the army of Anne, Queen of 
England. Challenge to Sir Thomas Prendergast. Sir Thomas 
was Colonel of Pennant's regiment, and was invited to a combat, 
it would seem, without any specific offence, but on the general 
ground of that officer's " disgust." The call was declined, 
when Pennant resigned his commission. 

PENNINGTON, Captain. See Tolemache, John. 

PENRUDDOCK, GEORGE. In 1557. He was standard-bearer 
under the Earl of Pembroke, in the army of Queen Mary. In 
the battle of St. Quintin he engagetjl in single combat with a 
French nobleman, and gained much renown for his victory over 
him. His second son bore the title of Sir Edward Penruddock. 

PEPE, General, and General CARASCOSA. In England, in 
1823. They met near Kew bridge, with swords. Pepe dis- 
abled his opponent by a thrust in the right shoulder. 

PERCY, EDWARD. See Constable, Philip. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 261 

PERRY, OLIVER H., captain in the navy of the United States. 
See Heathy John. 

PERRY, . See Bynum, . 

PERRY, . See Soule, Neville. 

PETIT, JOHN, and GEORGE ROUSSELL. Near Bologne, in 1851. 
The parties were Frenchmen or Belgians, but lived in England. 
They went to the Continent, with seconds, under a written agree- 
ment to fight a duel a mort, or a duel in which one should fall. 
The first fire was to be at twenty-five paces, the second at 
twenty, the third at fifteen ; and thus reducing the distance at 
each fire five paces, they were to grapple, at last, breast to 
breast. Petit was shot through the heart, at fifteen paces ; his 
dead body was left on the field. 

PETTIS, SPENCER. See Biddle, Thomas. 

PEYTON, SIR ROBERT. Challenge, in 1681, to Mr. Williams, 
Speaker of the House of Commons. Sir Robert, " having been 
brought upon his knees," and. expelled the House of Commons, 
sent a message to the Speaker, who, instead of answering it, 
complained to the Council. Sir Robert was committed to the 
Tower. 

PHILIP II., King of France. Challenge, in 1196, to Rich- 
ard I. ("of the lion heart"), King of England-. Philip pro- 
posed that each should select five champions to fight in lists, 
for trial of all matters of controversy between them. Richard 
accepted the offer, on condition that either king might be of the 
number. To this Philip objected. The quarrel dates from 
1191, when both kings were engaged in the Crusade ; they took 
the city of Acre, when Philip returned home in anger. Open 
war was declared between the two kingdoms in the year 1194. 

PHILLIPS, Captain, and SHEPPARD. Both were officers 

in the British service in India, and were in garrison at Bombay. 
The two gentlemen quarrelled about a very trivial matter, and, 
after weeks of correspondence, agreed upon terms of a duel. 
They fought at night, by the light of a lantern held by a Hack 
servant, and without seconds. Phillips was killed on the spot. 
Sheppard was tried, and convicted of manslaughter. Phillips* 
was the offender, one witness stating that he " thought " he had 
heard him speak lightly of Sheppard, on some occasion or other. 



262 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

PHILLIPS, Captain. See Sterne, Roger. 

PHILLIPS, CHARLES, the Irish orator, and MR. HENRIQUEZ. In 
1819. A bloodless affair. They met, exchanged shots, shook 
hands, and parted. 

PHILLIPS, HENRY. See Woodbridge, Benjamin. 

PHRYNON. See Pittacus. 

PICON, MONS. See Soule, Pierre. 

PIERSON, . See Cannon, . 

PISCATORY, Mons. See Aguesseau, Mons. Segur <T. 

PITT, the Right Honorable WILLIAM, Prime Minister of Eng- 
land, and GEORGE TIERNEY, a member of Parliament, Treasurer 
of the Navy, President of the Board of Control, and Master of 
the Mint. In 1798, on Putney Common. During a debate in 
Parliament, Pitt imputed factious motives to Tierney, and said 
that his course proved " intemperate rashness rather than per- 
sonal courage. 1 ' Two shots were exchanged without effect on 
either side. Pitt fired a third time in the air, when the parties 
separated. 

PITTACUS, of Mitylene, and PHRYNON, general of the Athe- 
nian army. Before Christ, the year 547. The inhabitants of 
Mitylene, being at war with the Athenians, placed Pittacus in 
command of their forces. To spare the blood of his countrymen, 
he offered single combat to Phrynon, who accepted, and was 
slain. 

PIZARRO, HERNANDO. See Alvarado, Don Diego. 

PLOWDEN, Captain, of the family of Plowdens of Plowden, 
Northamptonshire, England. He was killed in a duel, previous 
to the year 1829. His father was an eminent chancery bar- 
rister, and author of a Histoiy of Ireland ; one of his sisters 
married Lord Dundonald. 

POLAND. In 1851. At Posen, a Polish school-boy, seventeen 
years of age the account is shot a school-fellow of thir- 
teen, in a duel, and was condemned to eighteen months' impris- 
onment. Three other boys, between the ages of thirteen and 
fifteen, who acted as seconds, and umpire, were tried, and 
acquitted. 

POLIGNAC, the Countess of, and the Lady DE NESLE. In 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 263 

France, during the last century. These noble ladies, rivals in 
love, actually fought with pistols, for the honor of the possession 
of the handsome Due de Richelieu. 

POLYNICES, Prince of Thebes. See Eteodes. 

POMFRET, the Earl of. According to Walpole, his lordship, 
in his freaks of madness or insanity, imagined that he was often in- 
sulted ; but he generally selected such persons to answer " as looked 
unlikely to resent," and would refuse his calls. At one time, he 
indulged the habit of inviting " gentlemen in the play-house, who 
he pretended had made faces at him." Once, unfortunately, he 
fixed upon General Moyston, for having laughed at him at Court, 
and demanded a meeting in Hyde Park. The General " denied 
having ever seen him there. " " O then it is very well," said 
Pomfret. " No, it is not," replied Moyston. " You have dis- 
turbed me when I had been in bed but three hours, and now you 
shall give me satisfaction." The Earl begged to be excused. 
Walpole relates, also, that a Mr. Robinson used to say publicly 
that he often got Lord Pomfret as far as Hyde Park Corner, but 
never beyond. 

After an interval of several years, the Earl's mania for chal- 
lenging persons by whom he fancied he had been wronged re- 
turned. In 1780 he gave an invitation to the Duke of Grafton 
for an affront offered to him a long time previously, and while 
his Grace was a minister of the crown. The Duke declared his 
innocence, and put him off; but he came back two days after- 
wards, and in a second message renewed his demand for satis- 
faction. The Duke, instead of fighting, turned him over to a 
magistrate. 

PONTGIBAUD, Mons. See Bouteville, Count Francis de. 

POPE, HENRY C., and JOHN T. GRAY. In Indiana, 1849. 
Both were citizens of Louisville, Kentucky. Pope had been a 
captain in the army of the United States ; he was the challenger. 
Gray selected shot guns, loaded with single balls, at twenty 
paces. Pope fell, mortally wounded : he was placed on a bed, 
and carried homeward in a boat : he expired before the boat 
arrived at Louisville. 

PORTER, THOMAS. See Bellasses, Sir Henry. 

POTEMKIN, a Russian Prince and Field Marshal, and ALEXIS 
ORLIFF. Probably soon after the year 1776. These person- 



264 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

ages were rivals for the favor of the Empress Catharine II. 
He won the affections of his royal mistress, to the exclusion not 
only of OrlifFand his brother, but of all other competitors. 

Arrogant in his success, the Orliffs hated him, both because 
of his manners and their discomfiture. In a duel with Alexis 
he lost an eye. The Empress, after this affair, loved him better 
than ever before. He gained complete control of the public 
affairs of Russia. 

POUCHKIN, the poet, and the Baron de HECKEREN. The 
Baron was the seducer of Pouchkin's wife. The injured husband 
was slain. The survivor, an officer in the Russian Imperial 
Guard, was dismissed the service, and compelled to abandon his 
country ; in 1852 he was employed by Louis Napoleon on a 
special embassy to Russia. 

POWELL, A. See Falkland, Lord Viscount. 

POWERS, , a Sergeant. See Colbee, a Corporal. 

PRENDERGAST, SIR THOMAS. See Pennant, Peter. 
PRINGLE, of Crighton. See Scott, Walter. 
PUDENS, the Roman. See Jonathan, the Jew. 
PUNONROSTRO, Count of. See Soule, Neville. 

PUREFOY, WILLIAM POE, Lieutenant, British army. See 
Roper, Colonel. 

PUTNAM, ISRAEL, a general in the army of the Revolution. 
Two affairs of " Old Put," during the war, are recorded by his 
biographer, which require notice in these pages. Neither add to 
his fame : since he was bound to fight " according to usage," 
or decline the calls. 

The first was \vith an American officer, whom, without 
design, he offended at table. The officer demanded instant 
satisfaction. Putnam agreed to meet him the next morning, 
without seconds. The officer repaired to the spot designated, 
armed with sword and pistols, and, before taking his place, was 
greeted with a shot from Putnam's gun, at thirty rods. As 
Putnam was reloading his piece, the officer approached, and 
asked, " What are you about to do ? Is this the conduct of an 
American officer, and a man of honor ? " " What am I about to 
do ? " replied the General. " A pretty question to put to a man 
whom you intended to murder ! I 'm about to kill you : and if 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 265 

you don't beat a retreat in less time than it takes old Heath 
to hang a Tory, you are a gone dog." The officer turned and 
fled. 

The second was with a British officer, and a prisoner on 
parole. Offended at some remarks of the General, a challenge 
was given and accepted. As the challenged party, Putnam, 
agreed to select the weapon, and appear at a place which he 
named, with arms for both. The officer found him there, seated 
near a barrel, apparently containing powder, smoking his 
pipe. 

The General requested him to take a seat on the other side 
of the cask ; and, remarking that " there was an equal chance 
for both of them," set fire to a match which communicated with 
the contents of the barrel. The officer looked at the match a 
moment, as the fire approached the supposed powder, and then 
departed. 

As he retired, Putnam exclaimed : " You are just as brave 
a man as I took you to be ; this is nothing but a barrel of onions, 
with a few grains of powder on the head, to try you by. But 
you don't like the smell." 

QUELUS, . See Antraguet, . 

RADCLIFFE, ROBERT, of Foxdenton Hall, County of Lancaster, 
England, and a captain in the Duke of Monmouth's regiment, 

and . In 1685. RadclifFe was slain, and his remains 

buried in Talton Chapel. 

RAMSAY, DAVID. See Rea, Lord Donald. 

RAMSAY, Sir GEORGE, and Captain MACRAE. I suppose, in the 
latter part of the last century. Sir George fell ; leaving no issue, 
he was succeeded by his brother, who died in 1807. 

RANDALL, . See Fox, . 

RANDOLPH, JOHN. See Clay, Henry. 
RAWDON, Lord. See Richmond, Duke of. 

REA, C., and W. P. EVANS. In 1854, in Mississippi, with 
rifles. The former an editor ; the latter a lawyer. Evans the 
challenger. At the third or fourth fire Rea was shot in both 
thighs. 

REA, DONALD, Lord, and DAVID RAMSAY. In 1631. This 
was a judicial duel. The arrangements were made by the Lord 
23 



266 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 






High Constable and Earl Marshal of England. But King 
Charles revoked his commission, and effected an accommodation 
without bloodshed. 

READY, W. G., and A. L. SNOWDEN. In Pennsylvania, in 
1854, with rifles. Both students of Jefferson College. Ready 
the challenger. 

RECALDE, DON INIGO DE. See Loyola, Ignatius. 
RECTOR, Colonel WHARTON. See Conway, General. 
REED, General. See Allstons. 
REED, Judge. See Brooks, Walter. 

REEVE, ZEPHANIAH. Challenge, probably about the year 1734, 
to Robert Henley, afterwards Lord Keeper, Lord Chancellor, 
Baron Henley, and Earl of Northington. Reeve was a Quaker ; 
and provoked and offended at Henley's course of cross-examina- 
tion while he was on the stand as a witness in a court at Bristol, 
he so far forgot the pacific tenets of his sect, as to send him a 
message, after the manner of the world, demanding honorable 
satisfaction, or an apology. 

Henley " was by no means wanting in courage, but, sensible 
that he had exceeded the bounds of professional license, and 
anxious to escape the ridicule of going into the field with such an 
antagonist, very readily adopted the latter alternative." The 
" broad-brimmed " duellist dined with Henley, after he became 
Lord Chancellor, in company with a party of noblemen and 
members of the House of Commons, when his Lordship related 
the story, to the great diversion of his guests. 

RETZ, Cardinal de, of France. He flourished in the seven- 
teenth century, when, according to his own account, challenges 
passed at the altar among officiating priests of noble birth. His 
amours and affairs of honor were numerous. After taking 
orders, and while known as the Abbe de Gondil, he was engaged 
in two duels in one day. 

RIBAUMONT, EUSTACE DE, a French knight. See Edward III., 
King of England. 

RICHARD I., King of England, surnamed " CoBur de Lion." 
Challenge, in 1191 or the year following, to Isaac, Emperor of 
Cyprus. In battle, Richard, dashing into the ranks of the enemy, 
where Isaac was conspicuous by his gilded armor and royal in- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 267 

signia, cried out, "What ho! lord Emperor! Come, if thou 
darest, and meet me hand to hand." But Isaac turned the rein 
of his horse, and fled in advance of his flying army. (See also 
Philip II. of France.) 

RICHARD II., King of England. Two challenges ; one in the 
day of power, the other in his fall. The first to Charles, King 
of France, towards the close of the fourteenth century. Richard 
claimed the French crown, arid proposed to terminate the con- 
troversy with his rival, first, by a personal combat between them- 
selves ; second, by a combat between themselves, with three of 
their uncles on each side ; or, third, by a general battle. But 
Charles disliked all, and accepted of neither. In the year 1399 
the monarch was imprisoned and deposed. In the Tower, pre- 
vious to resigning the crown, he had an interview with the Duke 
of Lancaster (who succeeded him as Henry IV.) and with several 
other noblemen. After a fierce quarrel with the Duke Aumerle, 
who called Richard " a liar," and threw down his bonnet as a 
defiance, the fallen king turned to Henry, and asked, u Why 
am I in confinement, and under a guard of armed men, and 
what do you mean to do with me ? " Henry replied, u You 
are my lord and king, but the Council of the realm have deter- 
mined to keep you in confinement till the^ decision of Parlia- 
ment." Richard, swearing a great oath, demanded his wife : 
told in answer, that he could not see the Queen, he indulged in 
the most passionate exclamations ; and finally, casting his bonnet 
at the feet of the nobles present v as a gage, offered to fight any 
four of them. His challenge was not heeded. 

RICHARD III. and the Earl of RICHMOND, who succeeded as 
Henry VII. Battle of Bosworth, in 1485. Ere the field was 
lost, Richard determined to engage his rival in single combat, in 
the hope that the death of either would decide the day ; and, 
having slain Sir William Brandon, the Earl's standard-bearer, 
and dismounted Sir John Cheyney, he finally executed his pur- 
pose so far as to commence the contest, which, fortunately per- 
haps for the Earl, was interrupted by Sir William Stanley, who 
with a body of troops surrounded the tyrant, and put an end to 
his guilty life. Shakespeare refers to the incident in the well- 
known passage, in which Richard speaks for the last time : 

" Slave, I have set my life upon a cast, 
And I will stand the hazard of the die ; 



268 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

I think there be six Richmonds in the field ; 
Five have I slain to-day, instead of him : 
A horse ! a horse ! my kingdom for a horse ! " 

RICHARDSON, THQMAS R., of Ohio, and . Richardson 

was a lieutenant in the United States army, and was killed. 

RICHEBOURG, Mons., an officer of dragoons in the army of 
France. A duellist of much notoriety. His career as a mili- 
tary man was at last interrupted, and he was compelled to aban- 
don Europe. He came to America about the year 1716, and 
his name appears at that period in the annals of Louisiana. 

RICHELIEU, Louis FRANCOIS ARMAND DE PLESSIS, Due de, 
Marshal of France. An extraordinary being from first to last. 
While an infant (in 1696) he was so small and feeble, that his 
life was preserved by keeping him in a box filled with cotton. 
As he grew to manhood, he acquired the showy graces which 
captivate persons of frivolous minds, and became the darling of 
the ladies of the French court, and some of them fought duels 
for the possession of his person. Richelieu was destitute of 
honor, morals, and religion : he was a reckless duellist, and a 
systematic and heartless seducer. In a word, he was one of the 
most profligate and corrupt men of the profligate and corrupt 
courts of his times. But he lived until the year 1788, and to 
the age of ninety-two. 

His duel with the Count de Gace, in 1716, was among his 
earliest and desperate encounters : both parties were committed 
to the Bastille. His licentious pleasures "were now and then" 
interrupted by affairs with the sword, for a considerable part of 
his subsequent career. While an inmate of the Bastille, the 
third time, in 1719, and for a political offence, female influence 
obtained his removal from a dungeon to comfortable apartments, 
and permission to take a daily walk on the top of his prison. 
As he paced the ramparts, a procession of elegant carriages, 
filled with women, the high-born dames of France, who 
notoriously were or had been his mistresses, passed slowly back- 
ward and forward in front of the spot where he was, and an 
intercourse of signs was kept up between him and these unscru- 
pulous fair ones, until the hour allotted expired. Six years later, 
when restored to favor, and sent ambassador to Vienna, the 
horses of his retinue (of seventy-five carriages) were shod with 
silver, in such a manner as that the shoes should fall off, to be 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 269 

picked up by the populace. And yet Richelieu was an ignorant 
man, and could not even spell correctly. 

RICHMOND, Duke of, and Lord LAUDERDALE. In England, 
1792. His lordship, a few days previously, fought with General 
Benedict Arnold. 

RICHMOND, Duke of, and the Duke of YORK. At Wimbledon, 
England, in 1789, with pistols. The Duke of Richmond at this 
time was known as Colonel Lenox. The difficulty related to some 
words said to have been spoken at Daubigny's Club, of which 
Lenox required of his royal highness an explanation or retraction. 
The Duke of York refused, but expressed a willingness to waive 
the privileges of his rank. The two noble combatants were ac- 
companied to the ground by Lords Ravvdon and Winchelsea, 
who certified that " both behaved with the utmost coolness and 
intrepidity.'" At the word " Fire ! " Lenox obeyed, and his bullet 
grazed the hair of the royal Duke, who discharged his weapon 
in the air. 

Mr. Rush (when Minister from the United States to Eng- 
land) was told by Mr. Coke, that the Queen, on the evening fol- 
lowing the duel between her son and Lenox (as related above), 
" met the latter in one of the court circles, and was more than 
usually gracious, offering him her hand as she first addressed 
him. 1 " 

The affair with the Duke of York, according to Barrington, 
involved Lenox in another duel. It seems that Theophilus Swift, 
an Irish lawyer who practised in the English courts, took it into 
his head that the meeting in question was a personal offence to 
every gentleman in England, and that every man who loved the 
reigning family was bound to challenge Lenox, until he should 
be killed. Acting upon this strange conceit, he sent a message 
to Lenox, for having the arrogance to fire at the king's son. 
Lenox had never seen or heard of Swift, but still accepted the 
call. In the combat, the barrister was shot through the body ; 
was carried home ; made his will ; expected to die. But he 
recovered ; and a guest at the first levee of Lenox (who mean- 
time had succeeded to the title of Duke of Richmond) as the Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland,* he said, on being presented, that " the 

* He was appointed to Ireland in 1807, and was then a general in the 
army, and enjoyed great popularity in the service : subsequently, he was 
Governor-General of British America, and died at Montreal, Canada, in 
1819. 

23* 



270 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

last time he had the honor of waiting on his grace, as Coloriel 
Lenox, he received better entertainment, for that his grace had 
given him a ball ! " " True," replied the Duke, with a smile, 
" and now that I am Lord Lieutenant, the least I can do is to 
give you a brace of them " ; and in due time Swift was invited 
to attend two balls at his grace's palace. 

RICHMOND, Earl of. See Richard III. 

RIDGWAY, ROBERT. See Davis, S. G. 

RIKER, R. See Clinton, De Witt. 

ROBERT, Prince. See William the Conqueror. 

ROBINUS NOVELLUS. See Galeazzo. 

ROCHESTER, JOHN WILMOT, Earl of. The witty and profli- 
gate nobleman and poet, according to Dr. Johnson, " was re- 
proached with slinking away in street quarrels, and leaving his 
companions to shift as they could without him" : and he adds, 
that " Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, has left a story of his 
refusal to fight him." 

ROGAAR, HERMAN. See Trench, Baron Frederic. 
ROHAN, Chevalier de. See Voltaire. 

ROLLIN, Mons. LEDRU, and Mons. DEUJOY. In France, 1849. 
The former fired : the pistol of the latter " hung fire " : the 
seconds interposed. 

ROMAN, CHARLES, and W. H. BOWLINGLY. In 1854, near 
Mobile. The latter wounded ; the former son of ex-Governor 
Roman. 

ROMILLY, SIR SAMUEL. See McNamara, John. 

ROPER, Colonel, and Lieutenant WILLIAM POE PUREFOY. In 
1794. Purefoy was an officer in Roper's regiment, and for 
some excesses on a festive occasion was severely reprimanded. 
The Lieutenant resented this so much, that the Colonel felt com- 
pelled to transfer the case to a court-martial. The result was, 
that the court dismissed Purefoy from the army, and rendered 
him incapable of serving again : the sentence was read in his 
presence, at the head of the regiment. More indignant than 
ever, he went to the colonel, and told him that he was a coward, 
a ruffian, and a scoundrel ; and afterwards, on the same day, 
asked him to agree to a meeting, and shook a whip over his 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 271 

head. Roper, finally, and by advice of those who repre- 
sented that Purefoy no longer belonged to the army, and main- 
tained the standing of a gentleman, sent a hostile message. 
They accordingly met. Roper was shot dead on the field. Pure- 
foy was tried and acquitted. 

ROSE, STEPHEN, of Georgia, and . At Washington, Mis- 
sissippi, in 1810. Rose was an officer in the army of the 
United States, and was slain. 

Rossi, son of Count of. See Canino, Charles Bona- 
parte, Prince of. 

ROSSLYN, Earl of. See Boswell, Sir Alexander. 

ROTHSAY, Duke of. Challenge to King Henry IV. of Eng- 
land, I suppose in the year 1410. Henry had invaded Scotland. 
Rothsay's cartel was to meet the monarch in personal combat, 
with three hundred, two hundred, or one hundred nobles on each 
side. Henry declined. 

ROWE, EDWARD. See May, Colonel. 

RUGGLES, . See Harris, John S. 

RUMIGNY, General. See Dulong, Mons. 

RUSSELL, A. C., and Captain FOLSOM. In California, 1851. 
Two shots exchanged. The affair settled on the ground, by ad- 
vice of Captain Marcy, one of the seconds. 

RUSSELL, GEORGE. See Petit, John. 

RUST, Colonel, and Judge STIDGER. In California, 1853. The 
first, editor of the Express, the latter of the Herald, newspaper. 
Stidger was slightly wounded. 

RUTHERFORD and CAHILL. In Scotland, in 1811. They were 
officers in the same regiment ; the former a captain, the latter a 
surgeon. Cahill, contrary to the regulations of the mess, and 
when unwell, carried a file of newspapers to his room. This 
caused a trifling dispute at the mess. Cahill, when informed of 
this by a friend of Rutherford, laughed, and said, " the complaint 
must have arisen from personal pique," and when pressed to 
explain his meaning, he added, that " he believed that Ruther- 
ford had a personal pique against him." The captain was of- 
fended, and, as Cahill offered no explanation, a meeting was 
arranged for the same evening. They fought " in a quarry, or 



272 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

some such miserable place," attended by two very young men 
as seconds. On the ground, Cahill was afforded an opportunity 
to apologize. He refused. Rutherford fell, mortally wounded. 
Cahill was tried and acquitted. 

RYS, HOWELL AP. See Griffith of Gronw. 

j. and L. In 1780. The former a lieutenant, and the latter 
a volunteer, in the army of the Revolution. Mr. L. fell, and in- 
stantly expired. 

SACKVILLE, Lord GEORGE, and Governor GEORGE JOHNSTONE. 
In England, 1770, in Hyde Park, with pistols. Johnstone called 
his lordship u a coward" in the House of Commons. Sackville 
was accompanied by the Hon. Thomas Townshend ; Johnstone, 
by Sir James Lowther. Two shots exchanged ; one of John- 
stone's balls struck his antagonist's pistol. 

SACKVILLE, SIR GEORGE. See Bruce, Lord Edward. 

SALADIN, or SALAHEDDIN YUSEPH BEN AYEB, Sultan of Egypt 
and Syria, in the twelfth century, and in the time of the Cru- 
sade. Challenge to RICHARD I. of England, to meet him in 
single combat, between the two armies, to decide at once their 
pretensions to the Holy Land. 

The story is a fable, but its author designed it for a veritable 
narrative. It finds a place in these pages, as some other'legends 
have done, to relieve the reader from the continual perusal of the 
real and the sad. 

The tale, related in the fewest words, is this : that Saladin, 
with his defiance, sent Coeur de Lion the present of a war- 
horse, which he supposed that monarch would ride in the ex- 
pected duel ; that this horse was the foal of a mare which Saladin 
himself intended to ride f that both animals, by means of con- 
jurations, were possessed of devils, which devils were to insure 
the Saracen the victory : for the mare was instructed to neigh, 
and the foal at the neighing was taught to kneel and suck her. 
But the devils were outwitted. An angel warned Richard in a 
dream of the plot devised for his destruction, and not only so, 
but drove the devil out of his horse ; and, to make everything 
sure, filled the animal's ears with wax, so that it could not hear. 
With an evil spirit on one side, and a good spirit on the other, 
the Saracen and the Briton met in deadly encounter. At the 
decisive moment, Saladin's mare " neighed till she shook the 
ground for miles around " ; yet Richard's horse did not obey the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 273 

signal. The result was, that Saladin was dismounted and nar- 
rowly escaped with his life ; while the Christians made awful 
havoc in his army. 

SANDS, JOSHUA. See Bassett, Willis H. 
SARGENT, . See Wyer, James. 

SARTIGES, Mons., Minister of France to the United States. See 
Barney, John. 

SARTORIOUS, Senor, and Seuor GOMUSIO. In Cuba, in 1854, 
with swords. Both wounded. The first, postmaster at Havana ; 
the latter, an officer of the customs. The Captain-General, dis- 
pleased with their conduct, sentenced them to imprisonment in 
the Moro Castle, and to suspension from office for a short term. 

SCHAFFER, Captain. See Wether ed, S. 

SCHOOLER, WILLIAM, of London. He wounded his antagonist 
in a duel, and fled to Holland ; but came finally to Massachusetts, 
leaving his wife in England. In America he led a vicious life. 
A particular offence brought his career to an end. Undertaking to 
conduct Mary Sholy a poor maid from Newbury to the Pis- 
cataqua River, he abandoned her to perish. It was believed that 
he violated and murdered her. He was executed in Boston, in 
1633. " There were some ministers and others," says Win- 
throp, " who thought the evidence not sufficient to take away his 
life." 

SCOTT, , editor of the London Magazine, and MR. CHRIS- 
TIE, barrister at law. In England, 1821. The quarrel was origi- 
nally between Mr. Scott and Mr. Lockhart. The latter, offended 
at some of Scott's literary articles, made a call for a hostile meet- 
ing, which was declined, without a previous denial that Lock- 
hart was the editor of Blackwood^s Magazine. In the course of 
the difficulty, a misunderstanding arose between Scott and Chris- 
tie, who was Lockhart's intended second. This resulted in a 
duel at Chalk Farm by moonlight. Scott was mortally wounded. 
A coroner's jury found a verdict of wilful murder. The survivor 
and the seconds were tried and acquitted. 

SCOTT, GIOVANNI, and . Near New Orleans, in 1853. 

Scott was wounded in a duel with knives, was carried to the 
Charity Hospital, where he partially recovered, and was dis- 
charged. He returned and died. 



274 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

SCOTT, WILLIAM H. See Smith, Peter. 

SCOTT, WALTER, Laird of Raeburn, and PRINGLE of Crighton. 
In Scotland, year 1707. Scott was slain. His family is a branch 
of the family of Scott of Harden, immortalized by giving birth 
to the author of Waverley. 

SEATON, Colonel. See Gustavus II. , King of Sweden. 
SEGUR, Count. See Gourgaud, Baron de. 

SFORZA, FRANCESCO, Duke of Milan. Challenge to GENTILE 
LEONISSA, general of the forces of Venice. In the year 1452. 
The two countries were at war. A campaign had been wasted 
in manoeuvres, in which each commander exhausted his skill in 
eluding the other ; when Sforza despatched a herald to the Vene- 
tian camp, bearing a bloody gauntlet, and an invitation to a 
pitched battle. The cartel was formal, and was formally an- 
swered. The defiance was accepted, and the herald returned 
with two gauntlets and two lances dipped in blood, as pledges of 
Leonissa's faith. Arrangements were made as for a combat in 
the lists, and in accordance with the rules of chivalry. But no 
battle occurred. Sforza displayed his line on the appointed 
ground, on the appointed day ; but could not see the troops of 
Venice, because, of a dense fog, and could not advance, because 
of a heavy rain ; yet he claimed the victory. Retiring to his 
quarters, he suspended Leonissa's gauntlets on a column which 
he erected on the plain. But his whole claim as victor rested on 
his offer to fight, in his message by the herald. 

SENE, HOWELL, a"nd OWEN GLYNDER. Two Welch chief- 
tains, who, in their extreme enmity, met in single combat. Sene 
was slain ; the hollow tree in which his body was concealed 
stood until 1813. A descriptive poem, entitled The Spirits 
Blasted Tree, by the Rev. Mr. Warrington, is printed in the 
Notes of Scott's Marmion, to illustrate a passage in the intro- 
duction to the sixth canto. 

SEVIGNE, the Marquis de, of France, and . In 1651. 

Sevigne was slain ; his wife, Maria de Rabutin, a French woman 
of rank, refused to marry again, arid devoted her life to letters, 
and to the education of a son and daughter. 

SHAFTESBURY, Earl of. See Mornington, Earl of. 
SHELBURNE, the Earl of, and MR. FULLARTON, member of Par- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 275 

liament. In England, 1780. A political duel, and the result of an 
altercation in Parliament. There are different versions of the 
cause of offence. William Lee wrote John Adams that the min- 
isterial party seemed " to be getting the better of the opposition 
party at home, which it appears they are determined to do, either 
by fraud or violence, as the papers will tell you how narrowly the 
life of Lord Shelburne has escaped one of the Scotch assassins." 

The editor of Horace Walpole's Letters to Sir Horace Mann, 
states that Mr. Fullarton, " after being Lord Stormont's private 
secretary at Paris, was elevated to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel 
in the army, and appointed to the command of a newly raised 
regiment"; that Lord Shelburne "animadverted severely on the 
circumstance in the House of Lords, and in the course of his 
speech, designated Mr. Fullarton as a mere clerk, a commis " ; 
that the latter complained of the insult in his place in the House 
of Commons ; and that, " the House declining to proceed upon 
it, a combat took place in Hyde Park." 

Mr. Fullarton's complaint to the Commons, according to an- 
other writer, was substantially as stated in the account last quoted, 
except that the aggrieved gentleman further said, that the Earl 
had declared that " a clerk ought not to be trusted with a regi- 
ment." 

The version of the Hibernian Magazine, of the time, is, that 
Mr. Fullarton complained of the ungentlemanlike behavior of the 
Earl of Shelburne, " who," he affirmed, " with all the aristo- 
cratic insolence that marks that nobleman's character, had in 
effect dared to say, that he and his regiment were as ready to 
act against the liberties of England as against her enemies." 

Mr. Fox, in interrupting Mr. Fullarton's invective against the 
Earl, referred to the impossibility of knowing whether the words 
so bitterly commented on were really spoken or not ; and pro- 
tested against the course the affair had taken, which, if continued 
in that body, would put an end to all freedom of debate ; for, if 
it were once admitted as a principle, that a personal affront was 
offered to gentlemen whenever their names and conduct were 
mentioned, the most essential of all the rights of Parliament 
would be lost. 

The hostile meeting occurred, two days afterwards. Mr. Ful- 
larton was attended by Lord Balcarras ; the Earl, by Lord Fred- 
erick Cavendish. The first fire was without effect; at the- 
second, Mr. Fullarton's ball passed through some paper in the 
Earl's pocket, and lodged in his thigh. Mr. Fullarton, seeing 



276 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

that his lordship was wounded, advanced and demanded a con- 
cession. The Earl, who had not discharged his second pistol, 
replied, that " he did not come there to make concessions," and 
desired Mr. Fullarton to take his position again. As soon as the 
latter had resumed his place, the Earl fired his weapon in the 
air. The seconds then interposed. 

Sir James Lowther, on the afternoon of the day of the duel, 
called the attention of the House to the subject, on the ground 
assumed previously by Mr. Fox ; and proposed an inquiry, with 
a view of putting an end to combats between the members, in 
consequence of words uttered in debate. The discussion was 
continued by gentlemen on both sides, in a manner so excited 
that Mr. Fox and an official personage of rank were nearly in- 
volved in a quarrel ; but it terminated without any definite action 
on the part of the House, as proposed by Sir James. 

Lord Shelburne, on his recovery, received many flattering con- 
gratulations from different parts of the country. The duel be- 
tween Mr. Fox and Mr. Adam was still fresh in the public mind : 
and, so rapidly followed by another, gave some countenance to 
the apprehension, both in and out of Parliament, that political 
differences of opinion were to be settled quite too often with the 
sword and the pistol. There was a singular coincidence in the 
two affairs. Both were for similar cause. While, relates Wai- 
pole, " The Earl was wounded in the groin, just where Charles 
Fox was, on which Sir George Saville said wittily, that Nolan 
and Fullarton had tried not only to cut off them, but their poster- 
ity. It was odd that the same pistol gave both wounds, for Adam 
had borrowed Fullarton's." 

SHEPPARD, . See Phillips, Captain. 

SHERIDAN, RICHARD BRiNSLEY,and Captain THOMAS MATHEWS. 
In England, 1772. Two duels. The principal incidents are 
as follows. Sheridan's brother Charles loved Miss Linley. 
Mathews, who was a married man, persecuted her with dishon- 
orable addresses, and finally, as a means to accomplish his vile 
purposes, threatened to ruin her reputation. The terrified girl 
confided her distresses to Richard Brinsley, who, it now ap- 
peared, cherished an honorable passion for her himself. She re- 
solved to seek refuge in France in a convent ; Sheridan, if not 
the adviser, became the partner, of her flight. Soon after their 
arrival upon the Continent, they were married near Calais. 

Charles Sheridan, on hearing of the course of the lovers, was 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 277 

angry ; while Mathews was furious almost to an avowal of the 
designs which he had entertained, and which were frustrated by 
the elopement. Sheridan and his bride soon returned to Eng- 
land. Meantime, Mathews nearly involved himself in a duel 
with Charles. A formal challenge was sent by Richard Brins- 
ley, which was accepted. The parties met, attended by Mr. 
Ewart and Captain Knight, in the room of a public house, in 
the evening, with swords. Mr. Ewart, Sheridan's friend, "took 
lights up in his hands," and, directly after entering the apart- 
ment, the combat commenced. In Sheridan's account of the 
affair, he states that Mathews called out twice or thrice, " J beg 
my life" ; a fact which the Captain denied. Sheridan says 
also, that Knight, as soon as the combatants were parted, re- 
marked, " There, he has begged his life, and now there is an 
end of it" A controversy ensued before the parties separated, 
and Sheridan broke his antagonist's sword, " and flung the hilt 
to the other end of the room." 

Mathews retired to his estate in Wales, and " found himself 
universally shunned." Mr. Barnett, a gentleman who resided 
near him, commiserating his condition, advised a second meet- 
ing, and offered to bear a message. Mathews accepted the 
overture, and Barnett posted at once to Bath, when the terms of 
another duel were speedily arranged. 

Mathews was attended by Barnett, and Sheridan by a young 
gentleman of the name of Paumier. They met at Kingsdown, 
about four miles from Bath, in the morning, " before it was 
quite daylight." The fight was severe, perhaps disgraceful. 
" Both their swords breaking upon the first lunge, they threw 
each other down, and with the broken pieces hacked at each 
other, rolling upon the ground, the seconds standing by, quiet 
spectators." Sheridan received several wounds in his breast and 
sides, and was dangerously hurt. Mathews escaped with a 
single and a slight wound. In this affair, as in the first, the 
parties did not agree in their statement of facts, and published 
contradictory accounts ; though, in the last, the narrative drawn 
up by the second of Mathews appears to have met the concur- 
rence of Paumier, except in a " few immaterial circumstances." 
In this narrative, Barnett states that, after Sheridan's sword was 
broke, Captain Paumier called out to him, " My dear Sheridan, 
beg your life, and I will be yours for ever " ; to which, and to a 
similar request from Barnett himself, Sheridan replied, " JVo, 
by God, I won't" The nature of the second combat sufficiently 
24 



278 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

appears from Barnett's discourse about Mathew's disengaging his 
sword from Mr. Sheridan's body ; by the relation of another wound 
against one of Sheridan's ribs or breast-bone ; by the account 
of the closing ; of the tripping up of Sheridan's heels ; of a skin 
wound or two in his neck ; of the beating in his face, either with 
the fist or the hilt of a sword, &c., &c. 

SHREWSBURY, the Earl of, and the Duke of BUCKINGHAM. In 
England, year 1668. Persons of rank have sometimes been, 
are, very corrupt ; but the details of this duel are almost too 
monstrous for credence. The Duke's career was filled with 
intrigues, amours, and other deeds of profligacy ; and at least 
one of the objects of his licentious indulgence was, it would 
seem, as debased as himself. In consequence of adultery with 
Lady Shrewsbury, he met her husband in single combat. Sir 
Jones Jenkins, Captain Holman, Lord Bernard Howard, and Sir 
John Talbot, were the seconds. These four gentlemen fought, 
as well as their principals. Not one of the six combatants es- 
caped unharmed. Shrewsbury and Jenkins were killed ; Talbot 
was severely, and Buckingham, Holman, and Howard were 
slightly, wounded. 

Buckingham and Lady Shrewsbury had lived in open adultery ; 
and the account is that, during the duel, in the dress of a page, 
she held her paramour's horse in a thicket near by, to insure 
speedy and successful flight, in case he should succeed in slaying 
her husband. It is said, too, that she was conveyed to Bucking- 
ham's house, was introduced by him to the Duchess ; that she 
went to his bed the very night which followed the fatal meeting, 
and slept with him, he wearing the shirt in which he fought, 
stained with his own and Shrewsbury's blood. 

SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP. Challenge to the Earl of Oxford : ac- 
cording to one authority, in the year 1573, but probably about 
1580. The Earl, a favorite of Queen Elizabeth, and a son-in- 
law of her minister, Burleigh, presuming on his position, called 
Sir Philip " a puppy," at a tournament, in presence of the 
French ambassador. Sidney replied, that " all the world knew 
that dogs were the parents of puppies," and added his defiance. 
The Earl was disinclined to fight. The Privy Council attempted 
to adjust the difficulty ; but Sidney insisted upon an apology or 
a duel, and the effort failed. The Queen was then made ac- 
quainted with the case, and interposed her commands. In her 
interview with the insulted Sidney, she reminded him of the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 279 

" difference between earls and private gentlemen " ; to which 
he said that, though Oxford was " a great lord, yet he was no 
lord over him." 

Displeased with the course of the Queen, Sir Philip retired to 
the country, and amused himself with the composition of the 
celebrated romance of Arcadia. But he returned to court, 
and was distinguished in jousts and tournaments. 

SIMONS, Colonel MAURICE, and Major WILLIAM CLAY SNIPES. 
In 1786, in the United States. Snipes was the challenger : Si- 
mons had given testimony in a court of justice which offended 
him. Simons was killed. Snipes was tried for murder, and 
convicted of manslaughter. At the trial, one of the judges said, 
that the challenge was for " a most unwarrantable cause " ; and 
another, that he considered the " crime as amounting to mur- 
der"; but these opinions were disregarded by the jury, under 
the powerful appeals of Snipe's counsel. 

SINGER, . See Smith, . 

SKELTON, FRANK, " a boisterous, joking, fat young man," 
and an exciseman. In Ireland, about 1783. The exciseman 
(as Barrington relates the story) put the but end of a whip 
down Skelton's throat, while that worthy was drunk, and asleep 
with his mouth open, at table ; and, insisting that snoring at 
dinner was a personal offence to every gentleman of the com- 
pany, would make no apology. 

Skelton was unwilling to fight; the exciseman, said he, 
" can snuff a candle with his pistol-ball ; and I am as big as a 
hundred dozen of candles." But there was no escape for the 
" fat young man." They met on the green of Maryborough, in 
the presence of hundreds of the town people. The seconds gave 
each of the combatants a brace of pistols. Skelton cocked and 
fired the two in his hands, before the exciseman could discharge 
one, and inflicted a wound each fire ; and having performed this 
valorous feat, fled ; but was pursued by his second, and dragged 
back. The exciseman was so badly hurt that he could not 
stand, and it was proposed to strap him to a tree ; but the " fat 
young man " objected. The affair ended for the time. But the 
exciseman, on his recovery, sent a challenge for a second duel. 
As Skelton, by the rules, was entitled to a choice of weapons, 
he selected "fsts " ; and, said he, " By the c powers, you 
gauger, I '11 give you such a basting, that your nearest relations 
sha'n't know you." The exciseman disliked a fight with " fists." 



280 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Skelton would not change the weapon, and the matter was 
dropped. 

SKINNER, ALEXANDER, of Maryland, a surgeon in the war of 
the Revolution. A man of humor, of eccentric mind and manners. 
In person, in love of good cheer, and in aversion to the turmoil 
of battle, he was not unlike Falstaff. But he had no disinclination 
to single combat, and killed his man in a duel. When rallied on 
the subject of his excessive disinclination to the din and dangers 
of strife by armies, and his course in defence of his honor, he 
used to reply that it did not become him, set apart as he was to 
take care of the sick and wounded, to ape the airs and duty of 
those who were in commission for the express purpose of fighting. 

SMITH and MILLER, both Majors in the service of the United 
States. In 1827. 

SMITH and SINGER. In Kentucky, 1849, with pistols, at 
eleven paces. The former a lawyer, the latter a schoolmaster. 
Both wounded. The " assembled crowd gave three cheers," as 
the parties quitted the ground. 

SMITH, General. See Freeman, General. 

SMITH, Lieutenant, British army. See Downing, Lieutenant, 
Navy of the United States. 

SMITH, Captain JOHN, Army of the United States. See 
Stuart, Colonel. 

SMITH, JOHN, the "Father of Virginia," and. Lord TURBISHA, 
and two other Turks. Early in the seventeenth, or near the 
close of the sixteenth century, while Smith was in the service of 
Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria. During- the siege of Regal, 
the Turks gave a challenge to any single officer of the Austri- 
ans, saying that the Lord Turbisha would fight a Christian, 
" for the diversion of the ladies." 

The choice, in the Austrian camp, was by lot, and fell upon 
Smith, who fought, and slew the Turk, " within sight of the 
ladies" assembled on the ramparts, and carried his head to 
camp. Thereupon, a friend of Turbisha sent a particular defi- 
ance to Smith, who, to divert the Turkish ladies still further, 
accepted it, met his antagonist, and killed him also. The victor 
then sent a message to the fair spectators, that, if bent on still 
another combat for their amusement, they were welcome to his 
head, provided they would find a champion to take it. Bonamle- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 281 

gro accordingly appeared. In this contest Smith was dismount- 
ed, and nearly overcome; but, regaining his saddle, he inflicted 
a mortal wound, and was thus a third time victorious. 

SMITH, J. CALET. See Broderick, D. C. 

SMITH, PETER, and WILLIAM H. SCOTT. In California, 1853, 
with pistols, at eight paces. Smith was killed at the second fire. 
He was a son of Judge Pinckney Smith of Mississippi, an officer 
under Colonel Jefferson Davis in the war with Mexico, and, as 
is said, connected, subsequently, with Lopez in the expedition 
against Cuba. He was but twenty-four years of age. 

SMITH, W. S. See Clinton, DeWitt. 

SMYTH, associate editor of a newspaper published at Augusta, 
Georgia, and DR. THOMAS, of the same place. In South Caro- 
lina, 1851. Thomas, as is stated, gave offence in an article pub- 
lished in another newspaper. Smyth was severely wounded at 
the third fire. 

SNIPES, WILLIAM CLAY, Major. See Simons, Colonel Mau- 
rice. 

SNOWDEN, A. L. See Ready, W. G. 

SOISSONS, Count of. See Angouleme, Charles of Valois, 
Duke. 

SOMERS, RICHARD, a lieutenant in the navy of the United 
States. A man of a mild and affectionate disposition ; but it is 
related that he fought three duels in one day, and that, wounded 
in the two tfrst, he fought the third seated on the ground. He 
perished in the Intrepid fire-ketch, before Tripoli, in 1804. 

SOPHANES of Athens. See Eurylates of Argos. 

SOTOMAYOR, ALONZO DE, a Spanish cavalier, and the Chevalier 
BAYARD. In the year 1503. While the French were in Apulia, 
Bayard defeated a Spanish corps, and made their leader, Soto- 
mayor, prisoner. The captive cavalier was well treated ; but he 
violated his parole by flight, and declared that Bayard had be- 
haved uncourteously towards him. Bayard denied the accusa- 
tion, and defied Sotomayor to single combat, on horse or on foot. 
They met on foot with sword and dagger. The Spaniard was 
slain. 

SOULE, NEVILLE, and the DUKE D'ALBA. In Spain, 1853. 
The former, son of the Minister of the United States to Spain ; 
24* 



282 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

the latter, a connection by marriage of Louis Napoleon, Emperor 
of France. 

Whether the immediate origin of this affair was in a remark of 
pleasantry, or in an expression of grave import, may be consid- 
ered as somewhat uncertain. At a ball at Madrid, given by the 
Marquis de Turgot, the French ambassador, the parties to this 
duel, and the father and mother of Mr. Soule, were present ; and 
the Duke likened Mrs. Soule, in her son's hearing, to one of two 
very different ladies in history. 

One version is, tharfiis grace said, " Look at Margaret of 
Burgundy ! " another, " Look at Mary of Burgundy ! " Accord- 
ing to the statement of M. Alfred Mercier, the words uttered were 
the former ; but Mrs. Soule's costume was not that of Margaret 
of Burgundy, for, says M. Mercier, " my sister wore a dress of 
blue velvet decoletee with gold lace flounces, and a torsade with 
golden tassels on her head." 

The two gentlemen met with swords. Mr. Soule was attended 
by Colonel Milans del Bosch, and by Mr. Perry, Secretary of the 
American legation ; the Duke, by General J. de la Concha, and 
the Count of Punonrostro. " After a combat of thirty minutes," 
says M. Mercier, " without result, the seconds intervened and de- 
clared honor satisfied ; the duel ended, and the principals shook 
hands." 

Several minute accounts of this duel are before me, but, unable 
to reconcile the discrepancies which exist between them, I dis- 
miss it without further comment. 

SOULE, PIERRE, Minister of the United States at the Court of 
Madrid, and the Marquis de TURGOT, Ambassador of France at 
the same. In 1853, in Spain, and immediately after the affair 
between Mr. Neville Soule and the Duke of Alba, and for the 
same general cause ; as appears from the following note of the 
American to the French minister: 

"MONSIEUR LE MARQUIS, The difference which exists between 
the Duke d'Alba and my son arose in your drawing-rooms. It was in 
your house, I and my family being your guests, and on the occasion of 
a fete of which, by a sort of representation, the Duke d'Alba might con- 
sider himself the hero, that the latter took the liberty of Mrs. Soule, and 
up to this time nothing has reached us to exonerate you from the re- 
sponsibility which this circumstance throws on you. It is even said that 
you first used the insulting expression so nobly taken up by my son. 
This being the case, Monsieur le Marquis, I have the right of going to 
the original source which places the sword in the hands of the Duke d' 
Alba and of my son, of making the difficulty mine so far as you are con- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 283 

cerned, and of demanding from you personally a satisfaction which you 
cannot refuse to me. Mr. Perry, my friend and an American citizen, 
is charged to receive your reply. I have the honor, Monsieur le Mar- 
quis, to be your very humble servant, PIERRE SOULE, 

A citizen of the United States." 

The copy here given is that of M. Mercier. M. Gaillardet, 
the Paris correspondent of the Courier des Etats Unis, furnishes 
another which differs in several particulars. Two may be noticed, 
namely, that in which Mr. Soule is said to have written (instead 
of " took the liberty of Mrs. Soule," as above) the stronger words, 
" was permitted to insult Mrs. Soule " ; and that in which the 
original offence is stated to have been from the Marquis ; M. 
Gaillardet's version being, " It is stated as a fact, even that from 
your mouth proceeded in the first place the offensive expression 
afterwards employed by the Duke of Alba, and so nobly retrieved 
by my son." The ambassadors met with pistols. Mr. Soule's 
friends were General Valdes and M. Picon ; those of the Mar- 
quis, Lord Howden, the British Minister at Madrid, and General 
Caillier, a French gentleman of the same diplomatic rank, ac- 
credited to some other court. Two shots were exchanged ; at 
the second, the Marquis fell, severely wounded in the leg below 
the knee. Mr. Soule escaped unharmed. The Marquis, relates 
M. Mercier, " declared upon his honor, by his seconds, Lord 
Howden and General Caillier, that he had not used the expres- 
sion imputed to him," &c. Uncertain as to the truth of other 
incidents, as stated in the public journals at home and abroad, I 
content myself with a narrative of such facts as seem to be en- 
tirely authentic. 

SOUTHAMPTON, Earl of, and LORD GREY of Wilton. In 1603. 
James I. of England had hardly ascended the throne, before 
sharp quarrels arose between the nobles who surrounded him. 
His queen, Anne of Denmark, unwisely took part in a dissension 
which occurred in her presence, and which concerned the Earl 
of Essex. Southampton angrily retorted, " that, if her Majesty 
made herself a party against the friends of Essex, of course they 
were bound to submit ; but none of their private enemies durst 
thus have expressed themselves." 

Lord Grey, a professed foe of Essex, took the offence as per- 
sonal, and made a hostile reply. The two nobles exchanged the 
lie, and a personal combat was likely to ensue. The Queen 
bade them " remember where they were," and ordered them to 
their apartments, under a guard. The next day they were "se- 
verely lectured by the King," and sent to the Tower. 



284 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

SOUTHESK, Earl of. See Gray, William. 
SPARLING, Lieutenant. See Grayson, 



SPEAR, W. S., and JOHN KELLEY. In California, 1852. Three 
shots exchanged without effect on either side. 

SPENS of Kilspindy, and the Earl of ANGUS. Spens was a 
courtier of James IV. of Scotland ; and when, at table, the mon- 
arch gave high praise to Angus, " cast in a word of doubt and 
disparaging." The story reached the Earl's ears, and they soon 
after met. As the Earl rode up, he said, " What reason had 
you to speak so contemptuously of me, doubting whether my 
valor were answerable to my personage ? " Spens would have 
excused himself, but Angus would not listen to him. u Thou art 
a big fellow," uttered the indignant Earl, " and so am I; one of 
us must and shall pay for it." Spens made reply, " If it may 
be no better, there is never an. Earl" in Scotland but I will 
defend myself from him as well as I can ; and rather kill him 
than suffer him to kill me." Both alighted from their horses and 
entered upon a mortal strife. Spens's thigh-bone was at last cut 
asunder, and he died on the spot. 

STAHL, Colonel. See Tordenskiold, Peter, Vice- Admiral. 

STANLY, HON. EDWARD, member of Congress from North 
Carolina, and HON. SAMUEL W. INGE, member of Congress from 
Alabama. In 1851, near Washington, with pistols. In a debate 
upon the " River and Harbor Bill," Mr. Bayly of Virginia had 
expressed the opinion that, in the appropriations proposed, the bill 
was " sectional," which statement Mr. Stanly had controverted. 
Mr. Inge submitted an amendment, providing for the improve- 
ment of certain rivers in Alabama and Mississippi, and in some 
remarks which followed referred to the Bourse of Mr. Stanly, 
and said : " If the South were to wait for that gentleman's warn- 
ing, she would sleep in eternal unconsciousness : she would sleep 
until every assault was perpetrated, and until her spoliation was 
complete It is not from him that I should expect admo- 
nition of danger to the South." This produced a personal dis- 
cussion, which, as officially reported, was in these terms : 

Mr. Stanly. " I have a single word to say. I do not believe the gen- 
tleman from Alabama wants the appropriation which he asks ; but has 
offered the amendment, under the rule, that he might make an unkind 
and unprovoked fling at me. I do not know what I have done to incur 
the gentleman's displeasure." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 285 

Mr. Inge. " I merely stated facts and drew inferences." 

Mr. Stanly. " The gentleman said that the spoliation of the South 
could take place before she would hear a warning from me. The gen- 
tleman shows that he has little sense and less charity when he charges 
me with being unfriendly to the South. I repeat, I am unconscious 
what unkindness I have done to provoke the gentleman." 

Mr. Inge. " I did not hear the gentleman. Will he be good enough 
to repeat what he said ? " 

Mr. Stanly. " I say you have little sense and less charity in charging 
me with unfriendliness to the South." 

Mr. Inge. " I say that that remark is ungentlemanly and unparlia- 
mentary, and comes from a blackguard." 

Mr. Stanly. " Mr. Chairman, he charges me with being a black- 
guard. He has just " shown to the House and to the country that he 
is one." 

The Chairman. " Personalities are not in order." 

Mr. Stanly. " No : personalities are not in order. I am willing to 
let our conduct be judged of by the public ; and let them estimate his 
character and mine. As to my friendship for the South, let the record 
and my conduct speak, whether I have not more friendship for the South 
than those noisy traitors who impeach others, and seek the applause of 
the grog-shops at cross-roads at home by their own professions of devo- 
tion, and by crying eternally, ' There is danger, danger to the South.' 
Even those who voted with a majority of Southern members upon cer- 
tain measures are uncharitably assailed. I regret I have been called 
on to say anything. I was unconscious of giving any provocation. The 
gentleman cast the first stone, and he will make the most of what I have 
said. I shall hereafter treat remarks from that quarter with the con- 
tempt they deserve." 

The National Intelligencer gave the public the following au- 
thentic account of the hostile meeting which was caused by this 
discussion : 

"Adjustment. In reference to the difficulty between the Hon. S. 
W. Inge and the Hon. Edward Stanly, which grew out of the debate of 
the House of Representatives yesterday week, we are authorized to 
state that they met each other with pistols, and, ' after an exchange of 
shots between the parties, the friend of Mr. Stanly advanced to the op- 
posite party, and expressed a desire that the matter should be termi- 
nated, and, in order to arrive at an amicable settlement, stated that the 
remarks made by Mr. Stanly in reference to Mr. Inge were made 
by Mr. Stanly in reply to what he considered a gross personality on 
the part of Mr. Inge in his first remarks. And as the friends of Mr. 
Inge stated those remarks to have been political, and, as such, should 
not have a personal bearing, Mr. Stanly withdrew his remarks. And 
the above having been submitted to the principals, and by them accepted, 
the difficulty betwen them was announced as honorably and amicably 
settled." 



286 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

STANLY, FABIUS, a Lieutenant in the Navy of the United 
States. In 1850. Difficulty with Commander Zachariah F. 
Johnston, of the same arm of the public service. A misunder- 
standing arose between the two gentlemen, during the Mexican 
war, or while they were in the Pacific, attached to the same ship. 
On the 27th of August, 1850, Stanly wrote to Johnston that he 
had sent a communication to the Navy Department, in which he 
had spoken of him as an officer who had " not a proper sense 
of the importance of character in others, nor in himself, nor of 
the dignity embodied in his position " ; that " his vulgar associ- 
ates, his dissipated habits, his street and other brawls, his boast- 
ing language," &c., &c., testified " how devoid he is of the first 
principles of military honor"; and he concluded his note with 
expressing a willingness to maintain all that he had asserted 
or intimated " officially or privately" 

Stanly a day or two afterward posted, or caused to be posted, 
in the public hall of the National Hotel, Washington, a card, in 
these words : 

"I certify that Commander E. F. Johnston has this day falsified his 
word of yesterday, thereby showing that he is a coward. Captain Du- 
pereau will confer a favor on me by informing our acquaintances gener- 
ally, not only of the above, but that Captain E. F. Johnston as I can 
sustain is a braggadocio, and the ground on which I found the above." 

Captain Dupereau, upon his own responsibility, added, in 
another card, posted in the same building : 

" I am authorized to publish Captain Johnston of the United States 
Navy as a coward. He received a challenge from Lieutenant Stanly 
of the Navy, and in answer to this challenge, delivered by me, he ac- 
cepted it ; and this evening, when I called on the gallant captain, he 
refused to accept it, and therefore I am of the opinion of the lieutenant, 
that this man is a coward." 

Upon these proceedings, Stanly, in consequence of informa- 
tion to the Department by Johnston, was tried by a Naval Gen- 
eral Court-Martial, in February, 1851. The charges preferred 
were, first, " disobedience of orders, and conduct unbecoming 
an officer," in this,* that, contrary to a Regulation of the service, 
he, " well knowing the same" had published " his superior officer 
as a coward " ; second, of " scandalous conduct, tending to the 



* The exact words of the different specifications are omitted, for the sake 
of brevity. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 287 

destruction of good morals" in this, that he had posted, or caused 
to be posted, the two cards which precede ; and third, " quar- 
relling and using provoking and reproachful words to another 
and superior officer in the Navy^ in this, that he wrote and 
sent the communication to the Department, which is substantially 
copied at the commencement of this notice. 

The Court found the accused guilty on the three charges, and 
by their sentence he was dismissed from the Navy. But, strange 
to say, the words " well knowing the same" were stricken from 
the first charge, which in effect was an acquittal upon that ; 
for it seems that the "Regulation" on which it was founded, 
instead of being a law of Congress, was a simple order issued by 
the Department in 1841, and had never obtained general pub- 
licity, even in the service. 

The President of the United States, in revising the proceed- 
ings, was of the opinion that the Court should have found the 
accused not guilty as to the first charge ; and, uncertain as to 
the influence which an erroneous finding upon that had in their 
sentence, ordered the Court to reassemble and reconsider their 
finding, on the second and third charges. Upon a reconsidera- 
tion, the Court certified to the President, that their sentence 
" would not have been in any degree mitigated," had they 
" fully and formally acquitted " the accused upon the charge 
in question. The President, in his final revision, adhered to his 
first judgment as to the erroneous finding ; and " in considera- 
tion of the good character proved " by Lieutenant Stanly, " and 
the recommendation of a majority of the Court that executive 
clemency be extended to him," mitigated the sentence " to a sus- 
pension from service and pay, for the term of twelve months." 

STANLEY, JOHN, and Captain CHICKLEY. In England or Ire- 
land, about the year 1721, with swords. Stanley was the chal- 
lenger. The duel was in a dark room. The police burst in, 
and probably saved Stanley's life, for Chickley had stabbed him 
entirely through the body. Stanley was the son of an officer. 
His father took great pains to instruct him in the art of fencing, 
and he became a master of the sword when a mere boy. 

ST. AUBIN, Abbot of. See Tours, Viscount of. 

STEELE, RICHARD. He wrote against duelling, in the Spectator; 
but fought an officer, u whom he narrowly escaped killing." 

STERNE, Lieutenant ROGER, and Captain PHILLIPS. Probably 



288 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

about the year 1725. Both. were officers in the British army, 
and at the time of the duel were in garrison at Gibraltar. The 
renowned author of Tristram Shandy was a son of Sterne, and 
says that " the quarrel began about a goose " ; and that his 
father " was run through the body " by the sword of his antag- 
onist. Sterne remarks further, that, while his father survived 
with much difficulty, his constitution was impaired, and was not 
able to withstand the hardships to which it was subjected, for, 
sent to Jamaica, he soon fell by the country fever. 

STEVENSON, ANDREW, Minister of the United States to Eng- 
land, and DANIEL O'CONNELL, the "Irish Liberator." In 1838. 
In Congress, Mr. John Quincy Adams submitted the following 
resolutions : 

" Resolved, That a committee of members be appointed with 

leave to send for persons and papers, to inquire and report to this 
House, 

" 1. Whether Andrew Stevenson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary from the United States at London, is or has re- 
cently been engaged in a public newspaper controversy involving his 
personal integrity and the honor of his country, whose representative 
he is, with Daniel O'Connell, a member of the Parliament of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

" 2. Whether the said Andrew Stevenson, Holding the privileged 
character of an ambassador, has, in concert with three other persons, 
citizens of the United States, one of whom, an officer in their navy, en- 
gaged in a conspiracy with intent to stop the wind, or, in the language 
of the laws of God and of man, to murder the said Daniel O'Connell in 
a duel, or by a premeditated provocation to a brawl. 

" 3. Whether the said Andrew Stevenson, after a written demand 
of explanation, in the form usual among duellists, as preliminary to a 
challenge, and with the intent to follow it up by a challenge, precon- 
certed with the said three other citizens of the United States, did accept 
of an answer from the said Daniel O'Connell equally unsatisfactory to 
the codes of genuine and of spurious honor, and thereby tacitly admit 
the truth of the imputation upon his honor, at which he had professed 
to take offence. 

" 4. Whether the said Andrew Stevenson, in these transactions, has 
violated the duties of his office as an ambassador of peace, the laws of 
nations, the laws of the land, to the government of which lie was ac- 
credited, the privileges of the British House of Commons, in the per- 
son of one of its members, and the honor and interest of his own country. 

" 5. Whether the said Andrew Stevenson has, in these transactions, 
so conducted himself as to require the constitutional interposition of 
this House, by impeachment or otherwise." 

These Resolutions were laid on the table, by a vote of 140 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 289 

yeas to 57 nays. Shortly after, Mr. Adams introduced three 
other resolutions upon the same subject. The first requested the 
President to transmit to the House of Representatives any report 
or communication from Mr. Stevenson relative to his controversy 
with Mr. O'Connell. The second asked the President to inform 
the House, whether he had made any call upon Mr. Stevenson 
to explain or account for the transactions in question ; whether 
any instructions had been given that minister in consequence 
thereof; and whether any disavowal or censure of his conduct 
had been communicated to the British government. The third 
requested information of the President as to Captain Mathew C. 
Perry, of the navy of the United States ; and whether any call 
had been made upon him to account for his violation of the laws 
of nations, of his own country, &c., &c. by his participation, with 
other citizens of the United States, in a conspiracy against the 
life of Daniel O'Connell, &c., &c. These resolutions, like the 
former, were laid upon the table. 

STEWART, ALPHONSO, and WILLIAM BENNETT. In Illinois, 
1820. The following account is derived from a Chicago news- 
paper, January, 1851. 

" The First and Last Fatal Duel ly llllnoians. In the year 1820, 
a duel was fought in Belleville, St. Glair County, between Alphonso 
Stewart and William Bennett. The seconds had made it up to be 
a sham duel ; Stewart, one of the parties, was supposed to be in the 
secret ; but Bennett, his adversary, believed it to be a reality. It is 
supposed that Bennett somewhat suspected a trick, and, after receiv- 
ing his gun from his second, rolled a ball into it. At the word fire, 
Stewart fell mortally wounded. Bennett was indicted, tried, and con- 
victed for murder. A great effort was made to procure him a pardon ; 
but Governor Bond would yield to no entreaties, and Bennett suffered 
the extreme penalty of the law, by hanging in the presence of a great 
multitude of people. 

" This was the first and last duel which lias ever been fought in the 
State by any of its citizens. The hanging of Bennett made duelling 
discreditable and unpopular, and laid the foundation of that abhorrence 
of the practice which has ever been felt and expressed by the people 
of Illinois. 

" The present Judge Lockwood was then Attorney-General of the 
State, and prosecuted in this case ; to his talents and success as a prose- 
cutor, the people are indebted for this early precedent and example, 
which did more than is supposed to prevent the practice of duelling 
from being introduced into his State." 

STEWART, ANDREW. See Thurlow, Lord Edward. 
25 



290 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

STEWART, CLAUDIUS C., and JOSEPH B. COKER. In Florida, 
or Georgia, 1854. Both gentlemen of the Florida bar. The 
account is that it was agreed to meet with double-barrelled shot- 
guns, at seventy-five yards, and to advance ten paces at each 
fire, until one or both should fall. At the first discharge, Stew- 
art was severely wounded in the arm. Amputation became 
necessary. The surgeons on the ground were without proper 
instruments, and a messenger was despatched a distance of twenty 
miles. 

STEWART or STUART, JAMES. See Boswell, Sir Alexander. 

STEWART, JOHN, of Pennsylvania, an officer in the army of 
the United States, and . In 1812, near Washington, Mis- 
sissippi. Stewart was killed. 

STEWART, . See Bolton, Duke of. 

STIDGER, Judge. See Rust, Colonel. 
STINET, W. S. See Mars, Robert. 

ST. JOHN, OLIVER. See Best, Captain in the Guard of Eliz- 
abeth. 

ST. LEGER, . See Curran, John Philpot. 

ST. LEGER, SIR WARHAM, of 'the noble family of Doneraile, 
and HUGH MAGUIRE, Lord of Fermanagh. In the sixteenth cen- 
tury. St. Leger was killed. Maguire fell towards the close of 
the century, I suppose in a similar affair. 

STONEY, GEORGE ROBINSON. See Dudley, Sir Henry Bate. 

STOWE and TOWNLY. In New Jersey, 1852. Two shots 
were exchanged ; both slightly wounded. 

STOZA, a soldier in the Roman army. In the year 545. He 
rebelled, and raised himself to be an equal with Belisarius, and 
the nephew of the Emperor. He fell in single combat ; but 
" smiled in the agonies of death, when he was informed that his 
own javelin had reached the heart of his antagonist." 

ST. PHAL, . See Clermont, Louis de. 

STREET, GEORGE F. See Wetmore, George Ludlow. 

STROZZI, Marquis, and the Marquis BAGNESI. In Italy, 1743. 
Both young Italian nobles. The duel, says Sir Horace Mann, 
was in consequence of a debt of " fifteen shillings." Strozzi 
was the creditor and the occasion of the fight. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 291 

STUART, colonel in the British army, and Captain JOHN SMITH, 
of the Maryland troops in the service of Congress. In 1781, in- 
South Carolina. A duel on the field of battle. The two officers 
had met previously, and, having a personal difference, had " mu- 
tually declared that their next meeting should end in blood." 
The promise was redeemed at Guilford. Both were brave and 
powerful. They singled each other out, and, panting with re- 
venge, engaged furiously with the sword. Smith " drove the 
edge of his heavy sabre through the head" of the British colo- 
nel, " cleaving him to the very spine." 

STUART, F. See Gwin, William M. 
SWARTWOUT, JOHN. See Clinton, De Witt. 
SWEET, GEORGE D. See Howard, Samuel. 

SWIEGEL, . See Freychappel. 

SWIFT, THEOPHILUS. See Richmond, Duke of. 
TALBOT, SIR JOHN. See Shrewsbury, Earl of. 
TALBOT, Lord. See Wilkes, John. 

TALBUT, Captain, and Lieutenant DUNWORTH, officers in the 
army of the Revolution. In 1776. The challenge was given 
by Dunworth, who, it seems, had just been discharged from the 
service. Talbot accepted, and a time was fixed for the meeting. 
The circumstance was communicated to General Greene, in 
camp, on Long Island, New York, who desired Washington's 
directions. In his letter to the Commander-in-chief, there is a 
passage to cause a smile. " I did not wish to know anything 
about it," said he, " but many of the officers know that I know it" ; 
and this, he adds, " perplexes me a little, knowing duelling to be 
against all law, both civil and military." 

TANKERVILLE, Lord. See Bouverie, Edward, Member of 
Parliament. 

TATNALL, Colonel. See Clay, Henry, and Randolph, John. 
TAYLOR, . See Hopkins, . 

TEMPLE, JOHN, Lieutenant-Governor of New Hampshire, and 
Mr. WHATELY, an English banker, and brother to a former 
Secretary of the British Treasury. In England, in December, 
1773. This duel was in consequence of the supposition, that 
Mr. Whately gave Dr. Franklin the celebrated Hutchinson and 



292 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Oliver Letters, which were transmitted to the philosopher's 
Whig friends in Massachusetts, and which created great commo- 
tion both in England and America. Mr. Whately was danger- 
ously wounded. Walpole wrote the Countess of Ossory : 
" We are now picking a duel between a Mr. Temple and a Mr. 
Whately, the latter of whom has been drilled with as many 
holes as Julius Caasar or a cullender, and of which I know no 
more than the newspapers," &c. 

The manner in which Franklin obtained the correspondence 
in question has caused nearly as much discussion as the yet 
unsolved problem, Who wrote Junius 1 The letters themselves, 
says John Adams, " excited no surprise, excepting at the miracle 
of their acquisition" 

Franklin, in a published card, declares that the parties to the duel 
were " both totally ignorant and innocent of the transaction and 
circumstances ; that lie alone was the person who obtained and sent 
the documents to Boston ; and that Mr. Whately could not commu- 
nicate them, because they were never in his possession ; and, for 
the same reason, they could not be taken from him by Mr. Tem- 
ple." But opposed to these strong expressions, we have the dec- 
laration of Temple himself, who, says John Adams, told me in 
Holland, that he had communicated these letters to Dr. Franklin, 
though I swear to you, said he, " that I did not procure them in 
the manner represented." 

To omit the conjectures of Hutchinson and of some others, 
we have the positive assertions of Hosack and Thacher, the biog- 
raphers of the late Dr. Hugh Williamson (a distinguished physi- 
cian, a member of Congress, a framer of the Constitution of the 
United States, and historian of North Carolina), that he asked 
for and received these letters at a public office in London, ar- 
ranged to place them in the hands of Franklin, and departed for 
Holland the following day, which account, given with minute- 
ness, is derived, as it would seem from the documentary evi- 
dence cited, from Williamson's own statements to gentlemen of 
the highest respectability. Yet this cannot be so. Hutchinson, 
in a message to the House of Representatives of Massachusetts, 
dated the third day of June, 1773, speaks of these letters as 
having been laid before that body the day previous ; but Wil- 
liamson did not leave Boston for England until the twenty-second 
of December of that year, or for more than six months afterward. 
He was waiting for Hancock's ship to sail, at the time of the 
destruction of the tea, on the 16th of December, and was the 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 293 

first person who reported that occurrence to the British ministry ; 
and these facts appear by the showing of the writers who claim 
that, adroitly, and at great hazard, he procured these celebrated 
epistles or despatches. Thus do mistakes find their way into 
history, for these are only mistakes. 

TENNESSEE : Constitutional provision : 

" Any person who shall, after the adoption of this Constitution, fight 
a duel, or knowingly be the bearer of a challenge to fight a duel, or 
send or accept a challenge for that purpose, or be an aider or abettor in 
fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right to hold any office of honor 
or profit in this State, and shall be punished otherwise, in such manner 
as the legislature may prescribe." 

TERRELL, . See Grymes, Wyndham. 

TEXAS : Constitutional provisions. Members of the legisla- 
ture, and all officers, before they enter upon their duties, are re- 
quired to take the following oath : 

" / do solemnly swear (or affirm) that, since the adoption of this Con- 
stitution by the Congress of the United Stales, I, being a citizen of this 
Slate, have not fought a duel with deadly weapons within this State, or out 
of it ; nor have I sent or accepted a challenge to fight a duel with deadly 
weapons ; nor have I acted as second in carrying a challenge, or aided t 
advised, or assisted any person thus offending. So help me God" 

By another provision, 

" Any citizen of this State, who shall, after the adoption of this Con- 
stitution, fight a duel with deadly weapons, or send or accept a chal- 
lenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons, either within the State or 
out of it, or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid and assist in any 
manner those thus offending, shall be deprived of holding any office of 
trust or profit under this State." 

THATCHER, GEORGE. See Blount, Thomas. 
THEOBALD, Sir GEORGE. See Morley, . 

THIERS, Mons. M. A., ex-Prime-Minister, and Mons. BIXIO, 
ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, of France. In France, 1849, 
with pistols. During a debate on the " Roman Question " in 
the French Chambers, the two ministers became involved in an 
altercation, which led to a demand for " satisfaction," on the 
part of the former. After an exchange of shots at twenty paces 
without effect, the seconds came forward and declared that " the 
parties had done all that honor required." 

THOMAS, Colonel, and the Honorable COSMO GARDINER. In * 
25* 



294 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

England, 1783. Both were officers in the British army, and 
served in America during the war of the Revolution. While 
here, Thomas preferred charges against Gardiner for non-per- 
formance of duty in an action with the troops of Congress, in 
1780. Gardiner was tried by a court-martial, and acquitted. 
After their return to England, the difficulty was revived. 
Thomas was slain ; his will, executed the night before he fell, 
contains these words : " In the first place, I commit my soul 
\ to Almighty God, in hopes of his mercy and pardon for the irre- 
\ ligious step I now (in compliance with the unwarranted customs 
of this wicked world) put myself under the necessity of taking." 

THOMAS, Doctor. -See Smyth. 

THOMAS, FRANCIS J. Challenge, in 1853, at Santa Fe, to the 
Honorable Richard H. Weightman, Delegate to the Thirty-second 
Congress of the United States, from New Mexico. Weightman, 
according to the card sent to members of that Congress by 
Thomas, refused to receive the message. 

THOMAS, P. W. See Dickson, or Dickenson. 

THOMPSON, Captain, Harbor-Master of New York, and WIL- 
LIAM COLEMAN, editor of the Evening Post, New York. In the 
city of New York, near University Place, in 1804, with pistols. 
Thompson was a Democrat, Coleman a leader of the Federal 
party. After the bloodless termination of the difficulty between 
the latter and the editor of the American Citizen newspaper, 
(see James Cheetham,) Thompson was free in his remarks ; and 
said, among other things, that " Coleman would not fight " ; 
that, " if slapped on one side of the face, he would turn the 
other," &c., &c. A challenge from Coleman followed. The 
parties met at night, in winter, and fought in cold and snow ; 
and, before the combat was closed, were compelled to shorten 
the distance, in order to see one another. 

The number of shots exchanged is uncertain. At last, 
Thompson was heard to cry, "I've got it!" and fell, mor- 
tally wounded. The seconds, and the other principals, imme- 
diately retired. The surgeon approached, made a hasty exam- 
ination of Thompson's injury, pronounced it fatal, and exacted 
a promise, that the names of the parties engaged in the affair 
should not be divulged by the dying man, who was then con- 
veyed to his lodgings. Thompson kept his word ; said he came 
to his end " fairly " ; and years elapsed before the particulars 
obtained general publicity. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 295 

THORIGNY, Mons. See Bouteville, Francis. 
THORNHILL, . See Dering, Sir Cholmeley, Baronet. 

THORNTON, ABRAHAM, and WILLIAM ASHFORD. In England, 
in 1817: a case of the Gothic jurisprudence, of "wager of 
battle," or judicial duel. Thornton was supposed to have mur- 
dered Mary Ashford, sister of William, but was acquitted of the 
charge at the Warwick Assizes. Upon a writ of appeal, Thorn- 
ton appeared in the Court of King's Bench, and offered, accord- 
ing to ancient custom, his wager of battle, which the judges 
decided he was entitled to claim, the statute never having been 
repealed by Parliament, though obsolete for centuries. 

Ashford being a mere boy, the challenge was declined. 
Thornton was discharged ; and, in consequence of the public 
feeling against him, came to America, where he soon died. An 
act was immediately passed which blotted the "judicial duel " 
from the statute-book of England. 

THURLOW, EDWARD, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, and 
ANDREW STEWART. In England, 1769, with pistols. Thurlow 
was the offending party. He was, at this time, at the bar ; and 
as counsel for Douglas, in the case Douglas vs. the Duke of 
Hamilton, (which " after eight years of preparation came on to 
be heard at the bar of the House of Lords,") indulged in a 
course of severe remark against Mr. Stewart, who was a gen- 
tleman of standing, and had been engaged in procuring evidence 
for the Duke. Stewart, the very day the offence was given, 
sent a message, and required an immediate meeting. Thurlow, 
in reply, accepted the call ; but desired a postponement until the 
case was closed. They met accordingly, in Kensington Gar- 
dens ; and exchanged shots, without effect. Thurlow's conduct 
on the ground was much applauded ; Stewart, in speaking of it, 
said " that Mr. Thurlow advanced and stood up to him like an 
elephant." Another person, observes Lord Campbell, who re- 
members the duel well, says that " Thurlow, on his way to the 
field of battle, stopped to eat an enormous breakfast at a tavern 
near Hyde Park Corner." 

THYLLUS, " the son of Hercules," as we are told in ancient 
history, deceived by some ambiguous expressions of " the 
oracle," was killed in a single combat, by which he chose to 
decide the fate of contending parties. 

TIERNEY, GEORGE. See Pitt, William. 



296 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

TOBEY, EDWARD. See Crane, Alfred. 

TOLLEMACHE, JOHN, a Captain in the Royal Navy, and son of 
the Earl of Dysart, and Captain PENNINGTON, of the British 
Army. At or near New York, in 1777. In Barkers British 
Peerage, the antagonist of Tollemache is called Lord Muncas- 
ter ; but Walpole, and an officer who was in the King's service 
in America at the time, state as I have done. The duel grew 
out of " a foolish quarrel," says Walpole, " about humming a 
tune." Pennington, remarks the officer just referred to, was u a 
wrong-headed officer in the Guards," and, though u we do not 
know the particulars, everybody concludes" that he was "in 
the wrong, from his general character." It appears further, 
that Pennington went to America in the ship commanded by 
his antagonist. Tollemache was killed ; two brothers were pre- 
viously drowned. 

TORDENSKIOLD, PETER, Vice-Admiral, and Colonel STAHL, a 
Swedish officer. In the kingdom of Hanover, in 1720. The 
Admiral's real name was Peter Wessel. After the performance 
of some gallant exploit, the King of Denmark said to him : ' 
" I ennoble you ; I confer on you the name of Tordenskiold 
(Thunder shield), and grant you a coat of arms suitable to the 
honorable name which you have so well earned. You are the 
thunder which crushes the Swedes, and the shield which covers 
the navy of my kingdom." Tordenskiold has been called the 
Nelson of Denmark. On a visit to Hanover, to pay his respects 
to George I. of England, he was accompanied by the son of 
a rich merchant of Copenhagen. At one of the cities through 
which he passed, the young man, by mere chance, fell into the 
company of Colonel Stahl and other gamblers, who won all his 
ready cash, and compelled him to draw a bill for a large amount 
upon his father. Stahl followed the Admiral to Hanover. It 
happened that he and Tordenskiold were guests at dinner, at the 
house of one of the Hanoverian ministers. The honest Admiral, 
looking at the Colonel, commenced a severe philippic against 
gamblers ; and, that his remarks might be understood, he con- 
cluded with the mention of particulars which could apply to the 
Colonel alone. Stahl demanded an explanation. Tordenskiold 
replied in a tone which increased the Colonel's wrath, and caused 
him to say that " no one but a rascally sailor could be capable 
of such behavior." Thereupon, the Admiral, cane in hand, 
drove the Colonel into the court-yard, snatched the sword he 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 297 

had drawn, and broke it over his head. Stahl instantly gave a 
challenge, which was instantly accepted. They met a few 
miles distant. Tordenskiold was run through the body, fell 
into the arms of his servant, and expired on the spot. 

The intelligence of the Admiral's death deeply moved the 
King of Denmark. The remains of his brave officer were 
brought to Copenhagen by his direction, and interred in a man- 
ner suited to the rank of one who had performed so valuable 
services to his country ; while, by another royal command, a 
complaint was made to the Court of Sweden against Stahl. It 
may be added, that Tordenskiold's private character was esti- 
mable ; that, in his munificence, he gave pensions to about fifty 
widows, and educated many orphan children. 

TOURS, the Viscount of. In the year 1066. Challenge to, 
by an Abbot of St. Aubin. It was a usage of the time, that an 
Abbot, when taking possession of that Abbey, should present a 
horse to the Viscount, who claimed the gift in right of his lord- 
ship. The ecclesiastic in question refused ; but proposed a 
" trial of the ordeal," or duel, by champions. Tours con- 
sented ; but, upon consideration, waived his claim and declined 
the combat, on the ground that, while the Church sanctioned 
this manner of duelling, success depended on the skill or vigor 
of the combatants, rather than on the justice of the cause. 

TOWNLY, . See Stowe, . 

TOWNSHEND, Lord, and Lord BELLAMONT. In England, 1773. 
The latter was wounded. 

TOWNSHEND, Sir JOHN, Knight, and a distinguished member 
of the first Parliament of James I., and Sir MATHEW BROWN, of 
Beachworth Castle. In 1603, on Hounslow Heath, England, 
on horseback. Sir Mathew died on the spot ; Sir John was 
mortally wounded, and expired soon after. The Marquis of 
Townshend is of Sir John's lineage. 

TOWNSHEND, AUGUSTUS. See Winnington, . 

TOWNSHEND, Right Honorable THOMAS. See Germaine, Lord 
George. 

TOWNSHEND, GEORGE, and Lord ALBEMARLE. In England, 
in 1760. Wai pole relates the affair thus, in a letter to George 
Montagu, dated November 4th: "An extraordinary event 
has happened to-day. George Townshend sent a challenge to 



298 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Lord Albemarle, desiring him to be with a second in the fields. 
Lord Albemarle took Colonel Crawford, and went to Mary-le- 
bone ; George Townshend bespoke Lord Buckingham, who loves 
a secret too well not to tell it ; he communicated it 'to Stanley, 
who went to St. James's, and acquainted Mr. Caswell, the captain 
on guard. The latter took a hackney-coach, drove to Mary-le- 
bone, and saw one pair. After waiting ten minutes, the others 
came. Townshend made an apology to Lord Albemarle for mak- 
ing him wait. ' O,' said he, ' men of spirit don't want apologies ; 
come, let us begin what we came for.' At that instant out steps 
Caswell from his coach, and begs their pardon, as his superior 
officers, but told them they were his prisoners. He desired Mr. 
Townshend and Lord Buckingham to return to their coach ; he 
would carry back Lord Albemarle and Crawford in his. He 
did, and went to acquaint the king, who commissioned some of 
the matrons of the army to examine the affair, and make it up. 
All this while I don't know what the quarrel was, but they hated 
one another so much on the Duke's account, that a slight word 
would easily make their aversions boil over." 

TREANOR, BARNARD S. Challenge, in 1853, to PATRICK 
O'DONAHOE. A public dinner was given at Faneuil Hall, 
Boston, in honor of the birthday of Thomas Francis Meagher, 
an Irish exile of some note. Treanor was president of the day ; 
O'Donahoe, another exile who had recently escaped from Van 
Diemen's Land, was a guest. At table, the course of Treanor 
gave O'Donahoe offence, which the latter, immediately after the 
company separated, made known in a written communication. 
Treanor thereupon, it appears, demanded a withdrawal of the 
letter, an apology for its contents, or a hostile meeting. He ob- 
tained no satisfactory reply to his demand, and a formal chal- 
lenge followed. Legal proceedings against the parties put an 
end to the affair. 

TRENCK, FREDERIC, Baron von der, a Prussian officer of an- 
cient family, and Aide-de-camp to Frederic the Great. Few per- 
sons are ignorant of the Baron's general misfortunes, of his re- 
peated imprisonments, of his long exile from his native country, 
and of his final death under the guillotine. 

He traced his descent, on both sides, to knights of the Teutonic 
order ; his father was a major-general of cavalry. His person 
was handsome and lofty ; he possessed surpassing strength, in- 
vincible courage, a good memory, and an acute intellect. While 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 299 

a student at the University of Konigsberg, he was presented to 
the king as one of the best among the five hundred scholars of 
that institution. But his life was almost an utter failure. 

Before he arrived at the age of seventeen, he acquired fame as 
a duellist ; having fought three times, and vanquished and wound- 
ed his opponents in all. While yet young, the Baron Francis 
Trenck, a cousin, " a heartless, godless man, who lived a san- 
guinary monster, and died a suicide," who was an officer in the 
Austrian service, involved him in three duels more, with men 
who were masters of the sword, and who, his worthless relative 
supposed, were sure to slay him. But the Baron Frederic, suc- 
cessful as in the previous combats, gave each of his antagonists 
a severe wound. These six affairs occurred prior to the year 
1748. 

In 1749 the Baron Francis put an end to his existence in 
prison ; and Frederic became heir to his estate, which was vast, 
though encumbered. Trenck, who had suffered much at the 
hands of his wicked kinsman, was summoned by the proper 
tribunal at Vienna to enter upon his inheritance the year follow- 
ing, and undertook a journey from Russia for that purpose. The 
plan of his route embraced the city of Amsterdam ; and on his 
arrival there he became engaged in still another combat, at the 
very moment of landing from the ship. The story may be told 
in his own words. " 1 was looking on," says he, " while the 
harpooners belonging to the whale-fishery were exercising them- 
selves in darting their harpoons ; most of them were drunk. One 
of them, Herman Rogaar by name, a hero among these people 
for his dexterity with the snickasee, came up, and passed some 
of his coarse jokes upon my Turkish sabre, and offered to fillip 
me on the nose. I pushed him from me, and the fellow threw 
down his cap, drew his snickasee, challenged me, called me a 
monkey-tail, and asked whether I chose a straight, a circular, or 
a cross-cut ? " After some other indignities, Trenck turned round 
to the by-standers, and requested them to lend him a snickasee. 
" No, no," said the challenger, " draw your great knife from 
your side, and, long as it is, I will lay you a dozen ducats you 
get a gash in the cheek." " I drew ; he confidently advanced 
with his snickasee, and, at the first stroke of my sabre, the snick- 
asee and the hand that held it dropped to the ground, and the 
blood spouted in my face." He expected, he adds, that the peo- 
ple would tear him in pieces ; but his " fear was changed into 
astonishment at hearing a universal shout, applauding the van- 






300 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

quisher of the redoubted Herman Rogaar, who, so lately feared 
for his strength and dexterity, became the object of their ridicule. 
A Jew spectator conducted me out of the crowd, and the people 
clamorously followed me to my inn. This kind of duel, by which 
I gained honor, would anywhere else have brought me to the 
highest disgrace." 

TRIAS, DON ANGEL, and an American. In Mexico, 1851. 
The American gave offence by speaking " slightingly of the Mex- 
icans " ; he was killed ; Trias was wounded. 

TROUP, GEORGE M. See Howard, Samuel. 

TUCKER, -. See Hughes, James. 

TUCKETT, Captain HARVEY G. P. See Cardigan, James 
Thomas, Earl of. 

TURENNE, Viscount, and the Prince of CONDE. In 1580, in 
France. The two personages became embroiled in consequence 
of the acts of the queen mother ; and a challenge from Conde 
was the result. Turenne went to the place appointed, but only 
to make submission to the Prince, on the ground of his " high 
quality." 

The Viscount was subsequently challenged by Duras and Ro- 
san (who were brothers), whom he fought, and by whom he was 
wounded in twenty-two places. The duel, according to Sully, 
was unfairly conducted on the part of the brothers ; yet Turenne 
entreated for the pardon of Duras. 

TURENNE, HENRI DE LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE, Viscount and 
Marshal, and the Elector Palatine. Probably about the year 
1674. The Marshal spread devastation through the dominions 
of the Elector, who saw from his castle " two cities and twenty- 
five villages in flames " ; and " in a letter full of reproaches," he 
challenged the French general to single combat. The king re- 
fused his consent, and Turenne returned in answer " an un- 
meaning compliment." 

TURGOT, Marquis de. See Soule, Pierre. 
TYRAWLY, Lord. See Clonmell, Lord. 

ULSTER, Earl of, the first Englishman who held an Irish title 
of honor. Previous to his elevation to the peerage, in 1181, he 
was known as Sir John Courcy. On the accession of King John 
he fell into disgrace, and was imprisoned. While a captain, and 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 301 

probably about the year 1202, John and Philip, King of France, 
consented that a dispute between them should be decided by sin- 
gle combat. Philip provided his champion, but no one could be 
found to enter the lists in behalf of John. At last the Earl of 
Ulster was induced to take up the gauntlet. The champions ap- 
peared ; and, in the presence of the kings of England, France, 
and Spain, prepared for the duel. When about to engage, 
Philip's representative, seized with a panic, put spurs to his horse 
and fled. The victory was adjudged to Ulster. 

UPTON, SIR HENRY, Ambassador of England to the Court of 
France. In the time of Queen Elizabeth. Challenge to the 
Duke of GUISE. 

VALDES, General. See Soule, Pierre. 
VALENCIA, Count of. See Luna, Count of. 

VALENTINE, M., and M. CLARY. At Brussels, in 1850. The 
parties were French gentlemen, and members of the Chamber of 
Deputies. Valentine was severely wounded. Clary, a relative 
of Louis Napoleon. 

VALERIUS, M. In the year of Rome 404. Single combat 
with a. Gaul. Valerius was the victor. He received the name 
of Corvus and his descendants that of Corvinus, because, as is 
said, a raven perched upon his helmet during the contest, and 
contributed with his beak and claws to the defeat of his adver- 
sary. 

VALOIS, PHILIP DE, King of France. See Edward IIL, King 
of England. 

VANCE, HON. , ex-member of Congress from North Car- 

lina, and HON. CARSON, member of Congress from the 

same State. In 1827 ; the cause, political. Vance was killed. 

VANDYKE, Lieutenant in the Navy, and Lieutenant OSBORN of 
the Marine Corps of the United States. In the Mediterranean, in 
1803. Both wounded ; the former, dangerously. 

VAN NESS, W. P. See Hamilton, Alexander. 
VASSEUR, M. See Aguesseau, M. Segur d\ 

VELASCO and PONCE DE LEON. In the reign of Ferdinand and 

Isabella, two young men of these noble Spanish families agreed 

to fight a\duel on horseback, with spears, in doublet and hose, 

without armor of any kind, and on a narrow bridge near Madrid. 

26 



302 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

VESEY, WILLIAM, of the noble family of Lord Viscount de 

Vesci, and . In England, reign of Queen Elizabeth. Vesey 

killed his antagonist, fled to Scotland, and thence removed to Ire- 
land. 

VIEYRA, M., and M. LAURY. In, France, 1852. The parties 
were gentlemen of Paris. The arm chosen was the pistol, but 
with the agreement that, after an exchange of shots without effect 
on either side, resort should be had to the sabre. They met in a 
wood with friends, and took their places. An official interfered 
and ordered them to desist. But plunging deeper into the forest, 
and fearful that they should be overtaken before their pistols 
could be loaded and the ground be measured and prepared, they 
agreed to use the sabre at once, and engaged with great ardor. 
Vieyra received a thrust under his right breast, and was much 
hurt. 

VILLARS, Governor of Rouen. See Essex^ Earl of. 

VIRETTE, M. See Pecquigny, Duke of. 

VIRGINIA : Constitutional provision : 

" The General Assembly may provide that no person shall be capa- 
ble of holding, or being elected to, any post of profit, trust, or emolu- 
ment, civil or military, legislative, executive, or judicial, under the gov- 
ernment of this Commonwealth, who shall hereafter fight a duel, or send 
or accept a challenge to fight a duel, the probable issue of which may 
be the death of the challenger or challenged, or who shall be second to 
either party, or shall in any manner aid or assist in such duel, or shall 
be knowingly the bearer of such challenge or acceptance ; but no per- 
son shall be so disqualified by reason of his having heretofore fought 
such duel, or sent or accepted such challenge, or been second in such 
duel, or bearer of such challenge or acceptance." 

VOLTAIRE, FRANCIS MARIE AROUET DE. Challenge to the 
Chevalier de ROHAN, about the year 1726. Rohan, a proud 
young nobleman, offended with Voltaire, caused him to be beaten 
by his servant. Voltaire thereupon learned to fence, and sent 
his cartel for a meeting to avenge the insult. The friends of the 
Chevalier procured an order to commit the challenger to the 
Bastile. After an imprisonment of six months, Voltaire was re- 
leased, but was compelled to quit France. Untoward as was 
this affair at the moment, the reputation and money acquired by 
this distinguished man during his exile in England render it 
memorable in his history. 

WALES, Prince of, and the Duke of NEWCASTLE. In the reign 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 303 

of George I. " You are a rascal," said the Prince to the Duke, 
" but I shall find you," or, " I shall find time to be revenged." 
The King, as relates Wai pole, pretending to understand these 
words as a challenge, put the Prince under arrest, to prevent a 
duel. 

WALKER, HON. , and DR. KENNEDY. In the vicinity of 

New Orleans, in 1850, with pistols, at twelve paces. Both edi- 
tors of newspapers. One shot exchanged without effect. 

WALKINS, Colonel R. See Jackson, James. 

WALPOLE, HORACE, and WILLIAM CHETWYND, brother of Lord 
Viscount Chetwynd, and subsequently Master of the Mint. In 
England, 1743. Walpole, in a letter to Sir Horace Mann, hu- 
morously said that his uncle Horace " had fought a duel, and 
had scratched a scratch three inches long on the side of his ene- 
my," and thereupon relates the circumstances with some minute- 
ness. The account of this " memorable engagement " is best 
given in the nephew's own words. On the examination of a 
witness in the House upon remittances to the army, Lord Wal- 
pole remarked : 

" ' He hoped they would indemnify him, if he told anything that effect- 
ed himself.' Soon after, he was standing behind the Speaker's chair, 
and Will. Chetwynd, an intimate of Bolinbroke, came up to him, and 
said, ' What, Mr. Walpole, are you for rubbing up old sores ? ' He re- 
plied, ' I think I said very little, considering that you and your friends 
would last year have hanged up me and my brother at the lobby door 
without a trial.' Chetwynd answered, ' I would still have you both have 
your deserts.' The other said, ' If you and I had, probably I should be 
here and you would be somewhere else.' This drew more words, and 
Chetwynd took him by the arm and led him out. In the lobby, Hor- 
ace said, ' We shall be observed, we had better put it off till to-morrow.' 
' No, no, now ! now ! ' When they came to the bottom of the stairs, 
Horace said, ' I am out of breath, let us draw here.' They drew. Chet- 
wynd hit him in the breast, but was not near enough to pierce his coat. 
Horace made a pass, which the other put by with his hand, but it 
glanced along his side. A clerk who had observed them go out together 
so arm-in-arm-ly, could not believe it amicable, but followed them, and 
came up just time enough to beat down their swords, as Horace had 
driven him against a post, and would probably have run him through 
at tlie next thrust. 

" Chetwynd went away to a surgeon's, and kept his bed the next 
day : he has not reappeared yet, but is in no danger. My uncle re- 
turned to the House, and was so little moved as to speak immediately 
on the Cambrick bill, which made Swinny say, ' That it was a sign he 
was not ruffled.' Don't you delight in this duel ? I expect to see it 



304 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

daubed up by some circuit-painter on the ceiling of the saloon at Wool- 
terton." 

The editor of Walpole cites from Cox's Memoirs of Lord 
Walpole an account of this affair, which differs in some essen- 
tial particulars. 

" A motion being made in the House of Commons," he states, " which 
Mr. Walpole supported, he said to Mr. Chetwynd, * I hope we shall 
carry this question.' Mr. Chetwynd replied, ' I hope to see you hanged 
first.' * You see me hanged first ! ' rejoined Mr. Walpole, and instantly 
seized him by the nose. They went out and fought. The account be- 
ing conveyed to Lord Orford, he sent his son to make inquiries ; who, 
on coming into the House of Commons, found his uncle speaking with 
the same composure as if nothing had happened to ruffle his temper or 
endanger his life. Mr. Chetwynd was wounded." 

WALSH, THEOPHILUS. See Pellew, Edward. 
WARWICK, Earl of. See Coote, Captain. 

WASHINGTON and WASHBURN. In California, 1854. Both 
editors. The latter badly wounded. 

WEDDERBURN, ALEXANDER, afterwards Lord Loughborough, 
Earl of Rosslyn, and Chancellor of Great Britain. Scene in 
court, in 1757, in which Wedderburn, says Lord Campbell, " de- 
livered such a furious personal invective as never was before or 
since heard at the Scottish bar." One object of his wrath was Mr. 
Lockhart, Dean of Faculty, and subsequently Lord Covington, 
who, it may be premised, had not resented a threat of personal 
chastisement made by a gentleman with whom he had had a 
difficulty, and in whose domestic life there were circumstances 
supposed to render his reputation vulnerable ; the other, the Lord 
President Craigie. Lockhart was opposing counsel, and called 
Wedderburn a ." presumptuous boy" The future Lord Chan- 
cellor, according to the oral tradition, in the course of his reply, 
said : 

" The learned Dean has confined himself on this occasion to vituper- 
ation. I do not say that he is capable of reasoning ; but, if tears would 
have answered his purpose, I am sure tears would not have been want- 
ing.' Lockhart here started up and threatened him with vengeance. 
Wedderburn retorted : ' / care little, my lords, for wliat may be said or 
done by a man who has been disgraced in his person, and dishonored in 
his bed.' Lord President Craigie being afterward asked why he had not 
sooner interfered, answered, ' Because Wedderburn made all the flesh 
creep on my bones.' But at last his lordship declared, in a firm ttfne, 
that ' this was language unbecoming an advocate and unbecoming a 






CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 305 



gentleman.' Wedderburn, now in a state of such excitement as to have 
lost all sense of decorum and propriety, exclaimed that his lordship 
had said as a judge ivhat he could not justify as a gentleman? The Presi- 
dent appealed to his brethren as to what was fit to be done, who unani- 
mously resolved that Mr. Wedderburn should retract his words and 
make an humble apology, on pain of deprivation. All of a sudden 
Wedderburn seemed to have subdued his passion, and put on an air of 
deliberate coolness, when, instead of the expected retraction and apol- 
ogy, he said: 'My Lords, / neither retract nor apologize, but I will save 
you the trouble of deprivation ; there is my gown, and I will never wear it 
more.' He then coolly laid his gown upon the bar, made a low bow to 
the judges, and before they had recovered from their amazement, he 
left the court, which he never again entered. That very night he set 
off for London." 

The readers of American history will not fail to be reminded 
of Wedderburn's attack upon Franklin, in 1774, and after the 
duel between Temple and Whately (which see in this volume), 
in consequence of the transmission of the Hutchinson and Oliver 
Letters to Massachusetts, in which he averred that " Nothing 
will acquit Dr. Franklin of the charge of obtaining " this corre- 
spondence " by fraudulent or corrupt means, for the most ma- 
lignant of purposes, unless he stole " the letters " from the per- 
son who stole them I hope, my Lords, you will mark 

and brand the man, for the honor of this country, of Europe, and 
of mankind,' 1 &c. 

These examples of the course of Wedderburn towards persons 
who opposed him or stood in his way are cited here to express 
the wonder that he, one of the most unscrupulous libellers of his 
time, was allowed to slander his fellows, on every occasion that 
suited his purpose, with impunity, while many of his associates, 
both at the bar and in Parliament, were required to answer, ac- 
cording to the code of honor, for offences of the tongue, which, 
compared with those committed by him during his career, were 
undeserving even of a thought. 

WEIGHTMAN, HON. RICHARD H. See Thomas, Francis J. 

WELCH, Lieutenant, and Captain BARNES. In 1778. Both 
officers in the army of the Revolution. Welch was the chal- 
lenger ; he was tried by a court-martial, and sentenced to be dis- 
missed the service. The Commander-in-chief, in consideration 
of his previous good conduct, disapproved the sentence, and re- 
stored him to his rank. 






WELCHER, JOSEPH. See Howard, Samuel. 
26* 



306 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

WELLINGTON, the Duke of, and the Earl of WINCHELSEA. In 
England, 1829. In consequence of remarks of the Earl, rela- 
tive to the course of the Duke on the " Catholic Question," in 
Parliament. The Earl received the Duke's fire, discharged his 
own pistol in the air, and by his second delivered a written ac- 
knowledgment of regret for the offensive expressions which led 
to the meeting. 

WELLS, Lieutenant-Governor. See Jackson, James. 

WESTCOTT, HAMPTON. See Miller, William, Jun. 

WESTON, LORD. See Holland, Lord. 

WETHERED, HON. S., and Captain SCHAFFER. In California, 
1851, with guns. They exchanged shots, and were stopped by 
the authorities. 

WETMORE, GEORGE LUDLOW, and GEORGE F. STREET. In the 
Province of New Brunswick, at or near Fredericton, the capital, 
in 1821. Both barristers at law. The former, a son of the 
Attorney-General ; the latter, now (1854) a Judge of the Supreme 
Court of New Brunswick. 

Wetmore gave the challenge ; the cause, as understood, was 
a difficulty in court. Wetmore received a mortal wound in the 
head, and expired in a few hours. Street and his second, Lieut. 
R. Davis, of the 74th regiment, British army, were tried for mur*- 
der, early in 1822, and acquitted. The charge of Judge Saunders 
to the jury will give the reader a knowledge of the principal facts 
of the case. 

" Gentlemen of the jury, Before you take this case into consider- 
ation, I must request you to dismiss prejudice, by any attention to 
stories told out of doors, to which you cannot give any weight ; but you 
will be guided by evidence, and carefully weigh that evidence. In the 
present case, the gentlemen at the bar stand indicted for the murder of 
George Ludlow Wetmore. The event of the party's death is made to 
appear by the doctors and others on the ground ; that being established, 
it requires attention to see whether the prisoners are the perpetrators 
of this homicide. The evidence is but presumptive at best, and it 
should be considered in all such cases with attention, and, no doubt, in 
the present instance particularly. Murder is where a person in sound 
mind, and with malice aforethought, deliberately kills his victim. The 
prisoners are charged with this crime. Malice of two kinds are implied 
bylaw, express, where the minds are expressed by outward sense, 
such as lying in wait, &c. ; and in this case, murder by duelling, where 
it can be proved that the parties had gone to revenge themselves, it 
charges them indeed with express malice, but must be made out ex- 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 307 

pressly. But does this malice apply to the prisoners ? It appears by 
Mr. Taylor, that some high words had passed between the deceased and 
Mr. Street, at the Court- House, on Saturday. It appears it was about a 
writ, and the parties proceeded to high words. Expressions were made 
use of by Mr. Wetmore, treating the whole transaction in a rash man- 
ner. Mr. Miller heard high words between the parties, but, being at 
the door, did not hear the commencement of the affair ; and on the 
interference of the Attorney-General they went on as usual, and they 
appeared to bear no malice. He says he saw the deceased as late on 
Monday night as twelve o'clock, in good spirits, and had not the least 
idea of such a circumstance taking place. Thus it appears, gentlemen, 
that the parties, from this testimony, at least the deceased, had submitted 
to the injunction of his father, and in his mind had no malice or desire 
to quarrel. To bring it home to the prisoners, Mr. Segee was called. 
Mr. Miller nor Mr. Taylor knew nothing subsequent. 

" Mr. Segee got up at his usual hour, and shortly after heard two 
pistols in quick succession, he could distinguish a difference in the re- 
port ; about six or seven minutes after, heard two more ; and soon after 
went to the place where the firing was heard, and found the deceased, 
with two wounds, one in the arm, and one near the right temple ; he 
was alive, but insensible ; he (Mr. Segee) did not know the parties ; on 
his way back to the house, saw two persons passing, and thought them 
to be the prisoners. But this will not answer ; you must have positive 
proofs ; his testimony, as far as it is material, goes little farther, and his 
son's is much the same ; they did not know the prisoners ; one was ex- 
amined before the coroner, and was cross-examined ; could not decide 
on anything ; for he would not swear ; he only thought so, and spoke 
contradictory. No attention should be paid to that, on so high a crime 
as this. Young Segee saw a pair of pistols ; it appears that the parties 
stood about fifteen paces' distance apart ; and by the doctors, that the 
two wounds were by the same ball, and were given when the deceased 
was in the act of firing, and the ball received a different direction from 
the arm. There is no question about the homicide ; but it cannot be 
brought home to the prisoners : it is all presumptive proof, and that of 
the slightest kind. Nor did it appear by the evidence, that there was 
any such as is contemplated in law : the authorities read by the counsel 
is good law ; and you must, in all cases, have direct evidence of the 
fact, to take a person's life. You will find it to be all circumstantial, 
and that it does not prove these to be the persons committing the 
crime. 

" Should there be any doubt in cases of this .kind, you should acquit 
the prisoners ; but in this case it is not in any shape legally brought 
home. They stand charged by the indictment ; and, indeed, I cannot 
say anything further upon the testimony, having explained the principal 
parts as far as I understood it. I was told it was a dark morning. One 
evidence, mentioning the dress of Mr. Street, said he had on a blue 
coat ; another called it blue or black. It is proved by two witnesses 
(brothers to the party) that he never wore a blue or black coat. There 



308 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

were several witnesses called as to their character as gentlemen. Char- 
acter is of great weight in all cases, particularly where there is but pre- 
sumptive evidence : it assists you, gentlemen, in circumstances of doubt ; 
and there the jury must weigh the case with greater doubt and atten- 
tion on the part of the crown. 

" In all cases of circumstantial evidence, there is great room for doubt 
on the part of the prisoner ; and where there is doubt, a jury should 
always be on the merciful ground, and acquit. Everything is liable 
to doubt in a civil case. Where the story is, however, weighed, and 
the evidence is strong, it is considered proper to strike a balance. This 
is not the case in criminal cases : there you are not to weigh : the evi- 
dence must be positive ; and in doubtful cases you must acquit the 
prisoner. Therefore, if you have a doubt, acquit the prisoners. 

" Several gentlemen have been called, who speak in the nibst favor- 
able light for the prisoners, as gentlemen ; and according to the evidence, 
you are to say guilty or not guilty." 

The jury tben withdrew from the court, and, returning in a 
short time, gave a verdict of not guilty. 

WHATELY, , an English banker. See Temple, John. 

WHITE, Lieut. FRANCIS B., of the Marine Corps, and Lieut. 
WILLIAM B. FINCH, of the Navy of the United States. In 1819, 
on an island in Boston harbor. Lieut. White was killed on the 
spot. Lieut. Finch changed his name to Bc-lton, subsequently, 
and was a post-captain. A friend who was connected with .the 
navy, gave me, at the time of the duel, a copy of the correspond- 
ence between the parties, which is here inserted. 
White to Finch. 

"Boston, September llth, 1819. 

" SIR, An opportunity has never before occurred, for demanding 
of you satisfaction for the many indignities you were pleased to offer me 
when on board the Independence, in 1815. I cannot doubt that you 
will be prompt in rendering atonement for injuries which one gentleman 
can never expect to offer another with impunity, and I send my friend 
for the purpose of making such arrangements as are necessary to this 
end. I am, &c." 

Finch to White. 

"Boston, September 19/A, 1819. 

" SIR, Your friend yesterday handed me your note of the 

1 7th instant, stating that you had suffered many indignities from me while 
associated on board the Independence, in 1815, and asking such satis- 
faction as the occasion required. In reply, I have to remark that the 
indignities alluded to are imaginary, and that our relative stations im- 
periously exacted of me that treatment which seems to have been offen- 
sive to your feelings. Personal considerations never influenced me, but, 
on the contrary, a sense of the benefit which the service would derive 
from it only prompted to the conduct I adopted. I am, &c." 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. , 

White to Finch. 

"Charlestons, September 20th, 1819. 

" SIR, In reply to your note of yesterday, I have only to observe 
that my friend is fully intrusted with my views, and knows my deter- 
mination. He will point out the particular instances of ill-treatment of 
which I complain, some of which are unconnected with the immediate 
question of duty, while all are incompatible with correct principles of 
discipline, and in no view calculated to promote the benefit of the ser- 
vice. Public good can never be established at the expense of individ- 
ual feelings and honor ; and, as I am not disposed to admit the necessity 
of this doctrine on the present occasion, must insist on reparation by 
apology, or otherwise. I am, &c." 

Memorandum of Charges sent with Lieut. White's Letter of 20th September. 

"1st. For undertaking to reprimand me on the quarter-deck of the 
Independence, in presence of the crew ; an unwarrantable assumption 
of authority, as well as a personal insult. 

" 2d. For flogging two marines, on a certain occasion, without my 
knowledge or consent. 

" 8d. For general ungentlemanlike deportment towards me, while on 
board the Independence. 

" 4th. For saying to Lieut. Legge, that I was ignorant of my duty." 

Finch to White. 

"Boston, September 20th, 1819. 

" SIR, With all the frank feelings which characterize my profession, 
I yesterday replied to your note of the 1 7th, and doubted not that it 
would produce on your part that liberality of sentiment which I evinced ; 
but to my regret it is otherwise, and, in lieu of such disposition, is 
shown one of an extremely malignant cast. To atone for injuries wan- 
tonly inflicted, I would cheerfully hold myself in readiness ; for those of 
which I am insensible, I am greatly at a loss in what manner to excul- 
pate myself for the course I design to adopt : it will rest, however, pri- 
marily and principally, on the general basis that all men should at all 
risks and hazards support that station they may attain to ; mine has its 
concomitant evils. The last note received from you has, for the first 
time, elicited my indignation ; your arguments are unnecessary, and your 
premises altogether fallacious ; and, as I allow the affair to be placed 
in a private light, I must most emphatically deny that I am accountable, 
and express the hope that others may not adopt the course I pursue 
on the ground of right ; and on that only of courtesy do I meet you. 

" The specification of offences which accompany your letter are those 
growing out of official station and duty, and only such as an uninformed 
and young officer would presume to allege as a pretext for personal 
reparation. The remedy for the cases cited is to be found both in the 
act organizing and usage governing the service; an officer,' therefore, 
having its interests at heart, ought at the moment to have referred for 
protection or satisfaction to the proper tribunal. But you, on the con- 



310 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

trary, cherish to this distant day imaginary wrongs, and claim reparation 
because you have indiscreetly expressed a determination to do so. The 
only pretence for your conduct is to be found in your fourth specifica- 
tion ; to which I shall make no reply, or take further notice, than that 
Lieut. Legge is dead, for whose memory I cherish a high regard. Thus 
I openly expose my view and opinion of your demand, and, in conclu- 
sion, take the liberty of observing the pride for our joint profession, and 
the disposition to repel arrogant pretensions, persuade me to give you 
the meeting which you so rashly and sedulously seek. I am, &c." 

WHITE, T., and BENJAMIN JOHNSON. In Kentucky, 1852, 
with double-barrelled guns, at forty paces. White was killed at 
the first fire. 

WILDE, JAMES, of Georgia, and . In 1815. Wilde 

was a district paymaster in the army of the United States, and 
was killed. 

WILKES, JOHN, a politician, and member of Parliament, who, 
at the Revolutionary era, amid the cries of " Wilkes and Liberty," 
obtained unmerited and brief celebrity, both in England and 
America. The publication of the North Briton involved this 
gentleman in several " affairs of honor." 

The first, in 1762, with Lord Talbot. The cause- was amus- 
ing enough. His lordship, as Lord Steward, trained his horse 
to step backward, in order that, at the coronation of George III. 
(1761), the animal should retire from Westminster Hall, at the 
ceremony, with horse and rider facing towards his Majesty. But 
when the hour of the pageant arrived, the horse too perfectly 
taught entered the hall tail foremost, and in this way approached 
the royal presence, though every effort was made by Lord Talbot 
to prevent it. Wilkes seized upon the circumstance and gave 
utterance to some remarks in tbe North Briton, which, after a 
correspondence, led to a hostile meeting, by moonlight, in the 
garden of a public house, with pistols. After an exchange of 
shots, without effect, " the parties shook hanfls, and supped to- 
gether at tbe inn with a great deal of jollity." 

The next was in 1763, with Lord Egremont ; and I suppose 
in consequence of Wilkes's political writings. The terms seem 
to have been arranged, but his lordship's death put an end to the 
proceedings. 

The third (also in 1763) was with Forbes, a Scotchman, who 
had entered the military service of France, as an officer in " a re- 
formed regiment." Forbes was tbe challenger ; he had never 
seen Wilkes before encountering him in the streets of Paris, and 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 311 

called him out simply because he was the author of the offensive 
North Briton. Wilkes declined the call at the moment, and 
gave as a reason, that he had resolved to fight Lord Egremont. 
Forbes behaved with great rudeness. An order was issued by 
the French authorities to place both in arrest. The decease of 
Egremont removed the obstacle to a meeting with Forbes, who 
escaped to England. Wilkes thereupon appeared before Mar- 
shal Noailles, was discharged upon his parole, and sent word to 
Forbes's friends that he would afford the demanded interview at 
Menin, in Flanders, on a particular day. Forbes, meantime, had 
been ordered to quit England, for bearing arms in the French 
service ; and did not receive the message in season to repair to 
the place appointed. A newspaper war followed. After a " great 
noise in the world," the matter was dropped. 

The fourth was with Samuel Martin, and was far more serious 
than either of the preceding. It occurred in November, 1763, 
in Hyde Park, with pistols. Martin had been Secretary of the 
Treasury, under the administration of the Duke of Newcastle and 
of Lord Bute, and was then a member of Parliament for Camel- 
ford. Wilkes had just collected and republished the numbers of 
the North Briton, in which the character and morals of Martin 
were represented to be infamous. The ex-secretary, in his place 
in the House, took notice of this; and, looking at Wilkes, said 
twice, " Whoever stabs a reputation in the dark, without setting 
his name, is a cowardly, malignant, and scandalous scoundrel^ 
Wilkes avowed the authorship of the paper in a note, and was 
the challenged party. 

They met at fourteen yards ; both missed. Martin's second 
ball wounded his antagonist dangerously in the body. Wilkes 
attempted to return the fire, but dropped his weapon, bade Mar- 
tin attend to his safety, and assured him that he would take no 
measures against him. Martin, however, fled to France. Wilkes, 
before his recovery, followed ; saw the ex-secretary, " sat with 
him an hour," and "joked as usual." 

It is related that Wilkes was asked by the Prince de Croy, 
when in France previously, " how far the liberty of the press ex- 
tended in England," and that he replied, " I cannot tell, but I am 
trying to know." If he met the Prince on the visit to Martin, 
and after the fourth affair was disposed of, he may have imparted 
some additional information. 

WILKINSON, JAMES, General in the army of the United States. 



312 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

Two challenges. The first, in the war of the Revolution. The 
Conway and Gates cabal against Washington involved Gates 
and Wilkinson in a quarrel. A cartel was the result, which 
Gates accepted. While the parties were on their way to the 
ground, Gates made satisfactory explanations, and the affair was 
dropped. 

The second, in 1807, to John Randolph, who declined, for the 
reason, he said, that Wilkinson had degraded himself, and that 
he would not descend to his level. The proud Virginian was 
immediately posted by the General, in the usual form. 

WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR, King of England. In the year 
1066, and before the battle of Hastings, William sent a message 
to Harold, by some monks, in which he proposed to the Saxon 
monarch to terminate the differences between them in four ways : 
first, that Harold should resign the throne ; second, that he should 
hold the kingdom in fealty to him ; third, that their claims should 
be submitted for decision to the pope ; and fourth, that they 
should meet in a duel, the crown to become the meed of the vic- 
tor. Harold replied, that "the god of battles would soon be the 
arbiter of all their differences." In the conflict which followed 
between the two arrm'es, the Saxon king was slain, and the Nor- 
man succeeded. 

But William, not long after obtaining the object of his ambi- 
tion, was engaged in a personal encounter with his own son 
Robert. His first-born rebelled against him. They met on the 
field, at the head of opposing forces. Robert ran his father 
through the arm with his lance, and unhorsed him. It is related 
that William, one of the most approved knights of the age, and 
constantly engaged in warlike deeds in which his person was 
ever exposed, was wounded and overthrown for the first time in 
this contest. 

WILLIAMS, , Speaker of the House of Commons. See 

Peyton, Sir Robert. 

WILLIAMS and BENNETT. British physicians of note, in the 
seventeenth century. They fought with swords and pistols. 
Bennett, mortally wounded, and with the sword of his antagonist 
in his body, prayed to God for strength to avenge himself, and 
succeeded in giving Williams a fatal stab. 

WILSON, EDWARD, and JOHN LAW. In England, in 1694. 
Wilson was a young man, who lived in the garb and equipage of 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 313 

the richest nobleman, for house, furniture, coaches, saddle-horses, 
and kept a table and all things accordingly. Law was a Scotch 
adventurer, who in after life acquired a world-wide notoriety, by 
his Royal Bank of France, by his financial operations generally, 
and by his stupendous Mississippi Bubble. 

Law, the acknowledged paramour of a Mrs. Lawrence, kept 
his mistress in lodgings, and in a house in which Wilson's sister 
was a boarder. Wilson took his sister away. The landlady, 
injured in reputation and purse, claimed that Law should redress 
her wrongs. A meeting ensued, and Wilson was killed on the 
spot. Law was immediately apprehended, and tried at the Old 
Bailey for murder, found guilty, and sentenced to death. A rep- 
resentation was made to the crown, and he was pardoned ; but, 
in consequence of proceedings instituted by a brother of Wilson, 
he was detained in the King's Bench prison. He escaped and 
fled to the Continent. He visited Venice and Genoa, and was 
banished from both cities as a designing adventurer. In France 
he found persons of rank and influence to enter into his plans. 
In 1732 he went over to England, and "pleaded his Majesty's 
pardon at the King's Bench bar, for killing Edward Wilson, Esq., 
in a duel, in the year 1694." 

WINCHELSEA, Lord. See Richmond, Duke of. 
WINCHELSEA, Earl of. See Wellington, Duke of. 
WINDSOR, Lord. See Nourse. 

WINNING-TON, , and AUGUSTUS TOWNSEND. In Hyde 

Park, London, in 1741. Winnington, a statesman who held va- 
rious offices, and Pitt's predecessor as paymaster of the forces ; 
Townsend, " a pert boy," says Walpole, the second son of the 
minister, Lord Townsend, and Captain of an Indiaman. Win- 
nington was the challenger. They walked into the Park on 
Sunday morning, " scratched one another's fingers, tumbled into 
two ditches, that is, Augustus did, kissed, and walked home 
together." 

WINTERS, CHARLES, and COLLINS, an ex-sheriff of Flor- 
ida. In Florida, 1853. Winters slain. 

WINTZEL, Doctor. See Cohn, or Cohen. 
WISCONSIN, Constitutional provision : 

" Any inhabitant of this State who may hereafter be engaged, either 
directly or indirectly, in a duel, either as principal or accessory, shall 
27 



314 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

for ever be disqualified as an elector, and from holding any office under 
the Constitution and laws of this State, and may be punished in any 
other manner as shall be prescribed by law." 

WISE, HENRY A., member of Congress from Virginia. See 
Cilley, Jonathan. 

WOOD, , nephew of the Marquis of Londonderry. See 

Cooper", F. A. 

WOODBRIDGE, BENJAMIN, and HENRY PHILLIPS. In Boston, 
year 1728, with swords. Woodbridge was slain. 

WOODLIEF, Colonel DEVEREAUX J., and ACHILLES KEWEN. 
In California, in 1854, with rifles. The quarrel was political. 
Early in November, these gentlemen were in a public room in 
San Francisco, in company with several other persons ; and dur- 
ing a conversation upon the political aspect of the times, and es- 
pecially upon the new party, Woodlief remarked in an offensive 
manner, that Kewen was a Know Nothing. The accused there- 
upon struck his accuser in the face. Friends immediately inter- 
fered and prevented further proceedings on the part of both. It 
is believed that Kewen, regretting his course, offered on a subse- 
quent day to make an apology, either verbally or in writing, 
which Woodlief declined to receive. Woodlief was the chal- 
lenger. They met at the place agreed upon, accompanied by 
two friends each ; but, after the ground was marked off, were 
interrupted by a civil officer, who had become acquainted with 
the affair and had followed them. They complied with his order 
to desist, but entered their carriages with the intention of fighting 
elsewhere, and beyond this officer's jurisdiction. Arrived in the 
county of Alvarado, they ascended a hill, where their seconds 
proceeded to make the common arrangements, in the presence 
of about one hundred and fifty spectators. The distance was 
forty paces. At the word " Fire ! " both wheeled and discharged 
their weapons. Woodlief received his antagonist's ball directly 
in his heart, and expired in less than one minute. His body was 
conveyed to San Francisco on the evening of the same day. The 
scene, when his wife " looked upon all that remained of the for- 
mer partner of her joys and sorrows, whose silver thread of life 
was so abruptly cut, and who but a few short hours before had 
gone forth in the strength and prime of manhood, is said, by those 
who were present, to have been affecting in the extreme." 

Colonel Woodlief executed his will a day or two previous to 
the fatal meeting, bequeathing his property to his wife. He was 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 315 

a native of Virginta. He removed to Texas some twenty years 
ago, and during the revolution there became a Colonel in the 
Texan army. He was in Mexico in the late war, and was dis- 
tinguished for his bravery and the accuracy of his fire. He had 
been engaged in several duels, and had been frequently wounded 
in battle. In 1849 he went to California, where he received the 
appointment of collector of an internal tax. 

WOODWARD, Doctor. See Mead. 

WOOLFOLK, General SOWELL, and Major J. J. CAMP. In 
Georgia, in 1832. The former was shot through the heart, and 
died instantly ; the latter wounded in the abdomen. 

WRIGHT, C. J., formerly a lieutenant in the army, and OLIVER 
T. BAIRD, formerly of New York. In California, 1853. Wright, 
at the second fire, was shot in the neck. 

WRIGHT, F. R. See Evans, H. D. 

WYER, Doctor JAMES, and SARGENT. In 1803, near 

Natchez. Wyer was killed. 

YELVERTON, BARRY, son of Lord Avonmore, and barrister at 
law. In Ireland ; one of Barrington's duels. The substance of 
the story is, that in a ball-room, where the officers of a newly 
arrived regiment had come to amuse themselves, and to set the 
Munster lasses agog, Yelverton, having drank freely, grossly in- 
sulted several of the military gentlemen, who, declining to call 
him to an account upon the spot, merely required his address 
and the hour that he might be seen on the morrow. 

Yelverton gave a card to each, and stated that, as he was his 
own second, the presence of a friend would be unnecessary ; 
that his weapon was always the sword, and that he would meet 
every man of them in the ball-room at eight o'clock the next 
morning. The attendance of the insulted gentlemen was punc- 
tual. Yelverton, on inquiry, ascertained that no less than nine 
were present to demand satisfaction at his hands. He retired 
from the room, as was supposed, to make the necessary arrange- 
ments ; but soon returned with a bundle of switches, and asked 
those whom he had struck, four in number, to step forward. 
An amusing scene followed. " Gentlemen," he uttered, " allow 
me to have the honor of handing each of you a switch, (accord- 
ing to rule number five of the Tipperary Resolutions,) where- 
with to return the blow." He then gave his card to the other 



316 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

five, with the words, " I beg your pardon," written above his 
name, saying, " That 's agreeable to number one," (reading the 
rule,) and adding, " Now I fancy all your cases are disposed of; 
and having done my duty according to the Tipperary Resolu- 
tions, which I never swerve from, if, gentlemen, you are not 
satisfied, I shall be on the bridge to-morrow morning with a case 
of larking irons" The military men, amazed, stared at the 
barrister and at each other. The honest, jolly countenance, the 
drollery of Yelverton, were irresistible. There was a hearty 
laugh all round. Yelverton was asked to dine at the regimental 
mess, where his eccentricity and good humor delighted every- 
body. In the end, the barrister became deranged. 

YORK, Duke of. See Richmond, Duke of. 

ZENO, CARLO, of an illustrious house of Venice. He was a 
favorite of Pope Clement V., who, after his father's death, in- 
curred the expense of his education, and bestowed upon him a 
rich benefice in the Church. But it was not his fate to become 
a Canon, for a duel postponed his ordination ; and his marriage 
with a beautiful Greek soon afterwards put an end to his hopes 
as an ecclesiastic. Embracing the profession of arms, he became 
a commander of renown. In the year 1403, as Admiral of the 
Venetian fleet, he received a challenge for a naval fight, galley 
against galley, or any larger number, as he might elect, not to 
exceed twenty on one side or twenty-four on the other. The de- 
fiance was declined. See Boucicault. 

ZIETHEN, HANS JOACHIM, a Prussian General of cavalry, and 
a Knight of the Black Eagle. In the last century, and prior to 
the year 1730. When young, a quarrel with an officer caused 
his imprisonment for a year ; a duel in which he was engaged 
soon after his release caused his dismission from the corps. 
But restored to service, he obtained, finally, the high rank here 
stated. 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 317 



ADDENDA. 



COOPER, HON. JAMES, Senator in Congress from Pennsylvania, 
and MORTON McMicHAEL, editor of the North American and 
United States Gazette, Philadelphia. Correspondence (in 1854) 
equivalent, on the part of the former, to a challenge : 

"Washington House, Philadelphia, September 18. 

"To MORTON McMicHAEL, ESQ.: Sir, My attention has just 
been called to an editorial article in the North American and United 
States Gazette of this morning, in which the following language is used, 
namely : ' With plunder in high places,' &c., ' and false pretences and 
malversation, as in the city subscription to the Sunbury and Erie 
Railroad Company, we shall bow our heads with shame, unless the 
sharp and secure processes of the penal laws can be successfully ap- 
plied.' 

" My object in addressing you this note is to inquire respectfully 
whether the above remarks are intended to apply to me, and, if so, in 
what respect ? The right which every man has to maintain his charac- 
ter and good name is the one which I invoke in making this call upon 
you. If the remarks are intended to be applied to me, it is proper that 
I should know it. If they are not, it is equally proper that I should be 
freed from the suspicion they are likely to create. I will be, obliged to 
you for a proper answer. Harry Connelly, Esq., will hand you this 
note and receive your reply. 

" I am, sir, your obedient, humble servant, 

"JAMES COOPER." 

The following reply was inclosed in an envelope addressed to 
Mr. Connelly : 

" Philadelphia, September 19. 

" SIR, I received your note last evening by the hands of Mr. Con- 
nelly, and avail myself of the first leisure which offers to reply. 

" You ask whether certain passages in an editorial article in the 
North American of Monday last were intended to apply to you. I do 
not recognize the propriety of the question, and must therefore decline 
to answer it. The article to which you refer was of a public nature ; it 
concerned public events, and its comments had a public bearing. In 
27* 



318 CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 

the parts of it to which you have called my attention, it asserted in gen- 
eral terms what uncontradicted public statements had, elsewhere, par- 
ticularly set forth, but it made no allusion to any individual. 

" In declining to answer the question you have proposed, I am con- 
trolled by a conviction of duty. As the conductor of a public journal, 
I cannot allow the right of any one to catechize me as to the meaning 
of the articles I publish. At the same time I admit my responsibility, 
moral, legal, and personal, for whatever appears in the columns of the 
North American, and shall hold myself ready, on all proper occasions, 
to meet it. I am, sir, yours, &c., MORTON McMiCHAEL. 

" HON. JAMES COOPER, Washington House" 

The second communication to Mr. McMichael was from Mr. 
Cooper's friend. 

" Philadelphia, September 20. 

" MORTON McMiCHAEL, ESQ. : Dear Sir, My friend, Mr. Coop- 
er, has received your note of the 10th instant, sent to him under cover 
to me ; and while it is not satisfactory, inasmuch as it does not relieve 
him from the imputation conveyed in your article of Monday, it is en- 
tirely so in respect to the avowal that you hold yourself personally 
responsible for every thing you publish. In making the call in his note 
of the 18th instant, Mr. Cooper desires me to ' express to you that he 
recognizes as fully as any one the right of every editor to perfect inde- 
pendence. But for a personal imputation, he is happy that you concur 
with his own views in admitting personal responsibility. 

"I now desire to say, on my own part, as the friend of Mr. Cooper, 
that in prosecuting this correspondence further, there might be incon- 
venience in doing it here ; and if you concur with me in this view of 
the case, I beg you will say where and at what time it will suit your 
convenience to receive a further message. 

" Mr. Cooper admits that, while it is customary, under the circum- 
stances in which you stand to each other, that you should make it con- 
venient to re'ceive his message in another jurisdiction, he has no right 
to insist that you should do so. I will be obliged to you for an an- 
swer on this point. Very respectfully, yours, &c., 

" HARRY CONNELLY." 

Mr. McMichael, as appears by his statement, on receipt of this 
last letter, placed the whole correspondence in the hands of two 
friends, with the assurance that he would be governed entirely 
by their direction. These friends, having considered the sub- 
ject, determined, first, that the article in the North American did 
not furnish any ground for the proposition contained in Mr. Con- 
nelly's letter, and that Mr. McMichael must decline its accept- 
ance ; and, second, that, to admit the personal responsibility of 
the conductor of a public journal for his strictures on public 
affairs, would, in their judgment, be detrimental to the interests 



CHALLENGES AND DUELS. 319 

of the community, and divest the press of its most important pre- 
rogative. Mr. McMichael, in accordance with this opinion, ad- 
dressed the friend of Mr. Cooper thus : 

"Philadelphia, September 21. 

" DEAR SIR, As the application made in your note of yesterday 
involves principles, which, in their consequences, affect the integrity of 
the public press, I have given to it the most careful consideration. 

" While I recognize to the fullest extent all my responsibilities for 
whatever appears in the columns of the North American, and am ready 
on all proper occasions to meet them in whatever form they may be 
presented, I am unable to perceive that Mr. Cooper has any right, under 
existing circumstances, to invite me to receive from him a hostile mes- 
sage. As I stated in my reply to his communication of the 18th instant, 
the article to which he referred ' was of a public nature, it concerned 
public events, and its comments had a public bearing. In the parts of 
it to which he called my attention, it asserted in general terms what 
uncontradicted public statements had, elsewhere, particularly set forth, 
but it made no allusion to any individual.' 

" If the conductors of public journals should permit themselves to be 
held personally responsible for their strictures on public affairs, there 
would be at once an end to all independence of the press ; and wrong 
and outrage might go unpunished and unrebuked. I cannot consent, 
by my example, to sanction such a course. I pretend to no privilege 
of interference with the private affairs of any, and should the journal I 
control offend in this way, I shall hold myself justly amenable ; but I 
do claim, and will exercise, the right of commenting frankly and freely 
on all matters of public concern, and upon the conduct of all who stand 
in public relations towards them. 

" Very respectfully, yours, &c., 

u MORTON MCMICHAEL." 

Mr. Connelly replied : 

" Philadelphia, September 22. 

" MORTON McMiCHAEL, ESQ.: Dear Sir, I have just received 
your note, in which you decline to give the personal satisfaction which 
Mr. Cooper has a right to expect. Under these circumstances, no fur- 
ther correspondence is necessary. Respectfully, yours, 

"HARRY CONNELLY." 



DORSET, Captain H. P., and R. BEVENS. In California, 1854. 
The former Land Register at Los Angeles, the latter connected 
with an Indian Land Reserve. Both wounded ; Dorsey in the 
abdomen, Bevens in the arm. 






APPENDIX. 



No. I. 

EFFORTS OF GENERAL CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCK- 
NEY TO SUPPRESS DUELLING. 

IT is possible that some persons of the present generation need 
to be informed that the opinion of this gentleman upon every 
subject of public concern is entitled to the most respectful con- 
sideration. He was a native of South Carolina, of which Colony 
his father was Chief Justice. He was sent to England to be edu- 
cated, and acquired there a high reputation as a scholar. He 
completed his legal studies in the Temple during the controver- 
sies which preceded the Revolution, and returned to South Car- 
olina and entered upon the duties of his profession. His services 
in the field were soon required. He was commissioned a captain, 
and rose rapidly to the command of a regiment. In the battles 
of Brandywine and Germantown he was an aide-de-camp to 
Washington, and acquitted himself with distinguished honor. 
Transferred to the South at a subsequent period of the war, and 
to the defence of his native State, his zeal and good conduct were 
much commended by military men of rank. At the fall of 
Charleston he became a close prisoner, and was refused the 
privilege even of following to the tomb the remains of his only 
son. He was a member of the Convention that framed the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and exerted great influence in 
procuring its adoption by the people of South Carolina. The 
affection and confidence of Washington were often manifested, 
since he offered him successively the offices of Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, of Secretary of War, of 
Secretary of State, of Minister to France, and of Major-General 
in the army. He declined the judicial and cabinet appointments, 
but accepted the others. His love of country was of the loftiest 



322 APPENDIX. 

kind, and two instances of his exhibition of it may be mentioned. 
Thus, when abroad on his mission, and the French agents de- 
manded a loan as a prerequisite to a treaty, he replied, " Mil- 
lions for defence, but not a cent for tribute " ; a sentiment which 
has passed into a maxim. So again, when some of his friends, 
solicitous for his honor, advised him to resent the supposed injus- 
tice of the Commander-in-chief in naming Hamilton (his junior 
in the army of the Revolution) as his superior in the army raised 
during the difficulties with France, he said, " I am confident that 
General Washington has sufficient reasons for this preference. 
Let us first dispose of our enemies ; we shall then have leisure to 
settle the question of rank" 

When, in the year 1800, General Pinckney was a candidate 
for the Vice-Presidency, Hamilton preferred him to Mr. Adams 
for the first office. In the election for the fifth term, he was the 
opponent of Jefferson, and in that for the sixth, of Madison, for 
the Presidency. In private life he was one of the most exem- 
plary of men. His manners were frank, his morals pure, his 
religious affections warm and active, his charities broad and 
liberal. 

The fall of Hamilton was the immediate cause of the two pa- 
pers here inserted. The first is an official communication as 
Vice-President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati of the 
United States, to the President of the New York State Society 
of the Cincinnati, and is dated at Charleston, South Carolina, 
August 18, 1804. 

" SIR, With deep affliction, I received the account of our irrepara- 
ble loss by the death of our late President- General. This deplorable 
event has been sensibly felt and lamented in this part of the Union, 
even by those who were not personally acquainted with him, and who 
did not coincide with him in politics. By me, who have witnessed his 
calm intrepidity and heroic valor, on trying occasions, and was acquaint- 
ed with his transcendent abilities and amiable qualities, and honored 
with his particular friendship, his loss is most poignantly felt, and his 
memory will be ever most affectionately revered. 

" Is there no way of abolishing, throughout the Union, this absurd and 
barbarous custom, to the observance of which he fell a victim ? Duel- 
ling is no criterion of bravery ; for I have seen cowards fight duels, and 
I am convinced real courage may often be better shown in the refusal 
than in the acceptance of a challenge. If the Society of Cincinnati were 
to declare their abhorrence of this practice, and the determination of all 
their members to discourage it as far as they had influence, and on no 
account either to send or accept a challenge, it might tend to annul tin's 
odious custom, and would be a tribute of respect to the sentiments and 



APPENDIX. 323 

memory of our late illustrious chief. If the State Society of New York 
should coincide with me in opinion, I should be glad to have their sen- 
timents how best to carry it into execution ; whether by submitting it 
to a meeting of the General Society at New York, Philadelphia, or 
Baltimore, or by referring the matter at once to the different State So- 
cieties, for their consideration. 

" I have this day received your favor of the 25th of July, and am 
much obliged to the State Society, and to yourself, for it. With senti- 
ments of great respect, I have the honor to be 
" Your most obedient servant, 

" CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, V. P. G. S. C." 

The above communication was followed, in September of the 
same year, by the following circular. It was addressed to cler- 
gymen and others of standing in South Carolina, with the accom- 
panying Memorial. The postscript was, however, omitted in the 
letters to laymen. 

" SIR, Having been appointed by the South Carolina State Soci- 
ety of the Cincinnati, and the American Revolution Society, a joint 
committee for draughting and circulating a memorial to the Legislature, 
praying for legislative interference to restrain the practice of duelling, 
we have agreed on the inclosed memorial, and transmit it to you, with 
our earnest request that you would use your most vigorous exertions to 
have it generally signed. It is unnecessary to dilate on the mischievous 
consequences of duelling, to induce your endeavors to check a practice 
so dishonorable to this State, in which it is our boast to be governed by 
laws, and not by men. The necessity of applying to the Legislature on 
the subject, is obvious ; for it is well known that the existing laws have 
never brought any duellist to serious inconveniences, and there is well- 
founded reason for believing that they never can, in consequence of the 
weight of precedents to the contrary. Our only alternative, therefore, 
is to acquiesce in the practice of duelling, or to restrain it by a new law. 
The difficulties of framing any law that may afford an adequate remedy 
to the evil are great, but not insurmountable. 

" It is not to be supposed that our Legislature is less wise than that 
of several of our sister States, whose laws have been so operative, that in 
several of them duels are absolutely unknown. If a respectable number 
of the friends of good government, morality, and religion sign the memo- 
rial we have forwarded, or any similar one, the Legislature, ever atten- 
tive to the wishes of their constituents, will enter seriously on the busi- 
ness, and we doubt not of their ability to frame such regulations as will 
certainly abolish the evil. , 

" Independent of any law which may be passed, the sentiments of the 
most respectable part of the community, in opposition to duelling, de- 
clared and avowed by signing the memorial, will have a very beneficial 
effect. It will tend to correct the public opinion, and to restrain all who 
wish for the esteem of their fellow-citizens from engaging in a practice 
which the virtue and good sense of the community have so pointedly 



324 APPENDIX. 

denounced. These, and many other arguments which must occur on 
reflection, will be sufficient to convince you, that, in procuring signers 
to the memorial, you will do a service acceptable to God and beneficial 
to man. We have further to request you to forward the memorial to 
Columbia, by the first Monday in November next, that they may all be 
presented together to the Legislature on the first day of their meeting ; 
when we hope for the sublime pleasure of seeing an abhorrence of duel- 
ling pointedly expressed by many thousands of our most deserving citi- 
zens. We are, with great respect, 

Your most obedient servants, 
" CHARLES C. PINCKNEY, J Committee 
JAMES KENNEDY, > of the 

WILLIAM READ, ) Cincinnati. 

" DAVID RAMSAY, "1 Committee 

HENRY W. DESAUSSURE, of the 
WILLIAM ALLEN DBAS, >- American 
JAMES LOWNDES, Revolution 

RICHARD FURMAN, j Society. 

" P. S. Impressed with a firm belief that many advantages would re- 
sult from illuminating the public mind on the inconsistency of the spirit 
and principles of the practice against which the memorial is levelled, 
with the spirit and principles of our holy religion, we earnestly request, 
as a particular favor, that you would, at some convenient early day, 
preach a sermon on the sin and folly of duelling. When the public sen- 
timent is correctly made up on this subject, the advocates for duelling 
will be struck with their inconsistency in claiming for themselves the 
high and honorable appellation of Christians. In our opinion, public 
previous notice of the day on which the proposed sermon will be 
preached would in general be both proper and useful ; but on this 
subject you will judge for yourself. 

" To the Honorable the President and Members of the Senate, and the 
Honorable the Speaker, and the other Members of the House of 
Representatives of the State of South Carolina. 

" The Memorial of the subscribers, citizens of the said State, showeth, 

" That your memorialists are deeply impressed with grief at the prev- 
alence of the custom of duelling ', which, trampling upon all laws, human 
and divine, sweeps off many useful citizens, leaving their families a prey 
to sorrow, and often to poverty and vice. 

" That this custom originated in dark and barbarous ages, when a 
regular and impartial administration of justice was unknown and un- 
practised ; but it ought not to be tolerated by the civilization of modern 
times, under a legislation which has provided, or may easily provide, 
adequate redress for all serious injuries committed against the life, liberty, 
fame, or property of the citizen. 

" That this custom erects a tribunal for the settlement of personal 
differences, in which, contrary to all sound principles, a man becomes 
the sole judge in his own cause ; whence, as might have been expected 



APPENDIX. 325 

from such a code, the only punishments for the lowest, as well as highest 
offences, are written in blood. 

" That restraining personal resentments, by giving the attribute of 
vengeance to the laws, was the greatest victory obtained by civilization 
over barbarism; but the custom of duelling is too well calculated 
to defeat the beneficial effects of that triumph, and to weaken the au- 
thority of all laws, by accustoming men to contemn their sanctions. 

" That your memorialists are apprehensive, from the frequency of the 
practice of late years, that this custom is gaining ground, and seems 
likely to be carried to such great lengths, as to degrade men to the 
condition of gladiators, and to introduce anew the reign of barbarism. 

" That, from the nature of the human mind, men are ever ready to 
follow examples, especially those set by eminent persons ; when, there- 
fore, the body of the community perceives great, and in other respects 
virtuous citizens, shedding each other's blood on slight provocations, or 
trivial pretences, the fatal practice becomes general. Thus the barriers 
between virtue and vice, innocence and guilt, are broken down ; and 
that horror of shedding human blood wantonly, which is the best safe- 
guard of the peace of society, is greatly diminished, or wholly destroyed. 

" That, in countries where distinctions of rank are sanctioned, a per- 
nicious custom may exist, and be confined to the higher orders of soci- 
ety, and be comparatively little destructive ; but that, in our coun- 
try of equal laws, rights, and rank, such custom, if unchecked by the 
laws, will necessarily become general, and spread its destructive effects 
far and wide in the community, to the desolation of thousands of families. 

" That this mortal vengeance is not resorted to merely in cases of 
grievous injuries, for which the laws may not have provided an adequate 
remedy ; but in many cases of trivial offence, which a generous mind 
would willingly pardon, this tyrant custom is supposed to impose an 
obligation to call out to the field of blood even a companion or friend, 
who may have unguardedly given the provocation. 

" That this absurd custom decides no right, and settles no point ; as 
the religion and philosophy of modern times will not admit that the 
Almighty Disposer of events will interpose his power on such an impious 
appeal to his justice; which the credulity of the Gothic nations believed 
when this custom existed among them in the form of judicial combat. 
It is, therefore, conceded universally, that the innocent and aggrieved 
person is as likely to be the victim as the guilty offender, and probably 
more so, as a mild and peaceable man would be less inclined to acquire 
or exert a murderous skill, the effect of which he abhors. 

" That the pretence of those who would excuse this custom on the 
ground that it polishes society, and prevents assassination, is wholly un- 
founded ; as the most polished nations of ancient times, the Grecians 
and Romans, and the most humane and civilized nations of modern 
times, the Chinese, have enjoyed society in perfection, without the ad- 
ventitious aid of this pernicious and unnatural custom ; which, though 
in direct hostility to the principles of Christianity, prevails only in 
Christian Europe and America. 
28 



326 APPENDIX. 

" Your memorialists have been informed, that, although the 'common 
law of the land declares homicide in a duel to be murder, the law has 
become obsolete, and a dead letter ; that all the decisions in our 
courts of justice have turned wholly on the fairness with which the 
duel was conducted; and verdicts of acquittal, or of manslaughter, 
have constantly been rendered. v Thence arises a necessity for a clear 
and explicit expression of the legislative will, on this important subject, 
guaranteed by new and vigorous sanctions. 

u Your memorialists, therefore, humbly pray that your honorable 
house would be pleased to take this important subject into your most 
serious consideration ; and that you would, in your wisdom, provide 
such remedies as may effectually destroy the evil practice complained 
of, by regulations wisely calculated to protect the fame and feelings of 
the innocent and insulted person ; and to punish rigorously the bold 
offender who shall dare to lift his hand against his neighbor, and shed 
his blood in a duel, in violation of the Divine law and the law of his 
country." 



No. II. 

SENTIMENTS OF THE HON. ROBERT BARNW2LL RHETT, 
LATE SENATOR IN CONGRESS FROM SOUTH CAROLINA, 
ON THE SUBJECT OF DUELLING. 

THESE sentiments are mentioned with commendation in the 
Preliminary Essay to this work ; and may be cited here at some 
length. In 1852, a personal controversy arose in the Senate 
between Mr. Rhett and the Hon. Jeremiah Clemens, a Senator 
from Alabama, which, at intervals, occupied the time of that body 
for several days. On the 27th of February, the latter gentleman, 
referring to a previous speech of Mr. Rhett, said : 

" He says that I called him a knave and a traitor. No man who heard 
that speech of mine ever entertained such an opinion, but himself. 
The allusion to knavery was an illustration ? not a charge. But, if I 
had done so, the subsequent course of that Senator justifies me in add- 
ing the epithet of coward to that of knave and traitor." 

The President. " The Senator must not use expressions of that kind." 

Mr. Clemens. " I am not out of order, Mr. President, and I intend, if 
I can, to keep within the rules of order ; but there are some things 
which I must say, and which I will say. If, when he believed that the 
charge of knavery was pending against him, he brooded over it, and 
took more than two months to prepare himself for a deliberate speech 
to answer it on the floor of the Senate, he does not deserve the character 



APPENDIX. 327 

of a man. No man, with the feeling of a man in his bosom, who be- 
lieved such a charge was pending against him, would have sought redress 
here. He would have looked for it elsewhere. He submitted to it 
then, and now comes here, not to ask redress in the only way he should 
have sought it, but, as he says, to discredit the witness ; and how does 
he propose to do it ? He begins with the evidence of two of his co-con- 
spirators. Now, in my State, they are not allowed by law to give evi- 
dence for one another. But that is not all. He has evaded the point. 
He has sought to create a false impression upon the Senate and the 
country." 

Mr. Rhett, in the course of his reply, on the 28th of the same 
month, as officially reported, remarked : 

" Mr. President, the course of the Senator from Alabama is precise- 
ly that which I expected it would be. I anticipated it in a conver- 
sation with a friend before I spoke. He had, without any cause on 
my part, stigmatized me here, on this floor, as one guilty of tceasoa 
juid knayfitv^ I knew/ very well that a man who would commit such 
an offence, who would insult without provocation, would not hesitate, 
under the exposure I intended to make, to add insult to insult. There- 
fore, when he yesterday pursued the course which he did pursue, it was 
precisely what I expected. 

" I did not, as the Senator charges, brood two months over his attack. 
He heard what I stated on this point in his presence in the Senate. I 
stated that I neither knew nor heard of what he had said concerning 
me, until just before I was leaving my home in South Carolina to come 
to this city. On my arrival here, I waited for the resolution, on which 
he had attacked me, to come up for consideration. Seeing the course 
of things, I was in no hurry to read his speech. But, not many days 
since, about ten days, I suppose, I got the Senator's speech from' the 
folding-room, and read it. I sent also for a copy of the speech of the Sen- 
ator from Michigan [Mr Cass], who I heard had honored me with his 
notice. It did not require much brooding to determine my course. I 
made up my mind that it became me, as a man and as a Senator, not 
to allow these imputations to pass unnoticed in the Senate. I was 
equally convinced that my reply to the Senator from Alabama would 
be followed by additional and probably aggravated insult. If he insult- 
ed me gratuitously, what right had I to expect that, when exposed be- 
fore the Senate, he would be more forbearing. He is come up precise- 
ly to the estimate I had put upon his character. 

" The Senator from Alabama denies that he meant to charge me with 
knavery and treason. Now I will read his words again to the Senate, 
and then I will leave the Senate to judge what their import is ; and I 
will call upon the Senator from Alabama to say, if that is not their im- 
port, what they do mean. Here is what he says : 

"' There was the Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. Sumner], the Sen- 
ator from Ohio [Mr. Chase], and the Senator from New Hampshire 
[Mr. Hale], gathered about him in a sort of fraternal ring, while the 
countenance of the Senator from New York [Mr. Seward] was radiant 



328 APPENDIX. 

with gladness. Thus was exhibited the spectacle of an extreme Southern 
Senator denouncing in no measured terms the government of this coun- 
try, and declaring himself a disunionist, on account of alleged wrongs 
heaped upon him, with four as rabid Abolitionists as this land contains 
drinking in his words with eager approbation, applauding, cheering, 
and encouraging him. All this was nothing new to us, however strange 
it may appear to the plain and honest yeomanry of the country. Nor 
was it, when calmly considered, at all unnatural. 

" A fellow feeling makes us wondrous kind." 

There is a sympathy in treason as well as in knavery ; and those who are 
earnestly striving to accomplish the same end need not quarrel about 
the separate means employed.' 

" Now here the Senator charges that there is a sympathy between 
these Senators and myself upon the matter of disunion ; and lie then ob- 
serves, that there is a sympathy in treason as well as in knavery. Is 
not that plainly charging us with treason and knavery ? I will leave 
the Senator from Alabama to explain if that is not his meaning of his 
words." 

Mr. Clemens. " There is not a Senator on this floor who does not un- 
derstand it precisely as I do. There is no more charge of knavery 
against him than there is against the Senator from Massachusetts, or the 
Senator from Ohio, against whom I never meant to make such a 
charge. There is a charge of disunion ; and he had himself avowed 
that he was a disunionist." 

Mr. Rhelt. " If that is all the Senator has to say, his words stand unex- 
plained. I ask him to explicate from his words I quote another mean- 
ing than that I put upon them. He does not attempt to do so. He 
says that they do not contain the charge I allege they do contain. 
That is denial ; but it is no proof. In his failure to show that they 
contain any other meaning than that I put upon them, he virtually ad- 
mits that he cannot make his disclaimer consistent with his words. His 
words mention persons, declare that they are in concert to accom- 
plish a certain end, and then assert that ' there is sympathy in trea- 
son as well as knavery.' The Senator can take his choice between two 
alternatives. He was either using words without meaning anything by 
them, and thus talking nonsense to the Senate, or he did by his words 
make the charge I deduced from them. No man of sense can draw 
any other meaning from his words. 

" Now, Mr. President, I admit that this was a gross and wanton insult, 
and I admit, too, that, acting upon ' the code of honor,' I ought not to 
have waited a month, or a day, or a moment, before I had required him 
to retract or fight. That is the course we are accustomed to pursue in 
the State I represent. I was perfectly aware of my position. I did 
not require the Senator from Alabama to tell me what I ought to have 
done, as a man of the world and a man of honor. But, Sir, I am a 
professor of the religion of Christ. I did not think it proper to challenge 
the Senator for two very important reasons. The first was, because I 
had another object in view, and still have it, far above the vindication 



APPENDIX. 329 

of myself from any personalities or insults that the Senator may have 
offered. Whilst vindicating myself on this floor, I would also vindi- 
cate the great cause with which I am identified. I have very feebly 
indicated my purposes in my defence, if the Senate has not perceived 
that I have used the Senator from Alabama, if not for my scorn or 
laughter, to bring up again the wrongs perpetrated by this govern- 
ment upon the South, and the consequent dangers which surround 
her ; and again to place forward for public consideration those great 
conservative principles arising from State rights and State sovereignty, 
which alone can give her peace or safety. 

" Sir, without sovereignty in the States without the right of seces- 
sion in the States we live under a consolidated despotism ; and I am 
in favor of the exercise of the right of secession, if for no other purpose, 
for the purpose (as I intimated in the speech I delivered the other day) 
of testing the form of government under which we live. 

" But my second reason for not calling the Senator from Alabama 
into the field was of a still higher and more controlling nature. For 
twenty years I have been a member of the Church of Christ. The Sena- 
tor knows it, everybody knows it. I cannot, and will not, dishonor my 
religious profession. If he, or any one else, supposes that I am so much 
afraid of his insults, or the opinion which requires them to be redressed in 
the field, as to be driven by them to abandon the profession of twenty 
years, he is entirely mistaken. I frankly admit (hat I fear God ; and that 
I fear him more than man. Although desirous of the good opinion of all 
men (for our usefulness is very largely dependent on the good opinion 
of our fellows') we can never obtain it by an abandonment of the prin- 
ciples we profess. True courage is best evinced by the firm maintenance 
of our principles amidst all temptations and all trials.* I did not assail 
the Senator from Alabama. He assailed me. I have defended myself; 
and in doing so, if he has seen any fear of him indicated by me, he is 
welcome to all the pride and gratification it can impart. If firmness in 
maintaining even worldly principles or a course of worldly policy be 
any indication of courage, I might not suffer from a comparison with 
even the Senator from Alabama. I have not here threatened and 
tried to bully the North ; and when the North will not be bullied, and 
puts upon me the outrages and dishonors to which I had declared resist- 
ance, I have notquietly submitted, and then begged the ' humble privilege ' 
of supporting them. I have not afterwards turned round upon one of 
those who was battling with me, and who would not yield, and accused 
him of fear, of cowardice. Sir, I profess the possession of no extra- 
ordinary courage ; but I trust I have the courage to support the right 
and defy the wrong, although backed by an overwhelming public 
opinion, North and South. I am here alone ; but, I trust, alone without 
fear. Have I quailed before any of you ? Senators, answer, if I have 
ever done so." 



* The italics are not the Senator's, but the author's. 
28* 



330 APPENDIX. 

No. III. 
SENTIMENTS OF ELIPHALET NOTT, D.D., ON DUELLING. 

THE following passages are extracted from a Sermon delivered 
by this eminent man, who yet survives, in the North Dutch 
Church, Albany, New York, July 29, 1804, in consequence of 
the death of Hamilton. Dr. Nott at that time was pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church in that city. The discourse had a wide cir- 
culation, and was considered as among the ablest performances, 
whether of the pulpit or of the forum, of which that sad event 
was the occasion, in different parts of the Union. It contains 
some expressions which, perhaps, need qualification, and some 
opinions which will not receive universal assent. The parts 
omitted here are such, principally, as do not relate directly to 
Hamilton, and the code to which he was the victim : 

" The occasion explains the choice of my subject. A subject on 
which I enter in obedience to your request. You have assembled to 
express your elegiac sorrows, and sad and solemn weeds cover you. 

"Before such an audience, and on sucli an occasion, I enter on the 
duty assigned me with trembling. Do not mistake my meaning. I 
tremble indeed, not, however, through fear of failing to merit your 
applause ; for what have I to do with that when addressing the dying, 
and treading on the ashes of the dead, not through fear "of failing 
justly to portray the character of that great man who is at once the 
theme of my encomium and regret : he needs not eulogy. His work is 
finished, and death lias removed him beyond my censure, and I would 
fondly hope, through grace, above my praise. 

" You will ask, then, why I tremble ? I tremble to think that I am 
called to attack from this place a crime, the very idea of which almost 
freezes one with horror, a crime, too, which exists among the polite and 
polished orders of society, and which is accompanied with every aggrava- 
tion ; committed with cool deliberation, and openly in the face of day ! 

" But I have a duty to perform. And, difficult and awful as that duty 
is, I will not shrink from it. 

"Would to God my talents were adequate to the occasion. But such 
as they are, I devoutly proffer them to unfold the nature and counteract 
the influence of that barbarous custom, which, like a resistless torrent, 
is undermining the foundations of civil government, breaking down 
the barriers of social happiness, and sweeping away virtue, talents, and 
domestic felicity, in its desolating course. 

" Another and an illustrious character, a father, a general, a states- 
man, tlie very man who stood on an eminence and without a rival, 
among sages and heroes, the future hope of his country in danger, 
this man, yielding to the influence of a custom which deserves our 
eternal reprobation, has been brought to an untimely end 



APPENDIX. 331 

" The fall of Hamilton owes its existence to mad deliberation, and is 
marked by violence. The time, the place, the * circumstances, are 
arranged with barbarous coolness. The instrument of death is levelled 
in day-light, and with well-directed skill pointed at his heart. Alas ! 
the event has proven that it was but too well directed. Wounded, 
mortally wounded, on the very spot which still smoked with the blood 
of a favorite son, into the arms of his indiscreet and cruel friend the 
father fell. 

" Ah ! had he fallen in the course of nature ; or jeopardizing his life 
in defence of his country, had he fallen But he^did not. He fell in 
single combat. Pardon my mistake, he did not fall in single combat. 
His noble nature refused to endanger the life of his antagonist. But 
he exposed his own life. This was his crime : and the sacredness of 
my office forbids that I should hesitate explicitly to declare it so. 

"He did not hesitate to declare it so himself: 'My religious and 
moral principles are strongly opposed to duelling.' These are his words 
before he ventured to the field of death. ' I view the late transaction 
with sorrow and contrition.' These are his words after his return 

" Think not that the fatal issue of the late inhuman interview was 
fortuitous. No ; the Hand that guides unseen the arrow of the archer, 
steadied and directed the arm of the duellist. And why did it thus 
direct it ? As a solemn memento, as a loud and awful warning to a 
community where justice has slumbered and slumbered and slum- 
bered while the wife has been robbed of her partner, the mother of 
her hopes, and life after life rashly, and with an air of triumph, sported 
away. 

" And was there, O my God ! no other sacrifice valuable enough, 
would the cry of no other blood reach the place of retribution and 
wake justice, dozing over her awful seat ! 

" But though justice should still slumber and retribution be delayed, 
we who are the ministers of that God who will judge the judges of the 
world, and whose malediction rests on him who does his work unfaith- 
fully, we will not keep silence. 

" I feel, my brethren, how incongruous my subject is with the place 
I occupy. 

" It is humiliating ; it is distressing in a Christian country, and in 
churches consecrated to the religion of Jesus, to be obliged to attack a 
crime which outstrips barbarism, and would even sink the character of 
a generous savage. But humiliating as it is, it is necessary. 

" And must we then, even for a moment, forget the elevation on 
which grace hath placed us, and the light which the Gospel sheds around 
us ? Must we place ourselves back in the midst of barbarism ? And 
instead of hearers softened to forgiveness by the love of Jesus, filled 
with noble sentiments towards our enemies, and waiting for occasions, 
after the example of Divinity, to do them good, instead of such hear- 
ers, must we suppose ourselves addressing hearts petrified to goodness, 
incapable of mercy, and boiling with revenge ? Must we, O my God !" 
instead of exhorting those who hear us to go on unto perfection, add- 



332 APPENDIX. 

ing to virtue charily, and to charity brotherly kindness, must we, as if 
surrounded by an auditory just emerging out of darkness, and still cruel 
and ferocious, reason to convince them that revenge is improper, and 
that to commit deliberate murder is sin ? 

" Yes, we must do this. Repeated violations of the law, and the 
sanctuary, which the guilty find in public sentiment, prove that it is 
necessary 

" In accomplishing the object which is before me, it will not be ex- 
pected, as it is not necessary, that I should give a history of Duelling. 
You need not be informed that it originated in a dark and barbarous 
age. The polished Greek knew nothing of it. The noble Roman was 
above it. Rome held in equal detestation the man who exposed his life 
unnecessarily, and him who refused to expose it when the public good 
required it.* Her heroes were superior to private contests. They in- 
dulged no vengeance except against the enemies of their country. 
Their swords were not drawn unless her honor was in danger ; which 
honor they defended with their swords not only, but shielded with 
their bosoms also, and were then prodigal of their blood. 

" But though Greece and Rome knew nothing of Duelling, it exists. 
It exists among us : and it exists at once the most rash, the most absurd 
and guilty practice, that ever disgraced a Christian nation 

" The duellist contravenes the law of God not only, but the law of 
man also. To the prohibition of the former have been added the sanc- 
tions of the latter. Life taken in a duel, by the common law, is murder. 
And where this is not the case, the giving and receiving of a challenge 
only is, by statute, considered a high misdemeanor, for which the prin- 
cipal and his second are declared infamous, and disfranchised for twenty 
years. 

"Under what accumulated circumstances of aggravation does the 
duellist jeopardize his own life, or take the life of his antagonist ? 

" I am sensible that in a licentious age, and when laws are made to 
yield to the vices of those who move in the higher circles, this crime is 
called by I know not what mild and accommodating name. But before 
these altars, in this house of God, what is it ? It is MURDER, deliber- 
ate, aggravated MURDER. 

" If the- duellist deny this, let him produce his warrant from the 
Author of life, for taking away from his creature the life which had 
been sovereignly given. If he cannot do this, beyond all controversy, 
he is a murderer, for murder consists in taking away life without the 
permission, and contrary to the prohibition, of Him who gave it. 

" Who is it then that calls the duellist to the dangerous and deadly 
combat ? Is it God ? No ; on the contrary, he forbids it. Is it then 
his country ? No ; she also utters her prohibitory voice. Who is it 
then ? A man of honor. And who is this man of honor ? A man 
perhaps whose honor is a name, who prates with polluted lips about 
the sacredness of character, when his own is stained with crimes, and 

* Sallust. de Bell. Catil. ix. 



APPENDIX. 

needs but the single shade of murder to complete the dismal and sickly 
picture 

" Is duelling guilty ? So it is 

" Absurd. It is absurd as a punishment, for it admits of no propor- 
tion to crimes : and besides, virtue and vice, guilt and innocence, are 
equally exposed by it to death or suffering. As a reparation, it is still 
more absurd, for it makes the injured liable to a still greater injury. 
And as the vindication of personal character, it is absurd even beyond 
madness. 

" One man of honor, by some inadvertence, or perhaps with design, 
injures the sensibility of another man of honor. In perfect character 
the injured gentleman resents it. He challenges the offender. The of- 
fender accepts the challenge. The time is fixed. The place is agreed 
upon. The circumstances, with an air of solemn mania, are arranged ; 
and the principals, with their seconds and surgeons, retire under the 
covert of some solitary hill, or upon the margin of some unfrequented 
beach, to settle this important question of honor, by stabbing or shoot- 
ing at each other. 

" One or the other, or both the parties, fall in this polite and gentle- 
manlike contest. And what does this prove ? It proves that ene or 
the other, or both of them, as the case may be, are marksmen. But it 
affords no evidence that either of them possesses honor, probity, or 
talents. 

"It is true that he who falls in single combat has the honor of 
being murdered : and he who takes his life, the honor of a murderer. 
Besides this, I know not of any glory which can redound to the infatu- 
ated combatants, except it be what results from having extended the 
circle of wretched widows, and added to the number of hapless or- 
phans 

" Since the opinions of men are as they are, do you ask, how you shall 
avoid the imputation of cowardice, if you do not fight when you are 
injured ? Ask your family how you will avoid the imputation of cruelty, 
ask your conscience how you will avoid the imputation of guilt, 
ask God how you will avoid his malediction, if you do ? These are pre- 
vious questions. Let these first be answered, and it will be easy to 
reply to any which may follow them. 

" If you only accept a challenge when you believe in your conscience 
that duelling is wrong, you act the coward. The dastardly fear of the 
world governs you. Awed by its menaces, you conceal your senti- 
ments, appear in disguise, and act in guilty conformity to principles not 
your own, and that too in the most solemn moment, and when engaged 
in an act which exposes you to death. 

" But if it be rashness to accept, how passing rashness is it, in a sin- 
ner, to give a challenge ? Does it become him, whose life is measured 
out by crimes, to be extreme to mark, and punctilious to resent, whatever 
is amiss in others ? Must the duellist, who now, disdaining to forgive, 
so imperiously demands satisfaction to the uttermost, must this man 
himself, trembling at the recollection of his offences, presently appear a 



334 APPENDIX. 

suppliant before the mercy-seat of God ? Imagine this, and the case is 
not imaginary, and you cannot conceive an instance of greater incon- 
sistency, or of more presumptuous arrogance. Wherefore, avenge not 
yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath ; for vengeance is mine, 1 will 
repay it, saith the Lord. 

" Do you ask, then, how you shall conduct towards your enemy who 
hath lightly done you wrong ? If he be hungry, feed him ; if naked, 
clothe him ; if thirsty, give jiim drink. Such, had you preferred your 
question to Jesus Christ, is the answer he had given you. By observing 
which, you will usually subdue, and always act more honorably than 
your enemy 

" Compare the conduct of the Christian, acting in conformity to the 
principles of religion, and of the duellist, acting in conformity to the 
principles of honor, and let reason say which bears the marks of the 
most exalted greatness. Compare them, and let reason say which enjoys 
the most calm serenity of mind in time, and which is likely to receive 
the plaudits of his Judge in immortality. 

" God, from his throne, beholds not a nobler object on his footstool, 
than the man who loves his enemies, pities their errors, and forgives the 
injuries they do him. This is indeed the very spirit of the heavens. It 
is the image of his benignity, whose glory fills them. 

" To return to the subject before us. v Guilty, absurd, and rash, as 
duelling is, it has its advocates. And had it not had its advocates, 
had not a strange preponderance of opinion been in favor of it, never, 
O lamentable Hamilton I hadst thou thus fallen, in the midst of thy 
days, and before thou hadst reached the zenith of thy glory ! 

" O that I possessed the talent of eulogy, and that I might be per- 
mitted to indulge the tenderness of friendship in paying the last tribute 
to his memory ! O that I were capable of placing this great man before 
you ! Could I do this, I should furnish you with an argument, the most 
practical, the most plain, the most convincing, except that drawn from 
the mandate of God, that was ever furnished against duelling, that hor- 
rid practice, which has in an awful moment robbed the world of such 
exalted worth 

" I know he had his failings. I see on the picture of his life, a pic- 
ture rendered awful by greatness, and luminous by virtue, some dark 
shades. On these let the tear that pities human weakness fall ; on 
these let the veil which covers human frailty rest. As a hero, as 
a statesman, as a patriot, he lived nobly : and would to God I could 
add, he nobly fell. 

" Unwilling to admit his error in this respect, I go back to the period 
of discussion. I see him resisting the threatened interview. I imagine 
myself present in his chamber. Various reasons, for a time, seem to 
hold his determination in arrest. Various and moving objects pass be- 
fore him, and speak a dissuasive language. 

" His country, which may need his counsels to guide, and his arm to 
defend, utters her veto. The partner of his youth, already covered with 
weeds, and whose tears flow down into her bosom, intercedes ! His 






APPENDIX. 335 



babes, stretching out their little hands and pointing to a weeping mother, 
with lisping eloquence, but eloquence which reaches a parent's heart, 
cry out, ' Stay, stay, dear papa, and live for us ! ' In the mean time 
the spectre of a fallen son, pale and ghastly, approaches, opens his 
bleeding bosom, and, as the harbinger of death, points to the yawning 
tomb, and warns a hesitating father of the issue. 

" He pauses. Reviews these sad objects : and reasons on the subject. 
I admire his magnanimity. I approve his reasoning, and I wait to hear 
him reject with indignation the murderous proposition, and to see him 
spurn from his presence the presumptuous bearer of it. 

" But I wait in vain. It was a moment in which his great wisdom 
forsook him. A moment in which Hamilton was not himself. 

" He yielded to the force of an imperious custom, and, yielding, he 
sacrificed a life in which all had an interest ; and he is lost, lost to 
his family, lost to us. 

" For this act, because he disclaimed it, and^ was penitent, I for- 
give him. But there are those whom I cannot forgive. 

" I mean not his antagonist, over whose erring steps, if there be tears 
in heaven, a pious mother looks down and weeps. If he is capable of 
feeling, he suffers already all that humanity can suffer : suffers, and, 
wherever he may fly, will suffer, with the poignant recollection of having 
taken the life of one who was too magnanimous in return to attempt his 
own. Had he have known this, it must have paralyzed his arm while 
it pointed at so incorruptible a bosom the instrument of death. Does 
he know this now ? his heart, if it be not adamant, must soften ; if it 

be not ice, it must melt. But on this article I forbear. Stained 

with blood as he is, if he be penitent I forgive him ; and if he be not, 
before these altars, where all of us appear as suppliants, I wish not 
to excite your vengeance, but rather, in behalf of an object rendered 
wretched and pitiable by crime, to wake your prayers. 

" But I have said, and I repeat it, there are those whom I cannot 
forgive. 

" I cannot forgive that minister at the altar who has hitherto forborne 
to remonstrate on this subject. I cannot forgive that public prosecutor, 
who, intrusted with the duty of avenging his country's wrongs, has seen 
those wrongs, and taken no measures to avenge them. I cannot forgive 
that judge upon the bench, or that Governor in the chair of state, who 
has lightly passed over such offences. I cannot forgive the public, in 
whose opinion the duellist finds a sanctuary. I cannot forgive you, my 
brethren, who, till this late hour, have been silent, while successive 
murders were committed. No ; I cannot forgive you, that you have not, 
in common with the freemen of this State, raised your voice to the 
powers that be, and loudly and explicitly demanded an execution of your 
laws. Demanded this in a manner, which, if it did not reach the ear of 
government, would at least have reached the heavens, and plead your ex- 
cuse before the God that filleth them, in whose presence as I stand, 
I should not feel myself innocent of the blood that crieth against us, had 
I been silent. But I have not been silent. Many of you who hear me 



336 APPENDIX. 

are my witnesses, the walls of yonder temple, where I have hereto- 
fore addressed you, are my witnesses, how freely I have animadverted 
on this subject, in the presence both of those who have violated the 
laws, and of those whose indispensable duty it is to see the laws exe- 
cuted on those who violate them. 

" I enjoy another opportunity ; and would to God I might be per- 
mitted to approach for once the late scene of death. Would to God I 
could there assemble on the one side the disconsolate mother with her 
seven fatherless children, and on the other, those who administer the 
justice of my country. Could I do this, I would point them to these 
sad objects. I would entreat them, by the agonies of bereaved fond- 
ness, to listen to the widow's heartfelt groans ; to mark the orphans' 
sighs and tears. And having done this, I would uncover the breathless 
corpse of Hamilton, I would lift from his gaping wound his bloody 
mantle, I would hold it up to heaven before them, and I would ask, 
in the name of God, I would ask, whether at the sight of it they felt no 
compunction ? 

" You will ask, perhaps, what can be done to arrest the progress of a 
practice which has yet so many advocates ? I answer, nothing, if it 
be the deliberate intention to do nothing. But if otherwise, much is 
within our power. 

" Let, then, the Governor see that the laws are executed ; let the 
Council displace the man who offends against their majesty ; let courts of 
justice frown froin their bar, as unworthy to appear before them, the mur- 
derer and his accomplices ; let the people declare him unworthy of their 
confidence who engages in such sanguinary contests. Let this be done, 
and, should life still be taken in single combat, then the Governor, the 
Council, the court, the people, looking up to the Avenger of sin, may 
say, ' We are innocent, we are innocent.' 

" Do you ask how proof can be obtained ? How can it be avoided ? 
The parties return, hold up before our eyes the instruments of death, 
publish to the world the circumstances of their interview, and even, 
with an air of insulting triumph, boast how coolly and deliberately they 
proceeded in violating one of the most sacred laws of earth and heaven ! 

" Ah ! ye tragic shores of Hoboken, crimsoned with the richest blood, 
T tremble'at the crimes you record against us, the annual register of 
murders which you keep and send up to God ! Place of inhuman cru- 
elty ! beyond the limits of reason, of duty, and of religion, where man 
assumes a more barbarous nature, and ceases to be man. What poig- 
nant, lingering sorrows do thy lawless combats occasion to surviving 
relatives ! 

" Ye who have hearts of pity, ye who have experienced the anguish 
of dissolving friendship, who have wept, and still weep, over the moul- 
dering ruins of departed kindred, ye can enter into this reflection." 



APPENDIX. 337 



No. IV. 

THE LAW OF ENGLAND RELATIVE TO CHALLENGES 
AND DUELS. 

THESE offences are thus described in the books : 

" Duel, in our ancient law, is a fight between persons in a doubtful case 
for the trial of the truth. Fleta. See tit. Battel But this kind of duel 
is disused ; and what we now call a duel is a fighting between two, upon 
some quarrel precedent : wherein, if a person is killed, both the prin- 
cipal and his seconds are guilty of murder, and whether the seconds 
fight or not. H. P. C. 47, 51. 

" If two persons quarrel over night, and appoint to fight the next 
day ; or quarrel in the morning, and agree to fight in the afternoon ; or 
such a considerable time after, by which it may be presumed the blood 
was cooled; and then they meet and fight a duel, and one kill the 
other, it is murder. 3 Inst. 52. H. P. C. 48. Kel 56. And when- 
ever it appears, that he who kills another in a duel, or fighting on a 
sudden quarrel, was master of his temper at the time, he is guilty of 
murder : as if, after the quarrel, he fall into another discourse, and talk 
calmly thereon ; or allege that the place where the quarrel happens is 
not convenient for fighting ; or that his shoes are too high, if he should 
fight at present, &c. Kel. 56. 1 Lev. 180. 

" If one challenge another, who refuses to meet him, but tells him 
that he shall go the next day to such a place about business, and then 
the challenger meets him on the road, and assaults the other; if the 
other, in this case, kill him, it will be only manslaughter ; for here is no 
acceptance of the challenge, or agreement to fight ; and if the person 
challenged refuseth to meet the challenger, but tells him that he wears 
a sword, and is always ready to defend himself, if then the challenger 
attack him, and is killed by the other, it is neither murder nor man- 
slaughter, if necessary in his own defence. Kel. 56. 

" If one kill another in a deliberate duel, under provocation of 
charges against his character and conduct, however grievous, it is mur- 
der in him and in his second; and therefore the bare incitement to 
fight, though under such provocation, is in itself a very high misde- 
meanor, though no consequence ensue thereon against the peace. 
3 Easfs Rep. 581. 

" An endeavor to provoke another to commit the misdemeanor of 
sending a challenge to fight, is itself a misdemeanor indictable, particu- 
larly where such provocation was given by a writing, containing libel- 
lous matter, and alleged to have been done with intent to do the party 
bodily harm, and to break the king's peace ; the sending such writing 
being an act done towards procuring the commission of the misdemeanor 
meant to be accomplished. 6 East's Rep. 464." 
29 



338 APPENDIX. 

The case, The King vs. Rice, in the Court of King's Bench, 
in 1803, cited above from East's Reports, is of interest, and fol- 
lows at length. Rice was a lieutenant in the British navy, and 
was tried for having sent to a superior officer a letter in the na- 
ture of a challenge, in consequence of an offensive course of 
conduct pursued towards him while on duty. The case is 
curious, as being one of the very few in the annals of British 
jurisprudence in which any punishment has been inflicted for 
sending a hostile message. In this case, it may be conjectured 
that Rice was imprisoned and fined, not so much for " the in- 
tended violation of the peace," as for the actual breach of the 
rules of the naval service. The judgment of the Court was pro- 
nounced by Sir Nash Grose, Knight, who, 

"in passing sentence upon the defendant, censured strongly several 
circumstances of provocation on the part of the prosecutor, which had 
led to the challenge given by the defendant. And as to the offence 
itself, he observed : This offence in modern times is so frequent, that it 
is become alarming to the public, and induces me to suspect that men 
either are not aware of the consequences the offence may lead to, or 
are become insensible to the mischiefs of them. That fighting a duel is 
a grievous breach of the peace is undoubted, and tliat it ought to be so 
considered is as clear ; inasmuch as it may lead to one of the worst of 
crimes, murder ; the murder of one probably, and possibly of more. I 
lay stress upon the word murder, because I fear some are ignorant, and 
others will perversely not understand, that to kill a man in a duel 
amounts to the crime of deliberate murder, whether he that gave or be 
that accepted the challenge fall. To every lawyer this is a proposition 
perfectly clear ; but that others who are not of the profession may as 
perfectly be assured of it, I will read only a passage or two from the 
most able writers upon the subject, to show that it is a doctrine not of 
modern date, but coeval with the first institution of our laws. By Sir 
Matthew Hale, as correct, as learned, and as humane a judge as ever 
graced a bench of justice, we find it laid down,* that if A challenge C 
to meet in the field to fight, and C decline it as much as he can, but is 
threatened by A to be posted for a coward, (an ingredient to be found, 
I fear, in this c'ase in substance, though not in terms,) if he meet not ; 
and thereupon A, and B his second, and C, and D his second, meet and 
fight, and C kill A ; this is murder in C, and D his second, and so ruled 
in Taverner's case ; f in which case, tried before this Court of King's 
Bench, in this place, it appeared that the deceased was the challenger, 
and that the prisoner accepted the challenge, as the case terms it, upon 
very forcible provocation. Sir Edward Coke, the Lord Chief Justice, 
laid down the law thus : ' This is a plain case, and without .any ques- 



1 Halo's P. C. 452. f 1 Kol. Rep. 360; 3 Bulstr. 171. 



APPENDIX. 339 

tion ; if one kill another in fight, upon the provocation of him which is 
killed, this is murder.' * Of the same opinion were the rest of the Court. 
In this case, it is to be observed that the second, one Thomas Musgrave, 
as well as the principal, was indicted, and the second was outlawed. 
This precedent may well deter others from taking upon them so illegal 
and improper an office. And such has been the law recognized at dif- 
ferent times down to the present moment, as we may observe by what 
is laid down by a very learned and able judge f of the last reign. His 
words are, ' that, in all possible cases, deliberate homicide upon a prin- 
ciple of revenge is murder ; for no man under the protection of the 
law is to be the avenger of his own wrongs. If they are of such a na- 
ture, for which the laws of society will give him an adequate remedy, 
thither he ought to resort ; but be they of what nature soever, he ought 
to bear his lot with patience, and remember that vengeance belongeth 
only to the Most High.' Then he goes on : ' Upon this principle, de- 
liberate duelling, if death ensueth, is in the eye of the law murder; for 
duels are generally founded in deep revenge ; and though a person 
should be drawn into a duel, not upon a motive so criminal, but merely 
upon the punctilio of what the sivordsmen fahely call honor, that will not 
excuse ; for he that deliberately seeketh the blood of another on a pri- 
vate quarrel, acteth in defiance of all laws, human and divine, whatever 
his motive may be.' Here, too, we may note this excellent man's opin- 
ion upon that punctilio of honor, by the rules of which some men affect 
to palliate, and others to justify, crimes of the blackest dye, the grossest 
frauds, gambling, seduction, adultery, murder. Such was and is the 
law of honor, and no man who will attend to the subject can doubt of it. 
In this case, if the prosecutor had not obeyed the law, by consulting his 
own honor, and not the false honor of swordsmen, and either party had 
fallen, the other would have undoubtedly been guilty of murder, and 
liable to an ignominious and fatal sentence : from which had it been his 
fortune to escape, either from absence of witnesses, or any other means 
that sometimes occur to cause a failure of public justice, the remainder 
of his life must have been clouded with the dreadful remembrance that, 
for the purpose of giving or receiving that miserable thing falsely called 
satisfaction, he had unnecessarily imbrued his hands in the blood of a 
brother officer. Fortunately for the defendant, that crime he has nt>t 
to atone for ; he is to receive sentence only for attempting to provoke 
a duel. The punishment for this offence, as a misdemeanor, is discre- 
tionary, and must be guided by such circumstances of aggravation or 
mitigation as are to be found in the offence. 

" He then adverted to the particular circumstances of the case, 
amongst which were several of a nature to mitigate very materially the 
offence, accompanied by affidavits of the defendant's general merits as 
an officer from many respectable officers of the navy ; though there 
still remained, as he observed, much for which atonement should be 
made to the public for the intended violation of its peace. Wherefore, 

* 3 Bulstr. 172. t Mr. Justice Foster in his Crown Law, 296. 



340 APPENDIX. 

upon the whole, the Court, taking into consideration the imprisonment 
already suffered by the defendant, (who had been brought up early in 
the term, and committed to custody in the mean time,) adjudged him to 
pay a fine of 100, and to be imprisoned for one calendar month, and 
at the .expiration of that time to give security to 'keep the peace for 
three years, himself in 1,000, and two sureties in 250 each, and to be 
further imprisoned till such fine were paid and such securities given." 



No. V. 
EXTRACT FROM THE SPECTATOR, No. 99. 

THE great violation of the point of honor from man to man is 
giving the lie. One may tell another he whores, drinks, blas- 
phemes, and it may pass unresented ; but to say he lies, though 
but in jest, is an affront that nothing but blood can expiate. The 
reason perhaps may be, because no other vice implies a want of 
courage so much as the making of a lie ; and therefore telling a 
man he lies, is touching him in the most sensible part of honor, 
and indirectly calling him a coward. I cannot omit under tbis 
head what Herodotus tells us of the ancient Persians, that from 
the age of five years to twenty they instruct their sons only in 
three things, to manage the horse, to make use of tbe bow, and 
to speak truth. 

The placing of tbe point of honor in this false kind of courage 
has given occasion to the very refuse of mankind, who have 
neither virtue nor common sense, to set up for men of honor. 
An English peer, who has not been long dead,* used to tell a 
pleasant story of a French gentleman, that visited him early one 
morning at Paris, and, after great professions of respect, let him 
know that he had it in his power to oblige him ; which, in short, 
amounted to this, that he believed he could tell bis lordship the 
person's name who jostled him as he came out from the opera ; 
and before he would proceed, he begged his lordship that he 
would not deny him the honor of making him his second. The 
English lord, to avoid being drawn into a very foolish affair, told 
him he was under engagements for his two next duels to a 

* It has been said that this was William Cavendish, the first Duke of 
Devonshire, who died August 18, 1707. 



APPENDIX. 341 

couple of particular friends. Upon which the gentleman im- 
mediately withdrew, hoping his lordship would not take it ill if 
he meddled no farther in an affair from whence he himself was 
to receive no advantage. 

The beating down this false notion of honor, in so vain and 
lively a people as those of France, is deservedly looked upon as 
one of the most glorious parts of their present king's reign. .It 
is a pity but the punishment of these mischievous notions should 
nave in it some particular circumstances of shame and infamy ; 
that those who are slaves to them may see, that, instead of ad- 
vancing their reputation, they lead them to ignominy and 
dishonor. 

Death is not sufficient to deter men who make it their glory to 
despise it ; but if every one that fought a duel were to stand in 
the pillory, it would quickly lessen the number of these imagi- 
nary men of honor, and put an end to so absurd a practice. 

When honor is a support to virtuous principles, and runs par- 
allel with the laws of God and our country, it cannot be too 
much cherished and encouraged ; but when the dictates of honor 
are contrary to those of religion and equity, they are the great- 
est depravations of human nature, by giving wrong ambitions 
and false ideas of what is good and laudable ; and should there- 
fore be exploded by all governments, and driven out as the bane 
and plague of human society. L. 



No. VI. 
FKOM THE TATLER. 

THE point of the two papers which follow is apparent without a word. 
Steele assisted in the production of the first, but the last was written by 
Addison alone. 

No. 256. Tuesday, November 28, 1710. 

Nostrum est tantas componera Lites. Virg. 

The Proceedings of the Court of Honor, held in Sheer Lane 
on Monday, the 20th of November, 1710, before Isaac 
Bickerstaffe, Esq., Censor of Great Britain. 

PETER PLUMB, of London, merchant, was indicted by the 
29* 



342 APPENDIX. 

Honorable Mr. Thomas Gules, of Gule Hall, in the county of 
Salop, for that the said Peter Plumb did, in Lombard Street, Lon- 
don, between the hours of two and three in the afternoon, meet the 
said Mr. Thomas Gules, and, after a short salutation, put on his 
hat, value five-pence, while the Honorable Mr. Gules stood bare- 
headed for the space of two seconds. It was further urged 
against the criminal, that, during his discourse with the prosecu- 
tor, he feloniously stole the wall of him, having clapped his back 
against it in such a manner, that it was impossible for Mr. Gules 
to recover it again at his taking leave of him. The prosecutor 
alleged, that he was the cadet of a very ancient family, and 
that, according to the principles of all the younger brothers of 
the said family, he had never sullied himself with business, but 
had chosen rather to starve like a man of honor, than do any- 
thing beneath his quality. He produced several witnesses, that 
he had never employed himself beyond the twisting of a whip, 
or the making of a pair of nut-crackers, in which he only worked 
for his diversion, in order to make a present now and then to his 
friends. The prisoner being asked what he could say for him- 
self, cast several reflections upon the Honorable Mr. Gules ; as, 
" that he was not worth a groat ; that nobody in the city would 
trust him for a halfpenny ; that he owed him money, which he 
had promised to pay him several times, but never kept his word ; 
and, in sliort, that he was an idle, beggarly fellow, and of no use 
to the public." This sort of language was very severely repri- 
manded by the censor, who told the criminal, that he spoke in 
contempt of the court, and that he should be proceeded against 
for contumacy, if he did not change his style. The prisoner 
therefore desired to be heard by his counsel, who urged in his 
defence, that he put on his hat through ignorance, and took the 
wall by accident. They likewise produced several witnesses, 
that he made sundry motions with his hat in his hand, which are 
generally understood as an invitation to the person we talk with 
to be covered ; and that the gentleman not taking the hint, he 
was forced to put on his hat, as being troubled with a cold. 
There was likewise an Irishman, who deposed, that he had heard 
him cough three-and-twenty times that morning. And as for 
the wall, it was alleged, that he had taken it inadvertently, to 
save himself from a shower of rain, which was then falling. 
The censor, having consulted the men of honor, who sat at his 
right hand on the bench, found they were of opinion, that the 
defence made by the prisoner's counsel did rather aggravate 



APPENDIX. 343 

than extenuate his crime ; that the motions and intimations of 
the hat were a token of superiority in conversation, and there- 
fore not to be used by the criminal to a man of the prosecutor's 
quality, who was likewise vested with a double title to the wall 
at the time of their conversation, both as it was the upper hand, 
and as it was a shelter from the weather. The evidence being 
very full and clear, the jury, without going out of court, declared 
their opinion unanimously by the mouth of their foreman, that 
the prosecutor was bound in honor to make the sun shine through 
the criminal, or, as they afterwards explained themselves, to 
whip him through the lungs. 

The censor, knitting his brows into a frown, and looking very 
sternly upon the jury, after a little pause, gave them to know, 
that this court was erected for the finding out of penalties suit- 
able to offences, and to restrain the outrages of private justice ; 
and that he expected they should moderate their verdict. The 
jury therefore retired, and, being willing to comply with the ad- 
vices of the censor, after an hour's consultation, declared their 
opinion as follows : 

" That in consideration this was Peter Plumb's first offence, 
and that there did not appear any malice prepense in it, as also 
that he lived in good reputation among his neighbors, and that 
his taking the wall was only se defendendo, the prosecutor should 
let him escape with life, and content himself with the slitting of 
his nose, and the cutting off both his ears." Mr. Bickerstaffe, 
smiling upon the court, told them, " That he thought the punish- 
ment, even under its present mitigation, too severe ; and that 
such penalties might be of ill consequence in a trading nation." 
He therefore pronounced sentence against the criminal in the 
following manner: "That his hat, which was the instrument 
of offence, should be forfeited to the court ; that the criminal 
should go to the warehouse from whence he came, and 
thence, as occasion should require, proceed to the Exchange, 
or Garraway's Coffee-house, in what manner he pleased ; but 
that neither he, nor any of the family of the Plumbs, should 
hereafter appear in the streets of London out of their coaches, 
that so the foot-way might be left open and undisturbed for their 
betters." ' 

Dathan, a peddling Jew, and T. R , a Welshman, were 

indicted by the keeper of an ale-house in Westminster, for 
breaking the peace, and two earthen mugs, in a dispute about the 
antiquity of their families, to the great detriment of the house, 



344 APPENDIX. 

and disturbance of the whole neighborhood. Dathan said for 
himself, that he was provoked to it by the Welshman, who pre- 
tended that the Welsh were an ancienter people than the Jews ; 
" Whereas," said he, " I can show by this genealogy in my hand, 
that I am the son of Mesheck, that was the son of Naboth, that 
was the son of Shalem, that was the son of ." The Welsh- 
man here interrupted him, and told him, u That he could pro- 
duce Shennalogy as well as himself; for that he was John ap 
Rice, ap Shenkin, ap Shones." He then turned himself to the 
censor, and told him in the same broken accent, and with much 
warmth, " That the Jew would needs uphold that King Cadwal- 
ladar was younger than Issachar." Mr. BickerstafTe seemed 
very much inclined to give sentence against Dathan, as being a 
Jew ; but finding reasons, by some expressions which the Welsh- 
man let fall in asserting the antiquity of his family, to suspect 
the said Welshman was a Pra3 Adamite, he suffered the jury to 
go out without any previous admonition. After some time they 
returned, and gave their verdict, that it appearing the persons 
at the bar did neither of them wear a sword, and that conse- 
quently they had no right to quarrel upon a point of honor ; to 
prevent such frivolous appeals for the future, they should both 
of them be tossed in the same blanket, and there adjust the 
superiority as they could agree it between themselves. The 
censor confirmed the verdict. 

Richard Newman was indicted by Major Punto, for having 
used the words, " Perhaps it may be so," in a dispute with the 
said Major. The Major urged, that the word, Perhaps, was 
questioning his veracity, and that it was an indirect manner of 
giving him the lie. Richard Newman had nothing more ta say 
for himself, than that he intended no such thing, and' threw him- 
self upon the mercy of the court. The jury brought in their 
verdict special. 

Mr. BickerstafTe stood up, and, after having cast his eyes over 
the whole assembly, hemmed thrice. He then acquainted them, 
that he had laid down a rule to himself, which he was resolved 
never to depart from, and which, as he conceived, would very 
much conduce to the shortening the business of the court ; " I 
mean," says he, " never to allow of the lie being given by con- 
struction, implication, or induction, but by the sole use of the 
word itself." He then proceeded to show the great mischiefs 
that had arisen to the English nation from that pernicious mono- 
syllable ; that it had bred the most fatal quarrels between the 



APPENDIX. 345 

dearest friends ; that it had frequently thinned the guards, and 
made great havoc in the army ; that it had sometimes weakened 
the city trained bands ; and, in a word, had destroyed many of 
the bravest men in the isle of Great Britain. For the prevention 
of which evils for the future, he instructed the jury to present the 
word itself as a nuisance in the English tongue ; and further 
promised them, that he would, upon such their presentment, 
publish an edict of the court, for the entire banishment and ex- 
clusion of it out of the discourses and conversation of all civil 
societies. 

This is a true copy, 

CHARLES LILLIE. 

Monday next is set apart for the trial of several female causes. 

N. B. The case of the hassock will come on between the 
hours of nine and ten. 



No. 265. Tuesday, December 19, 1710. 

Arbiter hie igitur factus de lite jocosd. Ovid. Met. 

Continuation of the Journal of the Court of Honor, &c. 

As soon as the court was sat, the ladies of the bench pre- 
sented, according to order, a table of all the laws now in force, 
relating to visits, and visiting-days, methodically digested under 
their respective heads, which the censor ordered to be laid upon 
the table, and afterwards proceeded upon the business of the day. 

Henry Heedless, Esq. was indicted by Colonel Touchy, of 
Her Majesty's trained bands, upon an action of assault and bat- 
tery : for that he, the said Mr. Heedless, having espied a feather 
upon the shoulder of the said Colonel, struck it off gently with 
the end of a walking-staff, value three-pence. It appeared that 
the prosecutor did not think himself injured till a few days after 
the aforesaid blow was given him ; but that, having ruminated 
with himself for several days, and conferred upon it with other 
officers of the militia, he concluded, that he had in effect been 
cudgelled by Mr. Heedless, and that he ought to resent it accord- 
ingly. The counsel for the prosecutor alleged, that the shoulder 
was the tenderest part in a man of honor ; that it had a natural 
antipathy to a stick ; and that every touch of it, with anything 
made in the fashion of a cane, was to be interpreted as a wound 
in that part, and a violation of the person's honor who received 



346 APPENDIX. 

it. Mr. Heedless replied, that what he had done was out of 
kindness to the prosecutor, as not thinking it proper for him to 
appear at the head of the trained bands with a feather upon his 
shoulder ; and further added, that the stick he had made use of 
on this occasion was so very small, that the prosecutor could not 
have felt it, had he broken it on his shoulders. The censor 
hereupon directed the jury to examine into the nature of the 
staff, for that a great deal would depend upon that particular. 
Upon which he explained to them the different degrees of offence 
that might be given by the touch of a crab-tree from that of a 
cane, and by the touch of a cane from that of a plain hazel 
stick. The jury, after a short perusal of the staff, declared their 
opinion, by the mouth of their foreman, that the substance of 
the staff was British oak. The censor then observing that there 
was some dust on the skirts of the criminal's coat, ordered the 
prosecutor to beat it off with the aforesaid oaken plant ; " And 
thus," said the censor, " I shall decide this by the law of retali- 
ation : if Mr. Heedless did the Colonel a good office, the Colonel 
will by this means return it in kind ; and if Mr. Heedless should 
at any time boast that he had cudgelled the Colonel, or laid his 
staff over his shoulders, the Colonel might boast, in his turn, that 
he has brushed Mr. Heedless's jacket, or (to use the phrase of an 
ingenious author) that he had rubbed him down with an oaken 
towel." 

Benjamin Busy, of London, merchant, was indicted by Jasper 
Tattle, Esq., for having pulled out his watch, and looked upon it 
thrice, while the said Esquire Tattle was giving him an account 
of the funeral of the said Esquire Tattle's first wife. The pris- 
oner alleged in his defence, that he was going to buy stocks at 
the time when he met the prosecutor ; and that, during the story 
of the prosecutor, the' said stocks rose above two per cent, to the 
great detriment of the prisoner. The prisoner further brought 
several witnesses, that the said Jasper Tattle, Esq. was a most 
notorious story-teller ; that before he met the prisoner, he had 
hindered one of the prisoner's acquaintance from the pursuit of 
his lawful business, with the account of his second marriage ; 
and that he had detained another by the button of his coat that 
very morning, till he had heard several witty sayings and con- 
trivances of the prosecutor's eldest son, who was a boy of about 
five years of age. Upon the whole matter, Mr. Bickerstaffe dis- 
missed the accusation as frivolous, and sentenced the prosecutor 
to pay damages to the prisoner for what the prisoner had lost by 



APPENDIX. 347 

giving him so long and patient a hearing. He further repri- 
manded the prosecutor very severely, and told him, " That if 
he proceeded in his usual manner to interrupt the business of 
mankind, he would set a fine upon him for every quarter of an 
hour's impertinence, and regulate the said fine according as the 
time of the person so injured should appear to be more or less 
precious. 1 ' 

Sir Paul Swash, Kt., was indicted by Peter Double, Gent., for 
not returning the bow which he received of the said Peter 
Double, on Wednesday, the 6th instant, at the Playhouse, in the 
Hay-Market. The prisoner denied the receipt of any such bow, 
and alleged in his defence, that the prosecutor would oftentimes 
look full in his face, but that when he bowed to the said prose- 
cutor, he would take no notice of it, or bow to somebody else 
that sat quite on the other side of him. He likewise alleged, 
that several ladies had complained of the prosecutor, who, after 
ogling them a quarter of an hour, upon their making a courtesy 
to him, would not return the civility of a bow. The censor ob- 
serving several glances of the prosecutor's eye, and perceiving 
that, when he talked to the court, he looked upon the jury, found 
reason to suspect that there was a wrong cast in his sight, which, 
upon examination, proved true. The censor therefore ordered 
the prisoner (that he might not produce any more confusions in 
public assemblies) never to bow to anybody whom he did not 
at the same time call to by his name. 

Oliver Bluff and Benjamin Browbeat were indicted for going 
to fight a duel since the erection of the Court of Honor. It ap- 
peared that they were both taken up in the street, as they passed 
by the court, in their way to the fields behind Montague House. 
The criminals would answer nothing for themselves, but that they 
were going to execute a challenge which had been made above 
a week before the Court of Honor was erected. The censor 
finding some reasons to suspect (by the sturdiness of their be- 
havior) that they were not so very brave as they would have 
the court believe them, ordered them both to be searched by the 
grand jury, who found a breastplate upon the one, and two 
quires of paper upon the other. The breastplate was im- 
mediately ordered to be hung upon a peg over Mr. Bickerstaffe's 
tribunal, 'and the paper to be laid upon the table for the use of 
his clerk. He then ordered the criminals to button up their 
bosoms, and, if they pleased, proceed to their duel. Upon which 
they both went very quietly out of the court, and retired to their 



348 APPENDIX. 

respective lodgings. The court then adjourned till after the holi- 
days. Copia Vera. 

CHARLES LILLIE. 



No. VII. 
EXTRACTS FROM THE SPECTATOR. 

I HAVE elsewhere (ante, p. 163) spoken in brief terms of the grief of 
Mr. Thornhill after he slew Sir Cholmeley Bering, in 1711. Addi- 
son, in No. 84 of the Spectator, relates the sorrows of the unhappy 
survivor, under the assumed name of Spinamont; and in No. 97 of 
the same work we have a continuation of his views on the subject 
of duelling generally. Both papers are inserted entire, as contain- 
ing remarks as true now as in the early part of the last century, 
whether as relates to individuals borne down and faint under the " in- 
consolable calamity " of success with the pistol, or to " the force of a 
tyrant custom" under which "the duellist kills his friend whom he 
loves." 

No. 84. Wednesday ) June 6, 1711. 

Quis talia fando 

Myrmidonum, Dolopumve, aut duri miles Ulyssei, 
Temperet a lachrymis ? Virg. ^En. ii. v. 6. 

Who can such woes relate without a tear, 
As stern Ulysses must have wept to hear? 

Looking over the old manuscript wherein the private actions 
of Pharamond are set down by way of table-book, I found many 
things which gave me great delight, and as human life turns upon 
the same principles and passions in all ages, I thought it very- 
proper to take minutes of what passed in that age for the instruc- 
tion of this. The antiquary who lent me these papers gave me 
a character of Eucrate, the favorite of Pharamond, extracted from 
an author who lived in that court. The account he gives both 
of the prince and this his faithful friend will not be improper to 
insert here, because I may have occasion to mention many of 
their conversations, into which these memorials of them may 
give light. 

" Pharamond, when he had a mind to retire for an hour or 
two from the hurry of business and fatigue of ceremony, made a 
signal to Eucrate, by putting his hand to his face, placing his 
arm negligently on a window, or some such action as appeared 



APPENDIX. 349 

indifferent to all the rest of the company. Upon such notice, 
unobserved by others, (for their entire intimacy was always a 
secret,) Eucrate repaired to his own apartment to receive the 
king. There was a secret access to this part of the court, at 
which Eucrate used to admit many whose mean appearance in 
the eyes, of the ordinary waiters and door-keepers made them 
be repulsed from other parts of the palace. Such as these were 
let in here by order of Eucrate, and had audiences of Phara- 
mond. This entrance Pharamond called ' The Gate of the Un- 
happy,' and the tears of the afflicted who came before him, he 
would say, were bribes received by Eucrate ; for Eucrate had 
the most compassionate spirit of all men living, except his gen- 
erous master, who was always kindled at the least affliction which 
was communicated to him. In regard for the miserable, Eucrate 
took particular care that the common forms of distress, and the 
idle pretenders to sorrow, about courts, who wanted only sup- 
plies to luxury, should never obtain favor by his means ; but the 
distresses which arise from the many inexplicable occurrences 
that happen among men, the unaccountable alienation of parents 
from their children, cruelty of husbands to wives, poverty occa- 
sioned from shipwreck or fire, the falling out of friends, or such 
other terrible disasters to which the life of man is exposed ; in 
cases of this nature, Eucrate was the patron ; and enjoyed this 
part of the royal favor so much without being envied, that it was 
never inquired into by whose means what no one else -careo 1 for 
doing was brought about. 

" One evening when PharanTond came into the apartment of 
Eucrate, he found him extremely dejected ; upon which he asked, 
(with a smile that was natural to him,) ' What, is there any one 
too miserable to be relieved by Pharamond, that Eucrate is mel- 
ancholy ? ' 'I fear there is,' answered the favorite, l a person 
without, of a good air, well dressed, and though a man in the 
strength of his life, seems to faint under some inconsolable ca- 
lamity. All his features seem suffused with agony of mind ; but 
I can observe in him that it is more inclined to break away in 
tears than rage. I asked him what he would have. He said 
he would speak to Pharamond. I desired his business. He could 
hardly say to me, " Eucrate, carry me to the king ; my story is 
not to be told twice, I fear I shall not be able to speak it at 
all." Pharamond commanded Eucrate to let him enter ; he did 
so, and the gentleman approached the king with an air which 
spoke him under the greatest concern in what manner to demean 
30 



350 APPENDIX. 

himself. The king, who had a quick discerning, relieved him 
from the oppression he was under, and, with the most beautiful 
complacency, said to him, " Sir, do not add to that load of sor- 
row I see in your countenance the awe of my presence. Think 
you are speaking to your friend. If the circumstances of your 
distress will admit of it, you shall find me so." To whom the 
stranger : " O excellent Pharamond, name not a friend to the 
unfortunate Spinamont. I had one, but he is dead by my own 
hand ; but, O Pharamond, though it was by the hand of Spina- 
mont, it was by the guilt of Pharamond. I come not, O excel- 
lent prince, to implore your pardon ; I come to relate my sorrow, 
a sorrow too great for human life to support ; from henceforth 
shall all occurrences appear dreams, or short intervals of amuse- 
ment, for this one affliction which has seized my very being. 
Pardon me, O Pharamond, if my griefs give me leave, that I 
lay before you in the anguish of a wounded mind, that you, good 
as you are, are guilty of the generous blood spilt this day by 
this unhappy hand. O that it had perished before that instant ! " 
Here the stranger paused, and, recollecting his mind, after some 
little meditation, he went on in a calmer tone and gesture as 
follows : 

" There is an authority due to distress, and as none of human 
race is above the reach of sorrow, none should be above the 
hearing the voice of it ; I am sure Pharamond is not. Know, 
then, that I have this morning unfortunately killed in a duel the 
man whom of all men living I most loved. I command myself 
too much in your royal presence, to say, Pharamond gave me my 
friend ! Pharamond has taken him from me ! I will not say, 
Shall the merciful Pharamond destroy his own subjects ?' Will the 
father of his country murder his people ? But the merciful Phar- 
amond does destroy his subjects, the father of his country does 
murder his people. Fortune is so much the pursuit of mankind, 
that all glory and honor is in the power of a prince, because he 
has the distribution of their fortunes. It is therefore the inad- 
vertency, negligence, or guilt of princes to let anything grow 
into custom which is against their laws. A court can make 
fashion and duty walk together ; it can never, without the guilt 
of a court, happen that it shall not be unfashionable to do what 
is unlawful. But, alas ! in the dominions of Pharamond, by the 
force of a tyrant custom, which is misnamed a point of honor, 
the duellist kills his friend whom he loves ; and the judge con- 
demns the duellist while he approves his behavior. Shame is 



APPENDIX. 351 

the greatest of all evils ; what avail laws, when death only at- 
tends the breach of them, and shame attends obedience to them ? 
As for me, Pharamond, were it possible to describe the name- 
less kinds of compunctions and tenderness I feel, when I reflect 
upon the little accidents in our former familiarity, my mind swells 
into sorrow which cannot be resisted enough to be silent in the 
presence of Pharamond." With that he fell into a flood of tears, 
and wept aloud. " Why should not Pharamond hear the anguish 
he only can relieve others from in time to come ? Let him hear 
from me, what they feel who have given death by the false mercy 
of his administration, and form to himself the vengeance called 
for by those who have perished by his negligence." R. 



No. 97. Thursday, June 21, 1711. 

Prqjecere animas Virg. ^En. vi. 436. 

They prodigally threw their lives away. 

Among the loose papers which I have frequently spoken of 
heretofore, I find a conversation between Pharamond and Eucrate 
upon the subject of duels, and the copy of an edict issued in con- 
sequence of that discourse. 

Eucrate argued, that nothing but the most severe and vindic- 
tive punishment, such as placing the bodies of the offenders in 
chains, and putting them to death by the most exquisite torments, 
would be sufficient to extirpate a crime which had so long pre- 
vailed, and was so firmly fixed in the opinion of the world as 
great and laudable. The king answered, " that indeed instances 
of ignominy were necessary in the cure of this evil ; but, consid- 
ering that it prevailed only among such as had a nicety in their 
sense of honor, and that it often happened that a duel was fought 
to save appearances to the world, when both parties were in 
their hearts in amity and reconciliation to each other, it was evi- 
dent that turning the mode another way would effectually put a 
stop to what had being only as a mode ; that to such persons 
poverty and shame were torments sufficient ; that he would not 
go further in punishing in others crimes which he was satisfied 
he himself was most guilty of, in that he might have prevented 
them by speaking his displeasure sooner." Besides which the 
king said, " he was in general averse to tortures, which was put- 
ting human nature itself, rather than the criminal, to disgrace ; 
and that he would be sure not to use this means where the crime 
was but an ill effect arising from a laudable cause, the fear of 



352 APPENDIX. 

shame." The king, at the same time, spoke with much grace 
upon the subject of mercy ; and repented of many acts of that 
kind which had a magnificent aspect in the doing, but dreadful 
.consequences in the example. " Mercy to particulars," he ob- 
served, " was cruelty in the general. That though a prince could 
not revive a dead man by taking the life of him who killed him, 
neither could he make reparation to the next that should die by 
the evil example : or answer to himself for the partiality in not 
pardoning the next as well as the former offender." " As for 
me," says Pharamond, u I have conquered France, and yet have 
given laws to my people. The laws are my methods of life ; 
they are not a diminution, but a direction to my power. I arn 
still absolute to distinguish the innocent and the virtuous, to give 
honors to the brave and generous ; I am absolute in my good- 
will ; none can oppose my bounty, or prescribe rules for my 
favor. While I can, as I please, reward the good, I am under 
no pain that I cannot pardon the wicked : for which reason," con- 
tinued Pharamond, " I will effectually put a stop to this evil, by 
exposing no more the tenderness of my nature to the importunity 
of having the same respect to those who are miserable by their 
fault, and those who are so by their misfortune. Flatterers," 
concluded the king, smiling, " repeat to us princes, that we are 
Heaven's vicegerents ; let us be so, and let the only thing out of 
our power be to do ill." 

Soon after the evening wherein Pharamond and Eucrate had 
this conversation, the following edict was published against 
duels : 

Pharamond's Edict against Duels. 

" PHARAMOND, King of the Gauls, to all his loving subjects send- 

eth greeting. 

" Whereas it has come to our royal notice and observation, that 
in contempt of all laws, divine and human, it is of late become a 
custom among the nobility and gentry of this our kingdom, upon 
slight and trivial, as well as great and urgent provocations, to in- 
vite each other into the field, there by their own hands, and of 
their own authority, to decide their controversies by combat ; we 
have thought fit to take the said custom into our royal considera- 
tion, and find, upon inquiry into the usual causes whereon such 
fatal decisions have arisen, that by this wicked custom, maugre 
all the precepts of our holy religion, and the rules of right rea- 
son, the greatest act of the human mind, forgiveness of injuries, 



APPENDIX. 353 

is become vile and shameful ; that the rules of good society and 
virtuous conversation are hereby inverted ; that the loose, the 
vain, and the impudent insult the careful, the discreet, and the 
modest ; that all virtue is suppressed, and all vice supported, in 
the one act of being capable to dare to the death. We have 
also further, with great sorrow of mind, observed that this dread- 
ful action, by long impunity (our royal attention being employed 
upon matters of more general concern) is become honorable, and 
the refusal to engage in it ignominious. In these our royal cares 
and inquiries, we are yet further made to understand, that the 
persons of most eminent worth and most hopeful abilities, accom- 
panied with the strongest passion for true glory, are such as are 
most liable to be involved in the dangers arising from this license. 
Now taking the said premises into our serious consideration, and 
well weighing that all such emergencies (wherein the mind is 
incapable of commanding itself, and where the injury is too sud- 
den or too exquisite to be borne) are particularly provided for by 
laws heretofore enacted ; and that the qualities of less injuries, 
like those of ingratitude, are too nice and delicate to come under 
general rules ; we do resolve to blot this fashion, or wantonness 
of anger, out of the minds of our subjects, by our royal resolu- 
tions declared in this edict as follow : 

" No person who either sends or accepts a challenge, or the 
posterity of either, though no death ensues thereupon, shall be, 
after the publication of this our edict, capable of bearing office 
in these our dominions. 

u The person who shall prove the sending or receiving a chal- 
lenge, shall receive to his own use and property the whole per- 
sonal estate of both parties ; and their real estate shall be imme- 
diately vested in the next heir of the offenders, in as ample 
manner as if the said offenders were actually deceased. 

" In cases where the laws (which we have already granted to 
our subjects) admit of an appeal for blood, when the criminal 
is condemned by the said appeal, he shall not only suffer death, 
but his whole estate, real, mixed, and personal, shall from the 
hour of his death be vested in the next heir of the person whose 
blood he spilt. 

u That it shall not hereafter be in our royal power, or that of 
our successors, to pardon the said offences, or restore the offend- 
ers in their estates, honors, or blood, for ever. 

" Given at our court at Blois, the 8th of February, 420, in the 
second year of our reign." T. 

30* 



354 APPENDIX. 

No. VIII. 
FROM THE GUARDIAN. 

" Blois, May 15, N. S. 

" SIR, Because I am at present out of the road of news, I 
shall send you a story that was lately given me by a gentleman 
of this country, who is descended from one of the persons con- 
cerned in the relation, and very inquisitive to know if there be 
any of the family now in England. 

" I shall only premise to it, that this story is preserved with 
great care among the writings of this gentleman's family, and 
that it has been given to two or three of our English nobility, 
when they were in these parts, who could not return any satis- 
factory answer to the gentleman, whether there be any of that 
family now remaining in Great Britain. 

" In the reign of King John there lived a nobleman called John 
de Sigonia, lord of that place in Tourraine. His brothers were 
Philip and Briant. Briant, when very young, was made one of 
the French king's pages, and served him in that quality when he 
was taken prisoner by the English. The king of England 
chanced to see the youth, and, being much pleased with his per- 
son and behavior, begged him of the king his prisoner. It hap- 
pened, some years after this, that John, the other brother, who 
in the course of the war had raised himself to a considerable post 
in the French army, was taken prisoner by Briant, who at that 
time was an officer in the king of England's guards. Briant 
knew nothing of his brother, and, being naturally of a haughty 
temper, treated him very insolently, and more like a criminal 
than a prisoner of war. This John resented so highly, that he 
challenged him to a single combat. The challenge was accepted, 
and time and place assigned them by the king's appointment. 
Both appeared on the day prefixed, and entered the lists com- 
pletely armed, amidst a great multitude of spectators. Their 
first encounters were very furious, and the success equal on both 
sides ; till, after some toil and bloodshed, they were parted by 
their seconds to fetch breath, and prepare themselves afresh for 
the combat. Briant, in the mean time, had cast his eye upon his 
brother's escutcheon, which he saw agree in all points with his 
own. I need not tell you after this with what joy and surprise 
the story ends. King Edward, who knew all the particulars of 



APPENDIX. 355 

it, as a mark of his esteem, gave to each of them, by the king of 
France's consent, the following coat of arms, which I will send 
you in the original language, not being herald enough to blazon 
it in English." 

"Le Roi d" 1 Angleterre, par permission du Roi de France, pour 
perpetuelle memoir e de leurs grands fails d^armes et fidelite en- 
ters leurs rois, leur donna par ampliation a leurs armes en une 
croix d^argent cantonee de quatre coquilles d"*or en champ de 
sable, quails avoient auparavant,une endenteleuse faite enfacons 
de croix de gueulle inseree au dedans de la ditte croix d^argent 
et par le milieu d^icelle qui est participation des deux croix que 
portent les dits rois en la guerre" 



No. IX. 
RIDICULOUS QUARRELS. 

THE Lady Honoria and her daughter Flavia, with their lovers, Dick 
Crastin and Tom Tulip, are not creatures of the imagination. They 
exist in real life, in every age of the world. The Dicks and Toms of 
onr day and country are not often the lovers of a parent and her child, 
and do not often quarrel for the precise causes related in the Spectator; 
but they do fall out, and the Dicks do send challenges, on grounds quite 
as ridiculous as did those of England in the time of Queen Anne. In- 
deed, several stories not wholly unlike that told of the lovers of the 
ladies who, in the year 1711, lived " within the liberties of the city of 
Westminster," would have appeared in the appropriate places in this 
work, but for reasons which are obvious without explanation. It is suf- 
ficient for my purpose to employ the polished pen of Addison to illus- 
trate a class of gallants who conduct themselves in a manner to excite the 
mirth of neighborhoods. 

Thursday, June 14, 1711. 

In furias ignemque ruunt : amor omnibus idem. 

Virg. Georg. iii. 244. 

They rush into the flame ; 
For love is lord of all, and is in all the same. Dryden. 

Though the subject I am now going upon would be much more 
properly the foundation of a comedy, I cannot forbear inserting 
the circumstance which pleased me in the account a young 
lady gave me of the loves of a family in town, which shall be 



356 APPENDIX. 

nameless ; or rather, for the better sound and elevation of the 
history, instead of Mr. and Mrs. Such-a-one, I shall call them by 
feigned names. Without further preface, you are to know, that 
within the liberties of the city of Westminster lives the Lady 
Honoria, a widow about the age of forty, of a healthy constitu- 
tion, gay temper, and elegant person. She dresses a little too 
much like a girl, affects a childish fondness in the tone of her 
voice, sometimes a pretty sullenness in the leaning of her head, 
and now and then a downcast of her eyes on her fan. Neither 
her imagination nor her health would ever give her to know that 
she is turned of twenty ; but that in the midst of these pretty 
softnesses, and airs of delicacy and attraction, she has a tall 
daughter within a fortnight of fifteen, who impertinently comes 
into the room, and towers so much towards woman, that her 
mother is always checked by her presence, and every charm of 
Honoria droops at the entrance of Flavia. The agreeable Flavia 
would be what she is not, as well as her mother Honoria ; but all 
their beholders are more partial to an affectation of what a per- 
son is growing up to, than of what has been already enjoyed, and 
is gone for ever. It is therefore allowed to Flavia to look for- 
ward, but not to Honoria to look back. Flavia is no way de- 
pendent on her mother with relation to her fortune, for which 
reason they live almost upon an equality in conversation ; and a>s 
Honoria has given Flavia to understand that it is ill-bred to be 
always calling mother, Flavia is as well pleased never to be called 
child. It happens by this means, that these ladies are generally 
rivals in all places where they appear ; and the words mother 
and daughter never pass between them but out of spite. Flavia 
one night at a play, observing Honoria draw the eyes of several 
in the pit, called to a lady who sat by her, and bid her ask her 
mother to lend her her snuff-box for a moment. Another time, 
when a lover of Honoria was on his knees, beseeching the favor 
to kiss her hand, Flavia rushing into the room, kneeled down by 
him and asked her blessing. Several of these contradictory acts 
of duty have raised between them such a coldness, that they gen- 
erally converse when they are in mixed company by way of 
talking at one another, and not to one another. Honoria is ever 
complaining of a certain sufficiency in the young women of this 
age, who assume to themselves an authority of carrying all things 
before them, as if they were possessors of the esteem of mankind, 
and all who were but a year before them in the world were neg- 
lected or deceased. Flavia, upon such provocation, is sure to 



APPENDIX. 357 

observe, that there are people who can resign nothing, and know 
not how to give up what they know they cannot hold ; that there 
are those who will not allow youth their follies, not because they 
are themselves past them, but because they love to continue in 
them. These beauties rival each other on all occasions ; not 
that they have always had the same lovers, but each has kept up 
a vanity to show the other the charms of her lover. Dick Cras- 
tin and Tom Tulip, among many others, have of late been pre- 
tenders in this family ; Dick to Honoria, Tom to Flavia. Dick 
is the only surviving beau of the last age, and Tom almost the 
only one that keeps up that order of men in this. 

I wish I could repeat the little circumstances of a conversation 
of the four lovers, with the spirit in which the young lady I had 
my account from represented it, at a visit where I had the honor 
to be present ; but it seems Dick Crastiri, the admirer of Honoria, 
and Tom Tulip, the pretender to Flavia, were purposely admit- 
ted together by the ladies, that each might show the other that 
her lover had the superiority in the accomplishments of that sort 
of creature whom the sillier part of women call a fine gentle- 
man. As this age has a much more gross taste in courtship, as 
well as in everything else, than the last had, these gentlemen 
are instances of it in their different manner of application. 
Tulip is ever making allusions to the vigor of his person, the 
sinewy force of his make ; while Crastin professes a wary ob- 
servation of the turns of his mistress's mind. Tulip gives himself 
the air of a resistless ravisher, Crastin practises that of a skilful 
lover. Poetry is the inseparable property of every man in love ; 
and as men of wit write verses on those occasions, the rest of the 
world repeat the verses of others. These servants of the ladies 
were used to imitate their manner of conversation, and allude to- 
one another, rather than interchange discourse in what they said 
when they met. Tulip the other day seized his mistress's hand, 
and repeated out of Ovid's Art of Love : 

" 'T is I can in soft battles pass the night, 
Yet rise next morning vigorous for the fight, 
Fresh as the day, and active as the light." 

Upon hearing this, Crastin, with an air of deference, played 
with Honoria's fan, and repeated : 

" Sedley has that prevailing gentle art, 
That can with a resistless charm impart 
The loosest wishes to the chastest heart: 
Kaise such a conflict, kindle such a fire, 



358 APPENDIX. 

Between declining virtue and desire, 

Till the poor vanquished maid dissolves away, 

In dreams all night, in sighs and tears all day." * 

When Crastin had uttered these verses with a tenderness 
which at once spoke passion and respect, Honoria cast a trium- 
phant glance at Flavia, as exulting in the elegance of Crastin's 
courtship, and upbraiding her with the homeliness of Tulip's. 
Tulip understood the reproach, and in return began to applaud 
the wisdom of old amorous gentlemen, who 'turned their mis- 
tress's imagination as far as possible from what they had long 
themselves forgot, and ended his discourse with a sly commenda- 
tion of the doctrine of Platonic love ; at the same time he ran 
over, with a laughing eye, Crastin's thin legs, meagre looks, and 
spare body. The old gentleman immediately left the room with 
some disorder, and the conversation fell upon untimely passion, 
after-love, and unseasonable youth. Tulip sung, danced, moved 
before the glass, led his mistress half a minuet, hummed 

" Celia the fair, in the bloom of fifteen ! " 

when there came a servant with a letter to him, which was as 
follows : 

" SIR, I understand very well what you meant by your 
mention of Platonic love. I shall be glad to meet you immedi- 
ately in Hyde Park, or behind Montague House, or attend you to 
Barn Elms, or any other fashionable place that's fit for a gentle- 
man to die in, that you shall appoint for,, sir, 

" Your most humble servant, 

" RICHARD CRASTIN." 

Tulip's color changed at the reading of this epistle ; for which 
reason his mistress snatched it to read the contents. While she 
was doing so, Tulip went away ; and the ladies, now agreeing in 
a common calamity, bewailed together the danger of their lovers. 
They immediately undressed to go out, and took hackneys to 
prevent mischief; but, after alarming all parts of the town, Cras- 
tin was found by his widow in his pumps at Hyde Park, which 
appointment Tulip never kept, but made his escape into the 
country. Flavia tears her hair for his inglorious safety, curses 
and despises-her charmer, and is fallen into love with Crastin: 
which is the first part of the history of the rival mother. R. 

* Lord Rochester's Imitation of the First Satire of Horace. 



APPENDIX. 359 

No. X. 
DEATH OF HON. JONATHAN CILLEY. 

Extracts from the Debate in the House of Representatives, on 
Wednesday, February 28, 1838. 

HON. JOHN FAIRFIELD, of Maine, as soon as the Journal was 
read, rose, and asked leave to offer the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That a committee consisting of seven members be 
appointed to investigate the causes which led to the death of the 
Hon. Jonathan Cilley, late a member of this House, and the 
circumstances connected therewith, and report thereon to the 
House. 

" Resolved, That said committee have power to send for per- 
sons and papers, and have leave to sit during the sessions of the 
House." 

The rules were suspended, when Mr. Fairfield said : " Mr. 
President, entertaining the views and feelings which I do enter- 
tain in regard to the awful tragedy in which certain members of 
this House lately participated, I could not refrain from offering 
the resolutions which have just been read. Sir, if I had held 
back, and refused to move in this affair, ' the voice of my broth- 
er's blood would cry to me from the ground.' My late col- 
league and friend has been shot down and deprived of life in a 
manner, and under circumstances, that seem to me most impe- 
riously to demand an investigation. It is due to the surviving 
family and friends of the deceased, that we should take cogni- 
zance of this affair ; it is due to ourselves, to our country, to 
humanity, and to God ; and I trust that no member will shrink 
from the high and solemn responsibility thus cast upon him. 
But, aside from the peculiar circumstances of this case, and our 
peculiar duties resulting from them, it appears to me that an 
opportunity is presented, which every good man should be quick 
to improve, for assailing the barbarous and inhuman practice of 
duelling, a practice which does violence to the laws of God, 
to the best feelings of our own nature, and to the dictates of 
reason, a practice which is entirely behind and unworthy of 
the age of civilization in which we live, and which should unite 
the earnest and faithful efforts of every friend to his species for 
its extermination." 

He was followed by the Hon. William Cost Johnson, of Mary- 



360 APPENDIX. 

land, who remarked that he had voted against the suspension of 
the rules to introduce these resolutions, because, on hearing them 
read, he came to the conclusion that no good could result from 
them. No one could feel greater grief than himself at the ca- 
lamity which befell the friends of the gentleman whose death we 
all now mourned, but he had voted against bringing in these res- 
olutions because he did not know what power Congress had to 
suppress duelling. It was an evil in the state of society which 
made it necessary in some cases for gentlemen to resort to this 
mode of settling personal disputes, and he much regretted that 
it was so ; but he did not apprehend that this inquiry was going 
to correct the evil, or that any salutary good could be effected 
by this inquiry. As to the particulars in this case, if it was de- 
sired to obtain them, the morning papers gave all the facts and 
circumstances connected with it ; and if it was intended to enact 
an anti-duelling law, he would ask where, under the Constitution, 
you obtained the right to enact it. That was a matter which 
belonged to the States alone, and many of them have passed 
laws on this subject ; and, in his opinion, it would be a usurpa- 
tion of power for Congress to undertake to act on this subject. 
He should vote against this resolution, because he considered that 
it would be a reflection upon all the parties connected with the 
unfortunate occurrence alluded to in the resolution. He looked 
upon it as reflecting upon the wisdom and the justice of the par- 
ties engaged in it. He would ask any gentleman, if either of 
these parties had been guilty of any moral delinquency, or of 
any act which would bring him so far within the rules and laws 
of the House as to justify his expulsion ? If any gentleman 
would rise in his place, and state that either of them had violated 
the rules of honor, or done any act which would make him an 
unfit associate for the members of this House, he would go as far 
as any one to have this inquiry instituted ; he would vote, not 
only for a committee of inquiry, but he would vote to expel such 
individual from the House ; and he would almost go to expel 
him from off the face of the earth. But no such thing had been 
intimated against any member of the House t and what right have 
we to go into this matter 1 What right have we to inquire into 
the private relations of gentlemen ? What right have we to in- 
stitute ourselves into a board of honor to inquire into a matter 
of this kind 1 * He would tell gentlemen that it would be an 

* The italics are the author's. 



APPENDIX. 361 

unpleasant duty to serve on a committee of this kind, and that it 
would require more than ordinary nerve to serve on it. He 
would tell them that, if this committee was raised, it would be 
the occasion of much strife and difficulty. He should not like 
to serve on such a committee unless he should prepare himself 
at once for such encounters. He considered it entirely im- 
proper that the House should agitate this question at the present 
time. 

The Hon. Amasa J. Parker, of New York, said he regretted 
that he found himself compelled to differ in opinion from his 
friend from Maryland (Mr. Johnson) ; that he had heard from 
him no good reason expressed against the adoption of the reso- 
lutions. It was said that Congress had no power to legislate on 
this subject, and that that power was reserved to the States. 
Surely Congress has the power to act in reference to the District 
of Columbia, and it could not be denied that the House of Rep- 
resentatives had jurisdiction over its own members. His friend 
had said, that, if any member would state on this floor that the 
unfortunate transaction had not been conducted according to the 
rules of the " code of honor," he would vote for this resolution. 
Mr. P. said he made no assertion of that kind. He did not pro- 
fess to be skilled in the nice technicality of those rules, as they 
were understood by some gentlemen here ; that with his con- 
stituents the rules of honor were the rules of law, religion, and 
morality ; but he would say that the transaction referred to 
was a violation of the laws of God and man, and called impe- 
riously upon this House to guard against the recurrence of such 
heart-rending scenes ; and every consideration of duty to the 
public and to ourselves required prompt and decisive action. 
His friend had said that the reference of this subject to a com- 
mittee would probably lead to further collision, and a repetition 
of personal conflict. Mr. P. said he could not believe it. He 
had yet to learn that a member of this House could not on this 
floor, or in committee, fearlessly express his opinions, and dis- 
charge his duty, without fear of a personal attack. He had no 
fears on that subject for himself. 

He admitted that, if the committee were to t>e confined to the 
question whether " the code of honor " had been departed from, 
personal controversy might grow out of it. Gentlemen might 
well differ in discussing unwritten rules of such cobweb fineness, 
and about which, sir, honorable gentlemen might well differ in 
opinion. Sir, that committee would look beyond such limits ; 
31 



362 APPENDIX. 

they would have in view the honor and character of the nation 
and of this House, and the general welfare of the people. 

It was said public opinion sanctioned the practice of duelling. 
He thought otherwise ; and he was sure it would not be coun- 
tenanced in those sections of the country with which he was fa- 
miliar. But if public sentiment tolerated such a practice in any 
part of the country, it was the more important to adopt such 
measures on this occasion as would serve to correct it. He cer- 
tainly was not disposed to act too hastily. It was proper to refer 
the matter to a committee. They would act deliberately, and 
he hoped would recommend some measures that would remedy 
the evil. He should therefore vote for the resolutions. 

Mr. Dawson said that no gentlemen regretted more than him- 
self the unfortunate occurrence which had taken place, but he 
considered that, when we were about to involve the feelings ot 
all the gentlemen connected with the affair, we ought to pause 
before we acted. He would inquire of gentlemen what the 
result of this inquiry would be, and what benefit could accrue 
to the community from it. He admitted that Congress had a 
right to pass a law to prohibit duelling in the District of Colum- 
bia, and for such a measure, when brought forward, he would 
vote ; but he would ask gentlemen what good was expected to 
result from this inquiry. This matter had no relation to the 
business of the public, so that, if it was gone into, it must be 
looked upon as an inquiry into the private doings of the mem- 
bers of the House out of these walls, and apart from their legis- 
lative character. In his opinion, this inquiry would only add to 
the excitement, and bring the state of the public mind to such 
lengths, as might be regretted by all of us. 

If gentlemen desired by this inquiry to get arguments in favor 
of a law to prohibit duelling, he thought there was no necessity 
for it, because, in his opinion, no argument was needed to sup- 
port such a measure. In the name of morality and of religion, 
he would say, let such a law be passed ; but he would regret to 
see an inquiry of this kind instituted. Pass such a law, and do 
all that can be done in future to prevent it, but do not institute 
an inquiry into thd present case for the purpose of gratifying the 
public mind, or for any other purpose. He referred to the dif- 
ficulty of making an inquiry into a matter which had been con- 
ducted solely upon the principles of honor* which were only 

* The italics are the author's. 



APPENDIX. 363 

recognized by a portion of our people, and trusted that the 
House would be satisfied by adopting a remedy for the future, 
without going into an examination of the past. To vote for 
such a proposition as that would be as far as he could go, and 
he hoped the House would go no further. 



No. XI. 
DUELLING IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Extracts from the Delate in the Senate of the United States, on 
the Passage of " The Bill to prohibit the giving or accepting 
a Challenge in the District of Columbia to fight a Duel, and 
for the Punishment thereof" in March and April, 1838. 

The HON. THOMAS CLAYTON, of Delaware, on the 30th of 
March, expressed his objections to duelling in a very pointed 
manner, and his sincere desire to do all in his power to suppress 
it. He very much doubted, however, the efficacy of the bill 
before them. Such was the severity of some of its provisions, 
that it would be next to impossible to procure convictions under 
it. And there were other objections which he could not recon- 
cile to his mind. One of the provisions sought to make the 
sending of a challenge felony, which was only a misdemeanor 
in the eye of the common law. Mr. Clayton argued the subject 
at considerable length. He thought the provisions of the bill were 
not calculated to subserve the purposes for which they were in- 
tended. While he admitted the practice of duelling to be both 
illegal and immoral, yet he said it was not of that class of crimes 
which should subject offenders to the cells of a penitentiary, and 
make them the associates of the vilest felons. There was noth- 
ing in the offence that was either base, mean, or sordid ; neither 
were those likely to be engaged in it persons whom we would 
dare to send to a penitentiary, to be classed with thieves and 
vagabonds. The moral sense of the community would be 
shocked at such a measure, and such a law would be rendered a 
mere nullity, from the interference of the Executive prerogative. 
He deprecated duelling as much as any man could do, and was 
disposed to go all reasonable lengths to prevent it. On the 
whole, he believed some legal provision necessary. If he could 
get the modification he desired, he would vote for the bill as 



364 



APPENDIX. 



amended by the Judiciary Committee, although he sincerely be- 
lieved it would not have the good effect its friends designed. 

Mr. Pr.entiss, of Vermont, replied at some length, contending 
that the practice of duelling was condemned by all laws, human 
and divine ; that it was regarded as a crime by every govern- 
ment in Christendom, was subversive of the great principles of 
the Christian religion, and ought not to be tolerated by any 
Christian people. Mr. P. looked as- much to the moral power 
that this law would have, as to its penal enactments. He asked 
if any man of honor could allow himself to fight a duel after the 
passage of such a law ? The subject was, in his opinion, a mo- 
mentous one. We were acting not for the present time, but the 
passage of this bill would have its due weight on all after gen- 
erations. The people of this country expect, nay, demand of us, 
some enactment by which this odious and sinful practice may 
be discontinued and for ever prevented. 

Mr. Linn, of Missouri, was of opinion that the Senator from 
Delaware had treated the subject with so much sound practical 
sense, that little else could be left to be said on the subject. 
What community (said Mr. L.) could be found that would pro- 
nounce a man either a murderer or a felon, who might have 
chanced to kill another in fair and equal combat ? No man, he 
was persuaded, that came to act on his responsibility as a juror, 
would be prepared to render such a verdict. Many of the States 
had passed severe penal enactments in relation to this matter, 
and yet where was the State where such laws had been carried 
into effect? Other legislatures again had sought milder remedies, 
such as punishing duelling by disfranchising their citizens, ren- 
dering them for ever after incapable of holding offices of profit 
or trust, honor or emolument ; such laws, he maintained, had a 
more wholesome action than those severe, unjust, and cruel en- 
actments, because the one was generally carried into effect, 
while the other was little better than a dead letter. To illustrate 
the effect of public opinion on this subject, Mr. L. instanced a 
case in his own State, where the people were as much adverse 
to fighting as those of any other in the Union, (though he was 
aware that a contrary opinion prevailed among many in relation 
to Missouri,) where a small man, for a supposed offence, was 
cruelly lashed by a large one, the result of which was a chal- 
lenge on the part of the small one to fight, in which duel the 
large man was shot twice, the last wound mortal. The survivor 
was found guilty under the laws of Missouri, when a petition was 



APPENDIX. 365 

got up, signed almost unanimously by the people, and pre- 
sented to the Legislature, Which body remitted the penalties 
almost by acclamation ; and so Mr. L. said it would be in all 
like easels, either the Legislature or Executive would step in to 
counteract the law. If such a bill could be introduced as would 
strike at the root of the evil, it would cheerfully have his sup- 
port. He was aware that duelling was not defensible on princi- 
ples of Christianity, neither was national warfare ; and yet how 
frequently had it been engaged in, and justly too, by Christian 
nations. All the Legislatures of the Union have concurred in 
denouncing the practice of duelling as evil in itself, and yet have 
we not seen them come in to stay the laws. From what little 
he had seen, it appeared to him that fighting was like marrying, 
the more barriers that were erected against it, the surer were 
they to come together. 

Mr. Smith, of Connecticut, spoke long and vehemently in 
favor of the bill, maintaining that all enactments against crime 
had grown out of some past act of villany that shocked the moral 
sense of the community. The object of this law was not so 
much to prevent those fond of duelling from engaging in it, as 
to protect those coming from States where the people were not 
fond of murder or killing in any shape. For his own part he 
was not afraid of any man with pistol or sword ; but he advo- 
cated the bill to protect the representatives of New England 
from those gentlemanly assassins or banditti, who might seek to 
call them out for words spoken in debate, and shoot them in a 
fair and gentlemanly manner. Mr. S. alluded, in no measured 
terms, to the late transaction, in which a representative had lost 
his life ; and said, if the instigator of that murder had been in 
Connecticut, he would no more have escaped than if he had 
gone up and shot down his victim in the street. Mr. S. was for 
arresting this practice in its incipiency, by striking at once at 
the root of the evil, and making all persons, however remotely 
concerned, punishable. He thought the man that advised to 
such a step was as bad as the principal, and would treat him 
accordingly. Mr. S. could not draw any distinction between a 
murder in a duel, and out of it ; and he maintained there was 
none, save that which grew out of the morbid imagination of 
gentlemen on such matters. Was not the effect the same to the 
bereaved wife, the children, made orphans ? and was not the 
moral sense of the community alike shocked ? These were 
questions for the advocates of duelling to answer. He thought 
31* 



366 APPENIHX. 

the country bound to erect some barrier against this infamous 
system, or by and by the people, who send their representa- 
tives to Congress, would have to accompany them with a body- 
guard, armed with swords and pistols for their protection. If a 
man would, in contravention of the laws of God and man, seek 
to fight duels, he (Mr. S.) was clear for inflicting upon him that 
punishment which should be meted to the criminal of the worst 
dye. 

Mr. Clayton spoke some time in favor of an amendment which 
he offered, to wit, subjecting persons engaged in a duel to im- 
prisonment for a term not exceeding two years, and a fine not 
exceeding two thousand dollars, and to be made for ever after 
ineligible to any office within the gift of the government. Mr. 
C. dwelt on the efficacy of such laws in his own State, where 
duelling was once quite common, but had now entirely ceased. 
Even the shooting of pistols, which had been practised as an 
amusement, had, since the passage of the law, gone entirely out 
of fashion. 

Mr. Grundy, of Tennessee, felt disposed to act in this matter 
without reference to any occurrences of recent date ; he had 
found it best, in all subjects of legislation, not to allude to topics 
calculated to excite. In the year 1829, an act (which he had 
some agency in compiling), somewhat similar to this in its pro- 
visions, was passed by the Legislature of Tennessee, providing 
for the punishment of not less than three nor more than ten 
years' confinement. There was also some penalty inflicted 
upon the sending of a challenge, and he thought that law had 
acted beneficially, as duels were certainly less frequent in his 
State since its passage. Mr. G. thought, if this bill were passed, 
or something like it in its provisions, that it would have a pow- 
erful effect on public opinion, and certainly no man that voted 
for it could ever fight a duel afterwards. All the Senate could 
do was to provide such enactments as were deemed best calcu- 
lated to put a stop to the practice, though he was aware that, 
after all their care, cases might arise where the laws would not 
be likely to bind. Duelling had no advocates in the abstract, 
and all united in condemning it, and yet there were times when 
it was persisted in notwithstanding. Mr. G. could not agree 
with Senators, that the difficulty of conviction in such case rested 
with the juries, as such persons were generally opposed to it ; 
but he rather thought it owing to the difficulty of obtaining proof 
to convict. The seconds were in 'the eye of the law particeps 



APPENDIX. 367 

criminis, and either would not attend, or if they did, under the 
plea of not criminating themselves, would refuse to answer. He 
was not prepared to say that the amendment of the Senator 
from Delaware might not have the happiest effect, for the 
thought of being deprived of the power to hold office was a 
severer punishment, in the eyes of some people, even than ten 
years' confinement in the penitentiary. 

The further consideration of the bill was postponed, and the 
Senate went into the consideration of executive business at four 
o'clock, and remained until near five ; and then adjourned. 

Mr. Preston, of South Carolina, on the 5th of April, said he 
had no objection to the passage of a law against duelling, al- 
though he believed that the common law, if properly enforced, 
was abundantly sufficient. It might be that additional legisla- 
tion was necessary to enforce it ; but if so, it was worthy the 
consideration of gentlemen who urged this measure, whether 
the insufficiency of the common law was not induced by a state 
of public opinion, (whether intelligent or not he would not stop 
to inquire,) which was averse to the stern execution of the law 
applicable to duelling. If this were so, the object which gentle- 
men had in view would not be attained by the introduction of 
other and sterner penalties. On the contrary, he (Mr. P.) 
thought they made the law more inefficient when they made it 
more severe, because it became more opposed to public sen- 
timent. 

The practice of duelling, Mr. P. said, originated in, and was 
sustained by, public opinion ; and so long as it was sustained, it 
would prevail, in despite of law, on that principle which had 
passed into a proverb, that when public opinion sets its face 
against the measure, no law would be requisite. Gentlemen 
who were advocating this measure seemed to think that laws 
against duelling had, in many instances, been successful in sup- 
pressing it. In that he thought they were mistaken, at least to 
the extent of the influence which they claimed for those laws. 
It might have happened, in a particular case, that public opinion, 
by some gross abuse of the practice, had been so raised against 
it, that the enactment of new laws had strengthened and consol- 
idated the feeling of the community, so as to bring the institution 
of duelling into disrepute. Such was the case in Virginia ; but 
whether that State had succeeded in checking the passions 
which gave rise to challenges, or had merely forced them 
into some more violent forms of ebullition, remained yet to be 



368 APPENDIX. 

seen. Duelling had undoubtedly produced much folly and much 
misery, but at the same time it had mitigated the indulgence of 
revengeful passions, which, taking the milder and more delib- 
erate course, evaporated entirely, or assumed a less atrocious 
form. 

The day following, Mr. Linn, referring to the remarks of Mr. 
Hubbard, of New Hampshire, said if the gentleman would show 
him a case in any of the States where a man concerned in a 
duel had been pronounced a murderer, or sent to the peniten- 
tiary, then his remarks would apply. As he remarked the other 
day, he wanted to see a law passed that would produce some 
practical effects, not such a law that a jury could not be found 
to carry it into execution. He had seen the effects of such laws 
in his own State. There the punishment for fighting a duel, 
where death ensued, was death, and yet men fought duels as if 
no law existed at all. But they had now a law in his State 
which was more effectual for the prevention of duelling than 
any law that had ever been passed. In cases of assault, all 
abusive words and defamatory language went to the jury in 
mitigation of the offence 

Mr. Benton. As a justification. 

Mr. Linn. Yes, sir, as a justification ; and if that abusive 
member^ the tongue, was permitted to have too free a license, 
the same license was permitted to the injured individual to re- 
dress his grievance. He thought, if the same law was applied to 
the Senate of the United States, there would be a little more de- 
corum than he had sometimes witnessed. This law, of which 
he had spoken, had had a better effect in the prevention of duel- 
ling than any that had ever been passed, and he thought it would 
be better for the peace and harmony of society if such a law 
was more generally prevalent throughout the United States. 

Mr. Hubbard thought their legislation should be governed by 
the wisdom and propriety of the measure, leaving the execution 
of the laws to those who had them in charge. 

Mr. Sevier, of Arkansas, the only Senator who voted against 
the bill, on the same day, as officially reported, spoke in these 
terms : Although he was no friend to duelling, yet he dis- 
liked this bill from one end of it to the other. He believed it 
was a bill wholly for the protection of members of Congress, 
who, not satisfied with the protection afforded them by the Con- 
stitution, of exemption from arrest and from being sued for 
words used in debate, wanted the additional protection of this 



APPENDIX. 369 

bill. A man is vilified and abused in one of the houses of 
Congress, and he, of course, will expect the offender to give him 
satisfaction in some way or other, and this bill says he shall not 
have it. What, then, will be the consequence ? Why, some- 
thing like the affair of Houston and Stansberry ; the injured man 
will take the law into his own hands, chastise the traducer, and 
then he will be brought up to the bar of the House, from whence, 
after five or six weeks are unprofitably consumed in the exami- 
nation, he will be dismissed with a reprimand. This bill was 
avowedly made to protect members of Congress, and to protect 
them from what ? Why, to protect them in abusing their mas- 
ters, the people who sent them here. It amounted to this, 
and no more. Individuals coming to this city, or residing here, 
may go out and fight, and be killed too, and nothing is said of 
it ; but let a member of Congress be killed in a duel, or be 
whipped in the streets, or kicked out of a boarding-house, and 
the business of the nation must be set aside to legislate on itr-N,If 
the object was solely to suppress duelling, and not for the pro- 
tection of the members, why not pass a law to prevent it in our 
other Territories as well as in the District of Columbia ? Why 
not include Wisconsin and Florida, and our forts and arsenals ? 
He thought this District was already sufficiently disfranchised, 
and he would not add any more to its disabilities. Members of 
Congress might talk of Tom, Dick, or Harry as they pleased, 
and could not be sued for slander ; and now they would take 
away from the injured individual the only remedy left him. I 
am opposed, continued Mr. S., to passing laws for our own pro- 
tection, because if you pass one, the same reasons will operate 
in passing another ; and the next time Mr. Stansberry, or Mr. 
any-body-else, is whipped by Houston, every member of Con- 
gress must have a corporal's guard to protect him in passing 
from his boarding-house to the Capitol. Now he would ask if 
the people of the United States would be willing to be taxed for 
any such purpose, for it would take at least three thousand men 
to furnish a corporal's guard for each member, and they must 
therefore have an additional army, or leave the frontiers ex- 
posed. He was satisfied tlrat more importance was attached to 
this subject than it deserved, and he believed, out of one thou- 
sand duels, nine out of every ten of them were fought for causes 
that could not be got over any other way. He knew that duels 
were frequently fought for trivial causes, but he was convinced 
that it was otherwise in a vast majority of cases. He held him- 



370 APPENDIX. 

self responsible for everything he said on that floor, and he 
would not give a vote to take away that responsibility. He did 
not, by this, mean to say that he would fight everybody or no- 
body ; that he would think of when the occasion required ; but 
this he did say, that he was not going to shield himself by his 
vote on this bill from the consequences that might be brought on 
him by his own language. 

Mr. Niles, of Connecticut, in defending an amendment to the 
bill which he introduced, and in reply to Mr. Sevier, said that he 
could not agree with his friend from Arkansas, that this bill was 
for the protection of members of Congress only. It had a much 
higher object in view, that of suppressing an odious and crim- 
inal practice, and of securing the perfect independence of the 
representatives of the people. His friend from Arkansas seemed 
to be ambitious of martyrdom, and wanted to be shot at. Now, 
he would have no objection to introducing an amendment to ex- 
empt his friend from the operation of the bill, but he was anxious 
that it should pass for the benefit of those who had no wish, like 
him, to run against the muzzle of a gun. 

The bill was read the third time on the 9th of April. Mr. 
Clay was the last to address the Senate. His speech was brief 
and comprehensive. He said that he had taken no part in the 
discussion which had been going on in relation to this matter, 
not, however, from any indisposition on his part to do all that he 
could to aid in the very laudable objects contemplated by the 
bill. No man would be happier than himself to see the whole 
barbarous system for ever eradicated. It was well known that, 
in certain quarters of this country, public opinion was averse to 
duelling, and no man could fly in the face of that public opinion, 
without having his reputation sacrificed ; while there were other 
portions, again, which exacted obedience to the fatal custom. 
The man with a high sense of honor, and nice sensibility, when 
the question is whether he shall fight or have the finger of scorn 
pointed at him, is unable to resist, and few, very few, are found 
willing to adopt such an alternative. When public opinion was 
renovated, and chastened by reason, religion, and humanity, the 
practice of duelling would at once be discountenanced. It was 
the office of legislation to do all it could to bring about this 
healthful state of the public mind, and although it might not 
altogether effect so desirable a result, yet he had no doubt it 
would do much towards it, and with those views he would give 
his vote for the bill. 



APPENDIX. 371 

Mr. Hubbard asked for the yeas and nays on the passage ; 
which were ordered, when there appeared for the bill thirty-four, 
against it one, as follows : 

Yeas. Messrs. Allen, Benton, Buchanan, Clay of Alabama, 
Clay of Kentucky, Clayton, Davis, Fulton, Grundy, Hubbard, 
Lumpkin, Lyon, McKean, Merrick, Mouton, Niles, Norvell, 
Prentiss, Roane, Robbins, Robinson, Ruggles, Smith of Connect- 
icut, Smith of Indiana, Strange, Swift, Tipton, Trotter, Walker, 
Wall, White, Williams, Wright, and Young. 34. 

Nays. Mr. Sevier. 1. 



No. XII. 
JUDGE PIKTLE ON DUELLING. 

[From the Louisville (Ky.) Journal, March, 1849.] 

JUDGE PIRTLE, in his late valedictory address to the gradu- 
ating law class in this city, made some excellent and forcible 
remarks upon the important subject of duelling. He denounced 
the practice in the strongest language, as rude and coarse, and 
full of horrid crime. He defined the just office of a young man 
who might be called as the friend of another on any occasion 
of offended honor, and showed that oftentimes the blame of death 
rests on the imprudent course of him who stands in the office of 
a friend. He charged the young men to attend no man to the 
field who would persist in the wrong, the wrong alone disgraced 
a man. He denounced the mode of battle sometimes practised, 
even in this age, with gun and pistol and knife, and the fight to 
the death, as unchivalrous, barbarous, and savage, having noth- 
ing but vengeance and murder in it, and unredeemed by a shade 
of honor, such as true knighthood would scorn. 



No. XIII. 
DUELLING CUSTOMS. 

CHAMBERS, in the Edinburgh Journal (1837), thus concludes 
an article with the above title : 

" Although divines have preached, and moralists have railed, against 



372 APPENDIX. 

tliis bloody usage, it still prevails to a lesser or greater extent in every 
country in Europe, and is almost daily producing the most fatal results 
in America. There are evidently two reasons for its protracted exist- 
ence. Public opinion is in an unhealthy state upon the subject; there 
is too ready a disposition to sneer at the man who would refuse to peril 
his life in a deadly conflict, no matter how unjustifiable the cause. The 
law, also, is miserably defective in reference to duelling, defective 
either in the letter or in the mode of its execution. We venture to 
predict, that if killing in a duel were visited with the usual capital pun- 
ishment for murder, only in one instance, no more would be heard of 
the practice of duelling. But neither the people at large who compose 
the juries, nor the judicial executive, possess sufficient nerve to carry 
so effectual a mode of reform into operation. We have known of many 
murders committed in duels, but never heard of one instance of the 
murderer being carried to the gallows for his crime. In the midst of 
this- stupid apathy on an evil of so hideous a nature, it is gratifying to 
find that more clear perceptions of the crime of killing in duel are be- 
ginning to be entertained in France, where private fighting has always 
been more general than elsewhere. In a trial of a person charged with 
killing another in a duel, before the criminal court of Paris, Monsieur 
Dupin, an eminent member of the legislature, maintained, in a speech 
of great force and eloquence, that the practice was not only immoral 
and Antichristian, but illegal, and that any one who slew another in a 
duel was guilty of murder. The adoption of these views by the judges 
of the court must necessarily be extremely beneficial in a country 
where the laws have been understood rather to favor than to punish 
these private assassinations. We should be glad to hear similar senti- 
ments delivered in an English criminal court." 



No. XIV. 
THE SWORD-PLAYERS OF THE LAST CENTURY. 

The 436th number of the Spectator contains an account of the 
challenge of James Miller, " master of the noble science of 
defence," to Timothy Buck, who claimed to possess equal skill, 
and to the combat which followed in the " Bear Garden, at 
Hockley in the Hole " ; and were there not ample evidence to 
show that the scenes which Addison describes were frequent, we 
should almost incline to believe, that, for some of his incidents, 
he drew upon his imagination, so barbarous does the custom of 
men hacking one another with swords, for the mere amusement 
of themselves and others, appear to us. 



APPENDIX. 373 

The article from Chambers, written in 1835, which follows, 
will give the reader an idea of that diversion in the British Isles, 
as well as disclose the fact that noblemen and foreign ministers 
were voluntary and interested witnesses of it. The change 
affords reason to hope that the barbarous practice to which this 
volume is specially devoted may disappear also. While the 
knowledge that " sword-players" were objects of admiration as 
late as Addison's time should teach our English brethren charity 
and moderation in their remarks about those who use bowie- 
knives and shot-guns on the borders of American civilization. 

" Those who are shocked by the descriptions of the gladiatorial scenes 
exhibited on so large a scale, and with circumstances of such monstrous 
barbarity, in ancient Rome, will be still more so when informed that 
practices similar in kind, if less remarkable in degree, were common in 
our own country till within the last hundred years. At the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, a place of amusement called the Bear 
Garden at Hockley in the Hole, in or near London, was devoted to 
amusements of this description, which were not only resorted to by the 
lower population, but by noblemen, and occasionally even by the resident 
ambassadors. Men, styling themselves professors of the noble art of 
defence, and occasionally assuming the title of champion for particular 
English counties, were either stationary at that place of exhibition, 
where they defied all competitors, or went about the country, challen- 
ging particular towns to furnish them with an antagonist ; a failure in 
which could only be expiated by a purse of gold to purchase their de- 
parture. The professors of this barbarous art were in many cases 
Irishmen ; and that there was at least one eminent proficient who 
claimed Scotland for his place of birth is proved by a scarce old volume 
in which is chronicled the life of Donald Bane, a man who had origi- 
nally been a soldier, but afterwards gained a subsistence by teaching 
the broadsword, and occasionally taking a purse by prize-fighting. On 
the days when there was to be a fight at Hockley, they used to adver- 
tise the circumstance, by parading the streets in fancy dresses, with 
swords drawn, colors flying, drums beating, and a few officials whose 
duty it was to disperse bills of the performance. The offensiyeness of 
these promenades is alluded to in terms of bitter reprobation in a pre- 
sentment of the grand jury of London in June, 1701 ; but they were not 
finally put down for full thirty years after that period. 

"In 1725, one Figg entertained the public at an amphitheatre in the 
Oxford Road, where, on one occasion, Button, the champion of Kent, 
and & female of the same county, fought Stokes and his wife, for forty 
pounds, to be given to the male or female who gave most cuts with the 
sword, and twenty pounds for the most blows at quarter-staff, besides 
the collection in the box. Two years later appeared the following 
advertisement : ' In Islington Road, on Monday, the 1 7th of July 
32 



374 APPENDIX. 

1727, will be performed a trial of skill by the following combatants. 
" We, Robert Barker and Mary Welsh, from Ireland, having often con- 
taminated our swords with such antagonists as had the insolence to dis- 
pute our skill, do find ourselves once more necessitated to challenge, defy, 
and invite Mr. Stokes and his bold Amazonian virago to meet us on the 
stage, where we hope to give a satisfaction to the honorable lord of our 
nation who has laid a wager of twenty guineas on our heads. They 
that give the most cuts to have the whole money, and the benefit of the 
house ; and if swords, daggers, quarter-staif, fury, rage, and resolution 
will prevail, our friends shall not meet with a disappointment." " We, 
James and Elizabeth Stokes, of the city of London, having already 
given an universal approbation by our agility of body, dexterous hands, 
and courageous hearts, need not perambulate on this occasion, but 
rather choose to exercise the sword to their sorrow, and corroborate the 
general opinion of the town, than to follow the custom of our repartee 
antagonists. This will be the last time of Mrs. Stokes's performing on the 
stage." There will be a door on purpose for the reception of the gen- 
tlemen, where coaches may drive up, and the company come in without 
being crowded. Attendance will be given at three, and the combatants 
mount at six precisely. They all fight in the same dresses as before.' 
In October, 1730, Mr. Figg fought his two hundred and seventy-first 
battle with a Mr. Holmes, whose wrist he cut to the bone. It does not 
appear, however, that these horrible exhibitions were ever attended 
with a mortal result : such an event would have probably put an end 
to them. 

" At a somewhat later period, an Irish sword-player, named O'Bryan, 
who had beaten all the combatants at the Bear Garden, and various in- 
dividuals in other parts of the kingdom, paid a visit to Edinburgh, 
where, according to his custom, he challenged the inhabitants to pro- 
duce an antagonist, under the usual penalty. That a breach of the 
peace of this monstrous character was then tolerated, or such an exac- 
tion submitted to, in a populous and not unenlightened _city, may well 
excite surprise ; but if we only reflect on how much custom will recon- 
cile us to, our wonder may in some measure cease. O'Bryan had been 
in the city for some weeks, daily parading through its streets to pro- 
claim his challenge, when the Duke of Hamilton, then residing in Holy- 
rood House, sent for Donald Bane, the teacher of the broadsword 
already mentioned, with the view of engaging him to take up the cause 
of the citizens. When Bane arrived at the palace, the Duke of Argyle 
happened to be present, and, as an old commander of the veteran 
swordsman, entered heartily into the project. ' Has lie a drum ? ' said 
Bane. ' Yes,' answered Argyle, ' and a very clever, stout fellow he 
is, I assure you.' ' You may make yourself easy as to that,' replied 
Bane, ' for I have broken his drum already.' This was really the case ; 
for meeting O'Bryan at the foot of the West Bow, where he was, in no 
very courteous terms, defying the whole of Scotland, the patriotic blood 
of the Caledonian had become excited, and he drove his foot through 
the one end of the drum and his fist through the other, as a first mtirna- 



APPENDIX. 375 

tion of his acceptance of the challenge. An agreement, indeed, had 
already been made between O'Bryan and Bane to fight on that day 
week. It was nevertheless thought necessary that a reply to the chal- 
lenge should be published, in fair, set terms, and in Latin verse ; a fact 
which strikingly proves the interest taken in these sanguinary proceed- 
ings by persons of the better order.* Donald being now sixty-six 
years of age, some fears were entertained by his friends* for his success 
in the encounter; and tradition represents his chief asking if he' thought 
he were i yauld enough' for O'Bryan.f On this the veteran pulled 
out his claymore and made it whistle in the air over his head, a suffi- 
ciently expressive test of his strength of arm. As he passed along the 
street, some of the by-standers said, * Ah, Donald 's failed ; I doubt 
he '11 no do ' ; whereupon he leaped up to a lamp-iron far above the 
reach of ordinary men, hung by one hand for a moment, and, springing 
down, exclaimed, ' She '11 do yet.' The stage was erected in St. 
Anne's Yards, at the back of the cavalry green attached to the palace ; 
and the conflict, which lasted several hours, andr was tried with a variety 
of weapons, terminated in a declaration of victory in favor of the native 
combatant, who, at the conclusion, found the boards covered with gold 
and silver, thrown there for him by the admiring spectators. 

" These facts must be allowed to denote a remarkable change of man- 
ners in our island, for, though boxing is still occasionally practised, and 
sometimes with more fatal effects, it is obvious that a more barbarous 
and brutalized character is necessary to endure the sight of a fight with 
edged weapons, than one in which the hands only are employed. A 
lesson may be taken by persons in authority and by public writers from 
the history of British gladiatorship. Such exhibitions, it is evident, 
were regarded a century ago with much the same feelings which are 
now experienced in reference to boxing. Morality stamped it as an 
abominable vice, and such every authority and every public writer of 
the least elevation of character must have esteemed it. But the exist- 
ence of the practice tended to avert due reprobation from it, and was 
the means of its prolongation. In the same way, boxing cannot now 
be defended for a moment, when considered with a reference to mo- 



* This answer was entitled, " Donaldi Bani famigerati ad Andreae O'Bryan 
chartam provocatoriam Responsum," and commenced as follows : 

" Ipse ego Donaldus Banus, forma albus et altus, 
Non huic Andrea thrasoni occurrere decro," &c. 

It might be thus translated into English : " I, Donald Bane, fair-complexioned 
and tall, shall not fail to enter the lists with this bully Andrew. With 
Heaven's assistance, and as a friend to my country, I will go to meet him, 
who, unskilled in the art, daringly challenges me to the combat. In a short 
time, when we have entered upon the fight, brave men admitted to behold us 
will perhaps see that the pugilist O'Bryan is, as I believe, not so expert a 
master of the art of fencing. Whether he have a protection or a patron, my 
weapon will render him an idle capon." 
t Yauld, agile, with vigor. 



376 APPENDIX. 

rality. But, nevertheless, the existence of the practice is a kind of de- 
fence to it, putting us upon suggesting all sorts of empty reasons for 
tolerating it, such as its tending to keep up a manly and martial spirit 
in a commercial community, which we have heard seriously urged in its 
favor. Were it once suppressed, we should wonder that it ever exist- 
ed, as we wonder at the obsolete amusement of sword-playing, so much 
are we liable to be affected, in our judgment of an abuse, by the fact of 
its being or not being. Could we, by any moral argument, more effec- 
tually urge the propriety of utterly extinguishing the degrading sports 
of the ring ? " 



No. XV. 
THE DUELLIST. 

[From Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, 1835.] 

A FOREIGNER who has lately written a work upon England 
mentions that Englishmen are cowards, j they do not fight duels, 
but content themselves occasionally with boxing. The writer is 
very ill acquainted with the people of this country who could 
pen such nonsense as this. If duelling be not practised amongst 
us, it is because Englishmen we speak of the middle classes 
have more good sense than to resort to such idiotic and murder- 
ous means of settling disputes. Besides, there is respect for the 
law, not to speak of moral and religious obligation. The man 
who either sends or accepts a challenge to fight with weapons 
calculated to produce death, must in the eye of sober reason be 
presumed to act from villanous or exceedingly foolish consider- 
ations ; although not less unworthy is the conduct which can lead 
to so fatal a kind of strife. True courage has, in most respects, 
nothing to do with fighting. Any ruffian can fight. The evil 
passions are able to prompt men to face death from the worst of 
motives. True courage is associated with a strong perception 
of right and wrong, and will exert itself only in a good cause. 
The man who risks his life to save that of another, or to rescue 
his country from an imminent danger, exhibits this description 
of courage in its best light. Fortunately, by the spread of intel- 
ligence and the increased power of law and magisterial author- 
ity, the practice of duelling is wellnigh banished from Great 
Britain, and has taken up its abode in those Continental countries 
where common sense yet exerts but feeble influence, and where 



APPENDIX. 377 

the law does not consider the duellist as a murderer by intent. 
At Paris, duels have ever been common, the great arena for 
such encounters being the Bois de Boulogne, a woody park beyond 
the barriers on the west. Here many an unfortunate wretch has 
fallen a victim to erroneous principles of honor. The following 
relation of one of these brutal encounters, in which an English- 
man of rank was engaged, is given in a novel recently published, 
under the title of the " Unfortunate Man." 

" Villeneuve, a most notable villain, was one day surprised by 
young Talbot, whilst instilling his venom of deception into the ear 
of his sister. The words which passed were few. Suspicions 
- and anonymous letters had already awakened the vigilance of 
the brother, and had prepared him to wreak ample vengeance 
on the shoulders of Villeneuve. The blow could not be excused ; 
a meeting took place, and the usual barrier-duel was proposed. 
To this the young Englishman most positively dissented. He 
had heard that, day after day, and morning after morning, his 
adversary was to be seen popping at fifty paces at little plaster- 
of- Paris figures, about the size of a thimble, and that, thanks to 
his patience, his practice, and his own pistols, the aim was un- 
erring. The ' Tir au Pistolet,' now a very general resort of all 
young Frenchmen, in order to prepare them to commit murder, 
was likewise the resort of Villeneuve. He was a proficient, 
a cool, dead shot ; cool from the knowledge of his own powers, 
and that coolness always gives courage when challenged. He 
smiled, as much as to say, 4 It is immaterial to me ' ; and the next 
morning he was with his second at the appointed spot. ' I will 
not,' said young Talbot, ' consent to be shot like a chicken at a 
stake. I know I have no chance that way of obtaining redress 
for the injury my family have received. I know that my death 
is certain, even at fifty paces, and I am resolved to have a chance 
for my life ; so just tell that French officer that the only way I 
will consent to fight is to have one pistol loaded and the other 
not, to draw for first choice, and then to stand within a pace of 
each other ; and may Heaven direct the choice of him whose 
cause is the most just ! ' It is strange, that even before battles 
men pray to be assisted by a beneficent, benevolent Creator in 
the work of destruction, as if the mingled hosts dealing out death 
and destruction, the rude charge of cavalry, or the shock of in- 
fantry, could be pleasant to the eyes of Him who made us, who 
gave us life, and has taught us how to live ! To return thanks 
after the battle is another thing : we may safely return thanks 
32* 



378 APPENDIX. 

that we have been spared to repent of our murders ; but there is 
something quite revolting to Christianity in the belief that the 
Supreme Being mingles in the contest, or that the results can be 
gratifying to an all-merciful God. Villeneuve did not make the 
slightest objection to the proposition of Talbot's second, although 
several of his own countrymen, who had come on the pleasant 
excursion to witness the fight, strongly and vainly endeavored 
to persuade their friend to leave his life to a better chance. The 
preparation did not take long. The pistols, both being of course 
exactly alike, were loaded by the seconds, and enveloped in a 
large silk handkerchief. The first choice fell to the lot of Vil- 
leneuve, who, placing his hand on the weapons, endeavored to 
choose the heaviest ; but he who is to stand such a dreadful 
hazard as the one proposed must be more than a man in courage, 
if in such a moment he is cool enough to discriminate between 
weights to which a single small bullet gives the preponderance. 
He fixed upon the one he thought the heaviest, and the other 
was given to Talbot. They took their respective grounds, and 
so close that the muzzle of each man's pistol touched his adver- 
sary. Talbot expressed himself as ready to die as to commit 
the murder, but there was no alternative ; he himself had pro- 
posed the mode of fighting, and the ungenerous precaution taken 
by his adversary gave him a little more of the murderous inten- 
tion than his otherwise truly English feeling could have per- 
mitted. Men face some dreadful sights, but few have seen the 
parallel to this ; neither is it to be thought of by my readers 
as the mere effusion of an imaginary brain. The duel in 
question actually took place, and if the names were changed, 
every particular would be true. Dreadful must it have been for 
the friends of each ; the certain knowledge that one must fall, 
the excitement, the agitation, the hope, the expectation, almost 
placed the by-standers in as great an apprehension as the princi- 
pals. When both were placed on thfe ground, the seconds of 
each advanced, and took a last farewell. Talbot shook his 
friend's hand with an earnest trepidation ; he merely whispered 
a few words, and, with a faint smile and fainter accent, said, 
4 Good by.' Villeneuve appeared as unconcerned as if he were 
a casual spectator ; he spoke quick and rapidly ; nodded to one 
or two of the company, more as a recognition than as a parting; 
and had taken leave of his second before Talbot had ended his 
low whisper. The words given were merely, 'Are you ready?' 
then, ' Fire !' Both pistols went off on the second, and both men 



APPENDIX. 379 

fell. Villeneuve only turned upon his side, and almost instan- 
taneously died. Talbot was lifted immediately ; the closeness 
of the pistol at the discharge had knocked him down, and his 
face was a little injured by the powder ; but his worst feeling 
was that of disgust, when he saw his fallen enemy dead at his 
feet. The whirl of the brain left him reasonless for some mo- 
ments, and he fixed his excited eyes upon the corpse ; he was 
hurried from the spot in a dreadful state, and many months 
elapsed before he was perfectly restored to health, or even rea- 
son. There lay Villeneuve, the sworn foe to all Englishmen, 
having met the fate of almost all professed duellists. He died 
with a smile of contempt upon his countenance. One of his 
companions threw his cloak over the corpse ; many looked on 
in silence. There was not a word spoken ; the stillness of death 
had extended itself to the spectators, who one by one retired 
with cautious footsteps, as if fearing to awaken the slumbers of 
him who had gone to his long account, and who had left behind 
him a memory so tarnished that friendship would gladly forget 
it, and had made the enmity he bore to our countrymen a kind 
of entailed curse upon his survivors." 



No. XVI. 
TRIFLES TO AMUSE, AND YET WITH A LESSON. 

WESTON, of facetious memory ^ having borrowed on note the 
sum of five pounds, and failing in payment, the gentleman who 
had lent the money took occasion to talk of it in a public coffee- 
house, which caused Weston to send him a challenge. 

Being in the field, the gentleman, a little tender in point of 
courage, offered him the note to make it up, to which our hero 
readily consented, and had the note delivered. 

" But now," said the gentleman, " if we should return without 
fighting, our companions will laugh at us ; therefore let us give 
one another a slight scratch, and say we wounded each other. 

" With all my heart," says Weston ; " come, I '11 wound you 
first." 

So, drawing his sword, he whipped it through the fleshy part 
of his antagonist's arm, till he brought the very tears into his 
eyes. 



380 APPENDIX. 

This done, and the wound tied up with a handkerchief, 
" Come," said the gentleman, " where shall I wound you ? " 

VVeston, putting himself in a posture of defence, replied, 
" Where you can, sir ; where you can." 



Two young men, members of a political club at Bromberg, 
fell into dispute upon the German question. One, an uncom- 
promising German unionist, argued that, much as he loved his 
native land (Prussia), he loved Germany infinitely more, and 
unless German unity could be accomplished, Prussia would be 
lost ; and therefore he declared himself against all specific 
Prussian-doms, and consequently against the Prussian cockade, 
its symbol. The other, who is what is called a stock-Preussier 
(Prussian to the backbone), took fire at the last words, which he 
regarded as an insult to the Prussian cockade and colors, and so, 
in lieu of argument, he retorted by saying, " Sir, you are a piti- 
ful fellow." Whereupon the unionist, though sorely vexed at 
seeing his argument thus uncivilly cut short, bowed calmly and 
said, " I never reply to an insult by insults ; you shall hear from 
me." After twenty-four hours' consideration, and in perfect 
harmony with the maxims of universal peace, he sat down and 
addressed the following letter to his antagonist : " Sir, your yes- 
terday's insult demands satisfaction ; but as I am a married man 
I do not choose to set my life on a chance. I therefore propose 
that we shall fire with pistols at a mark, in the presence of our 
seconds, and whoever makes the best shot shall receive a one 
hundred dollar share, bearing five per cent, interest, in the Vol- 
untary Loan. By this means you can satisfy your patriotism 
and my honor. Yours, &c." The Prussian laughed in his 
sleeve at this singular challenge, more^ singular than the beer 
duels of the university students, and accepted it ; little dis- 
posed, however, to change his " pitiful " opinion of the chal- 
lenger. Well, out they went, seconds and all, to the shooting- 
ground, and, as it was declared that both were unpractised shots, 
the chances were equal. So, after measuring distance and 
loading pistols, with all the gravity of a murderous conflict, pop 
went the challenger, and hit the bull's-eye, and bang went the 
challenged, and missed the target ; whereupon the seconds inter- 
fered, and condemned the loser to book up. And there the affair 
ended, to the universal merriment of the usually pugnacious 
town of Bromberg. 



APPENDIX. 381 

IN THE UNITED STATES, 1853. 

A COUPLE of young men, in the lower part of , had a 

difficulty about a young lady, in the course of which a banter 
was given for a fight. It was at length agreed that it should be 
a duel, and the weapons pistols. Seconds were chosen, and the 
preliminaries agreed on. To keep the courage of the principals 
from taking the direction of Bob Acres's, and oozing out of their 
finger-ends, they were privately informed that the pistols would 
be loaded only with powder. One evening in the latter part of 
last week the parties proceeded to the Plank Road, the ground 
was measured, and a pair of villanous-looking horse-pistols pre- 
sented to the combatants, and the word given. At the discharge, 
one of the parties, dexterously smearing his face with some red 
liquid and uttering a groan, fell heavily to the ground. His op- 
ponent, astounded at the result, was coolly informed by his 
second that his pistol was loaded right. Dropping his pistol, he 
rushed forward, imploring the wounded man to speak, but was 
answered only by groans, as if in great pain. Convinced that 
he had dangerously, if not fatally, wounded his antagonist, he 
started full run to make his escape, and next morning about day- 
light reached his brother's, about ten miles from . 

Here the whole family, including his mother, were startled by 

the revelation, and the brother with all speed came to , 

and, taking up some funds, several hundred dollars, his mother 
had in a bank, to employ counsel, &c. on behalf of his brother, 

came on to to ascertain the state of the wounded man, 

and found that his brother was the victim of a hoax. 



GALIGNANI tells us that a singular duel took place recently in 
the Bois de Boulogne. Two coachmen who had long felt ill- 
blood for each other, and had never met without squabbling, 
stood again in the presence of each other, when one of them 
said, " Our quarrelling has now lasted too long ; it is time to put 
an end to it. Let us have one fight, and let that be the last. 
We neither of us understand anything of sword or pistol ; let us 
fight with our whips ! " and they set to accordingly. 



DUELLING ON THE AUSTRIAN FRONTIER. 

ON the borders of Austria and Turkey, where a private pique 
or quarrel of an individual might occasion the massacre of a 



382 APPENDIX. 

family or village, the desolation of a province, and perhaps even 
the more extended horrors of a national war, whensoever any 
serious dispute arises between two subjects of the different 
empires, to terminate it recourse is had to what is called u the 
custom of the frontier." A spacious plain or field is selected, 
whither, on an appointed day, judges of the respective nations 
repair, accompanied by all those whom curiosity or interest may 
assemble. The combatants are not restricted in the choice or 
number of their arms, or in their method of fighting, but each is 
at liberty to employ whatsoever he conceives is most advan- 
tageous to himself, and avail himself of every artifice to insure 
his own safety and destroy the life of his' antagonist. One of the 
last times that this method of deciding a quarrel on the frontiers 
was resorted to, the circumstances were sufficiently curious. The 
phlegmatic German, armed with the most desperate weapon in 
the world, a rifle pistol, mounted on a carabine stock, placed 
himself in the middle of the field; and, conscious that he would 
infallibly destroy his enemy if he could once get him within 
shot, began coolly to smoke his pipe. The Turk, on the con- 
trary, with a pistol on one side and a pistol on the other, and two 
more in his holsters, and two more in his breast, and a carabine 
at his back, and a sabre by his side, and a dagger in his belt, 
advanced like a moving magazine, and, galloping round his ad- 
versary, kept incessantly firing at him. The German, conscious 
that little or no danger was to be apprehended from such a 
marksman with such weapons, deliberately continued to smoke 
his pipe. The Turk at length perceiving a sort of little explo- 
sion, as if his antagonist's pistol had missed fire, advanced like 
lightning to cut him down, and almost immediately was shot 
dead. The wily German had put some gunpowder into his 
pipe, the light of which his enemy mistook, as the other had 
foreseen would be the case, for a flash in the pan ; and, no 
longer fearing the superior skill and superior arms of his adver- 
sary, fell a victim to them both when seconded by artifice. 
Flowers of Anecdote. 



DUEL OF TWO GASCONS. 

Two Gascons having a quarrel, a challenge passed between 
them. When they were come to the ground, one of them said 
to the other, who was in a posture to commence the combat, 
" Ah, my friend, how you charm me ! I shall regret exces- 



APPENDIX. 383 

sively to kill so fine a fellow as you. Ask your life, and I will 
grant it to you." The other said that he was not come to that 
pass yet, but was prepared to defend himself. The first speaker 
repeated his kind offer : " Ah, my good fellow, do ask your 
life ; I will willingly give it you." But the other, who saw 
through his fanfaronade, called upon him instantly to stand to his 
defence, that the fight might be commenced. " Ah ! " said the 
first, " I do admire the fine appearance you make in your pos- 
ture : you are a perfect Csesar. Why should such a fine fellow 
be caused to bite the dust ? Will you really not ask your life ? " 
" No, no," thundered out the other ; " defend yourself, or I will 
kill you." " You ravish me ! " cried the man of mercy. " But 
if you are determined not to ask your life of me, why, I ask 
mine of you I *' 



HOW A DUEL MAY BE GOT UP. 

THIS affair of the duel is worth recording. It happened thus : 
" That was a very beautiful ostrich-plume which Miss Smith 
wore at the race ball last night," said I. " 1 thought it the 
ugliest thing I ever saw," remarked Captain Brown. " It cer- 
tainly was not ugly," I replied ; " but, of course, there may be 
different opinions as to its beauty. I, for instance, thought it 
very beautiful." " And I thought it very ugly," responded Cap- 
tain Brown ; " as ugly as Miss Smith herself." " Miss Smith is 
not exactly handsome, I allow," was my answer ; " but a lady 
may not be handsome, and yet not ugly." " Every one to his 
taste," said Captain Brown, with what I considere4 an insulting 
air ; and then added, " Every Jack has his Gill ! " " Miss Smith 
is no Gill of mine," I replied. " I did not say she was," said 
Captain Brown, and laughed. " And I am no Jack," I continued, 
nettled by his laugh. " I did not say- you were," said Captain 
Brown, fiercely ; " but if you want to make a quarrel of it, you 
may. I say again, and I have as much right to say what I say, 
as you have to say what you say, that Miss Smith's ostrich-plume 
was ugly, as ugly as Miss Smith herself." " Since you put it thus 
offensively, Captain Brown," I retorted, " I now maintain there 
w"as nothing ugly, no, not anything ugly at all, either in Miss 
Smith's feathers or Miss Smith herself. I'll not be browbeaten by 
any man, Captain Brown ! " " Sir, you are insolent ! " exclaimed 



384 APPENDIX. 

Captain Brown, looking as scarlet as his own jacket. " Very 
likely ; but I always make it a rule to conduct myself towards 
persons as they deserve," and I turned upon my heel to quit the 
room. Captain Brown followed me to the door. " You shall 
hear from me in an hour," said he. " In half an hour, if you 
like," said I, and walked away, boiling with indignation. 

Before I heard from Captain Brown, I was as cool as a cucum- 
ber. I saw all the folly of my situation. I had never spoken to 
Miss Smith in my life. What was it to me, then, whether her 
ostrich-plume was beautiful or ugly, or she herself handsome or 
a fright ? I resolved to treat the matter with ridicule. It would 
be preposterous to go out for such a cause. We should be the 
laughing-stock of all our friends and acquaintance. These were 
my first thoughts, when my mind was calm enough for thought 
to take the place of feeling. Besides, I might be shot through 
the body ; and all for what ? a silly dispute about Miss Smith 
and her feathers ! I did not like the idea. I determined I would 
not, make an affair of honor of it. But what would the world 
say, if Captain Brown posted me as a coward, or horsewhipped 
me, or if I were pointed at as a man who had sneaked out of a 
duel by a voluntary apology ? These were my second thoughts. 
They carried the day, after a sharp struggle with my first. I 
determined I would make an affair of honor of it. I did so. I 
met Captain Brown the next morning at sunrise, and I sacrificed 
one of my fingers, besides the risk of sacrificing my life, in de- 
fence of Miss Smith's personal charms and the disputed pulchri- 
tude of her ostrich-plume. New Monthly Magazine. 



No. XVII. 
DUELLING: A TALE OF WOE. 

[ From Bentley's Miscellany.] 

THERE is a trait in Irish character which I have always con- 
ceived to be naturally chivalrous, and that is a general dislike to 
seek in courts of law a momentary compensation for honor out- 
raged through woman's folly. In England, reparation for loss oT 
services is considered a thing as correctly reclaimable as loss of 
profit on a broken contract for a cargo of seal-oil or guano ; while 



APPENDIX. 385 

in the sister kingdom, in nine cases out of ten, the man who 
works upon the weakness of a wife, or trifles with the affections 
of a sister, is not subjected to the assessment on amounts of in- 
jury by the computation of a jury, but summoned to give per- 
sonal satisfaction in the field. Many a fatal case, recorded in the 
annals of Irish duelling, will tell how frequently profligate suc- 
cess has paid, in turn, a bloody penalty. 

In caricaturing. Milesian manners and feelings, it has been 
asserted that you could not look at a Cork lady at a supper- 
table but she graciously murmured, " Port, if you please ! " or 
dance a second time with a man's sister, that he was not certain 
to drop in next morning, before you dressed, to inquire whether 
your intentions to the young lady were matrimonial. That a 
number of unhappy marriages have been effected by pistol in- 
tervention, is too true ; and I recollect one sad case where the 
love was on the lady's side, and a fine-spirited and honorable 
young fellow, with all before him that could promise happiness, 
was suddenly removed from existence ere the third week closed 
that followed as bright a union as could be fancied. 

R was remarkably handsome, and those personal advan- 
tages were enhanced by the total unconsciousness that he pos- 
sessed them. A young lady saw, loved ; and remembering what 
Viola's friends suffered from concealment, she saved the damask 
of her cheek, and intimated to the gentleman the state of her af- 
fections. In reply, poor R candidly confided his situation 

to the lady. He had wooed and won the only woman he loved, 
and the next Monday would Bless him with her hand. 

Harriette M was handsome, self-willed, rich, and proud 

as Lucifer. R in fortune was her equal, but in birth a 

caste below. The circumstance, however, that embittered her 
rejection and if rejection be humiliating to a man, how fear- 
fully must it agonize the woman who, perverting conventional 
usages, sues when she should be sought, supplicates what she 
should conceal, and is rejected ? 

" Heaven has no rage like love to hatred turned, 
Nor hell a fury like a woman spurned." 

And for whom had her hand and fortune been declined ? The 
daughter of a village curate ; rich in nothing but youth, and in- 
nocence, and beauty. 

The Devil never prompts a delinquency, that he does not man- 
age to supply a tool. George Pemberton was Harriette's kinsman, 
33 



386 APPENDIX. 

a Lieutenant in the th, wretchedly poor, and his regiment an ex- 
pensive one. His manners were assuming ; and, with an empty 
purse, how many slights will an ill-tempered individual experi- 
ence, should he have the misfortune of being gazetted to a crack 
corps ? George Pemberton was returning, on leave between 
returns, to raise a small sum of money ; or, failing, to sell out ; 
and he found his cousin Harriette all alone, five minuets after 
the Chronicle had been received, detailing, in glowing lan- 
guage, the beauty of the bride, as being in perfect keeping with 
that of the handsomest man who, for years, had sworn conjugal 
allegiance at the altar. " The happy couple," the paper added, 
" had gone to to spend the honeymoon." 

In such frames of mind, and under such circumstances, the 
cousins met. Pemberton, in right of his relationship, would 
have saluted his fair kinswoman ; but she drew her face away, 
and, looking contemptuously at his short and shapeless person, 
coolly observed, 

" Palm to palm must do, George ; for, i' faith ! you are too 
ugly even for a cousin to kiss ! " 

" As handsome and as insolent as ever ! Why, Harriette, I ex- 
pected to have seen a willow wreath and pallid cheek. You 
bear your throw-over patiently." 

The lady's brows contracted, and she haughtily waved her 
hand. 

" Enough ! no more of this. I know your business here. 
You want two hundred pounds, and my father will not advance 
as many pence, were it to save your neck, and not your com- 
mission." 

" Then I must send in my papers, and leave the th." 

" Unless some fool is found who will lend money to a gentle- 
man, who, on six shillings a day, keeps a pair of hunters ! " 
observed the lady. 

Pemberton looked sulky and displeased. 

" Nay, George, on my conscience, thou art ill-favored enough, 
without knitting those beetle brows together. I have the money. 
Would you earn it ? " 

" I would go to the Devil," was the reply, " rather than quit 
the th from sheer poverty. What shall I do ? " 

She turned her dark and lightning eyes on his, and, after a 
pause of half a minute, pointed with her finger to the paragraph 
which announced the hated marriage. Then, dropping her 
voice to an emphatic whisper, she laid her lips close to her kins- 
man's ear : 






APPENDIX. 387 

" Read ! Spoil me that honeymoon, the money 's thine ! " 

And without waiting a reply, she hurried to her own apart- 
ment. 

Never did the arch-enemy of man select a better agent than 
George Pemberton. To a currish temper, he united a sufficiency 
of animal courage to make him dangerous ; and secret influen- 
ces, with which his revengeful kinswoman was totally unac- 
quainted, fitted him for the task. He knew that his retirement 
from a regiment, officered by men of property, and to whom he 
had made himself obnoxious by the idle attempt of veiling pov- 
erty under insolence, would be felt a triumph. But deadlier 
feelings toward the husband of Lucy Meadows urged him on to 
vengeance. He had secretly but passionately loved her ; and 
she had neither tact nor prudence to conceal a personal dislike, 
amounting to aversion. Keeping in the background the real 
causes which induced him to attempt the life of one against 
whom he could plead no injury, an alleged slight to his fair 
cousin would form " a very pretty quarrel" ; and with a conge- 
nial spirit as demoniac as his own, he set off, without delay, to the 
retired watering-place, where the handsomest and happiest pair 
that Connaught could produce were, in their own belief, enter- 
ing on an elysian existence. 

The barbarous punctilio of the times provided a man could 
boast gentle lineage almost prohibited a refusal to his call for 
satisfaction, no matter how flimsy the pretext might be under 
which he demanded a hostile meeting, and Pemberton availed 
himself of it. 

It was evening. R had been engaged in answering con- 
gratulatory letters, and had proceeded with his billets to the 
post. Lucy watched him from the inn-window, and thought her 
husband never looked so handsome as when, in turning the 
corner, he smiled and kissed his hand. She gazed at the sun, 
sinking gloriously in the far west, and in the flood of gold hid- 
ing his broad disc in the boundless waters of the Atlantic. 
Alas ! she little dreamed, poor girl, that 

" The moon that rose 
And promised rapture in the close," 

was fated to usher in a night on whose deep, deep darkness a 
ray of hope should never break again. 

Pemberton and his companion waylaid their intended victim ; 
felt himself too blessed with Lucy to risk aught that 



388 APPENDIX. 

could interrupt his happiness. Against the imputed offence he 
temperately remonstrated, and repudiated all intention of wound- 
ing the feelings of the lady, whose imaginary wrongs were 
made the basis to rest a quarrel on. A meeting he declined ; 
at least until he could send for and consult a friend. From inso- 
lence, Pemberton proceeded to verbal, and at last to personal 

insult. R 's was a brave and manly spirit. Good Heaven ! 

to feel the ruffian's whip upon his shoulders and not resent the 
outrage ! His temper yielded ; he longed to wipe disgrace 
away in blood. He urged delay no longer ; demanded instant 
satisfaction ; hurried into the inn-garden, and, within ten min- 
utes from the time he waved a passing little did he fancy it a 
last adieu, R was stretched, in death, upon the bowling- 
green ! 

WJiat Lucy suffered may be readily conceived. Human 
misery could not go farther : in one sheer plunge, to reach, 
from the very pinnacle of mortal happiness, the darkest abyss of 
despair. The imagination must fill out what fancy cannot 
pencil. 

And how did she feel, she, that guilty woman, when 

" The ruin that her rashness wrought " 

was told her ? 

Before her emissary had accomplished half his journey, Har- 
riette's better feelings had regained ascendency, and, when too 
late, she would have given thousands to have recalled her hire- 
ling kinsman. In charity, we will hope that her wounded pride 
sought vengeance short of destruction. Indeed, the effect of the 
sad intelligence, when it arrived, would go far to prove that such 
was the case. She was convulsed, fevered, delirious for two 
months after, and recovered strength only by the loss of reason ; 
and in a few years after closed her wretched existence in an 
asylum. 

I often called to memoiy the truth of Father MalachPs duel- 
ling deductions ; for the finale to the careers of Messieurs An- 
drews and Pemberton proved them correct to the letter. Both 
died violent, but inglorious deaths. 

Frank Andrews, some half-dozen years after he had placed 
the house of Sheive-nagarrew in mourning, repaired to the me- 
tropolis on business. The evening he arrived in Dublin he con- 
trived to fasten a quarrel on a linen-draper, whose sister he had 
insulted at the theatre, and hurried the devoted tradesman by the 



APPENDIX. 389 

first dawn of day to " the twelve acres." * The hour of retri- 
bution had come, for a man whose hand never clasped before 
a deadlier implement than a cloth-yard contrived to pop, par ac- 
cident, a quarter of an ounce of lead into the pericardium of Mr. 
Francis Andrews. 

Well, though he fell in the lap of honor, still, the artiste who 
sped him was a linen-draper ; that was certainly a sad drawback ; 
but, if Mr. Andrews's exit was not the thing, Mr. Pemberton's 
was even less distingue. 

Never had homicide, by permission of Irish gentlemen, prom- 
ised more satisfactory results to its perpetrator. The transmission 
of Harriette and her father the former to a madhouse, and 
the latter to a grave occured within the month, and, as heir- 
at-law, Mr. George Pemberton succeeded to the management of 
the estates and custody of the lunatic. Mr. Pemberton deter- 
mined that during his life his fair cousin should continue in seclu- 
sion, and fate gave a kind consent. 

It was a gray autumnal evening, when Pemberton, who had 
taken formal possession of his uncle's house, was carrying two 
strangers home to supper, whose acquaintence he had made 
that morning at the fair of town. It may be here neces- 
sary to remark, that R had a natural brother, to whom he 

had been generous and kind, and who had been often over- 
heard vowing eternal vengeance on the destroyer of his kinsman. 
He took his mother's name, was called William Halligan, but, 
by the country people, was better known by the sobriquet of 

Liaume Vaddagh. t Eight months had elapsed since R was 

killed by Pemberton, and people began to say that " George was 
safely seated in his saddle." To this opinion others dissented. 
Liaume Vaddagh, before his kinsman's death, had been held 
in light estimation. He drank freely, headed faction fights, and, 
more than once, had been hinted at in chapel as a gay deceiver. 
But a marvellous change since his brother's death had come over 
his wild youth ; whiskey never passed his lips, no inducement 
at fair or market could rank him in a faction fight ; his youth- 
ful compeers declared he was bewitched, but older men shook 
their heads, and hinted that the young Liaume Vaddagh, under 
a quiet exterior, was " fuller of mischief than a loaded blunder- 
buss." The old folks were right, for " Long William " only 
bode his time, like the red Kirkpatrick, to " strike sicker." 

# A division of the Phoenix Park, where duels have been fought by the hundred, 
t Anglice, Long William. 

00 * 



390 APPENDIX. 

Pemberton, although several monitory hints were given him, 
remained in false security ; and yet there were times that the 
altered habits of this wild young man, when coupled with his 
omnipresence in fair or market, or wherever else the place he 
frequented might be, went some length in creating suspicion 
in the mind of Pemberton. At the fair, on this day, he encoun- 
tered " Long William " more than once, and so did others, who 
noticed to each other a change equally remarkable in his habits 
and appearance. Liaume Vaddagh had hitherto worn the deep- 
est mourning, and avoided spirits as he would poison. On this 
day his sables were discarded, and he was gayly dressed ; while, 
with his " inky" garments, his unsocial habits appeared to have 
departed. He drank deep to his brother's memory, mention- 
ing that this was the birthday of the deceased. 

One other circumstance requires a passing notice. Lucy had 
frequently requested that " Long William " would come to see 
her, aware how strong the attachment was which had existed 
between her murdered husband and his wild half-brother. To 
every invitation the same answer was gratefully returned, " He 
would dutifully wait upon her when his vow should be accom- 
plished." What the vow was, none knew.- 

When evening came, and Mr. Pemberton had ordered his 
horse to the inn-door, Liaume Vaddagh was seen,' wrapped in 
his catamore, riding briskly from the market-town. The distance 
to reach the principal entrance to the park would require a de- 
tour of at least two miles, while a back gate opened upon the 
road that William took. There was no lodge, but Liaume Vad- 
dagh was seen to gain admission by a key, and carefully lock 
the gate afterward. The scene that followed was thus described 
by one of the strangers. 

On reaching the back entrance of the park, Mr. Pemberton 
unlocked the gate, and when he had again secured it, he turned 
to his guests, and bade them a courteous welcome. 

" This is the first time I have had the honor, gentlemen, to 
receive you at Mount Hazel. May I hope it will not be the 
last ? " The strangers bowed ; while a voice that seemed an 
echo, repeated in hollow and distinct tones, " The last ! " A gun 
exploded, Mr. Pemberton staggered and fell, the strangers' 
horses went off at speed, one rider managed to keep his 
saddle, while the other was roughly dismounted. The fallen 
horseman rolled into the ditch, and there, in mortal agony, he 
viewed the denouement of the tragedy. 



APPENDIX. 391 

A tall man, wrapped in a frieze great-coat, stepped leisurely 
from the back of the hedge, and quietly approached the body. 
He looked for a moment at the glassy eye and bloodless lips. 
" One barrel did the business ! " he muttered, and laid the gun in 
a slanting direction across the corpse. Then, taking a written 
paper from his pocket, he affixed it to the dead man's breast. 
All was methodically done ; a pin secured every corner of the 
placard, and these pins were placed carefully in the cuff of the 
murderer's catamore. That done, he coolly reloaded the dis- 
charged barrel. The stranger remarked that the gun had been 
prepared for concealment and assassination, for the barrels had 
been shortened by a foot. The murderer gazed on the dead 
body for a minute, but his hand never approached the pockets 
of his victim, except when he drew a gold watch from the fob, 
muttered it was " half-past seven," and cautiously returned the 
time-piece. The murder being done to his satisfaction, he led a 
horse into the avenue, unlocked and refastened the gate, and rode 
off leisurely. Half dead with fear, the stranger listened to the 
retiring horse-tramps, and crept cautiously from the ditch. He 
shuddered as he looked at the body, for, on the breast of the 
dead man, a paper, written in bold characters, bore the single 
sentence of " BLOOD FOR BLOOD ! " 

Lucy R , in widow's weeds, was sitting in her x drawing- 
room ; the gloom of twilight accorded with her " soul's sad- 
ness " ; for the period was approaching, when a being, orphaned 
long before it saw the light, was to claim a mother's care. Her 
past was frightful to recall, her future fearful to look forward to. 
What should she be were her hour of trial safely over ? A 
widowed mother at twenty ! Wrapped in sombre meditation, 
she did not hear the opening door, until, moving across the light, 
a tall figure arrested her attention, when standing within two 
yards. 

" Who are you ? " demanded the startled mourner. 

" William Halligan, lady, come to bid you an eternal farewell ! " 

A deep, low voice responded, 

" Brother of him in whom every feeling of this young heart 
was centred, and ever will be, I give you a widow's welcome. 
Sit down, William." 

" Lady, I dare not, for time is precious." 

" How often have I sent for you, William ! " 

" And think you, lady, that a whisper from you would not 
have brought me here at midnight ? Bound, however, by o, 



392 APPENDIX. 

secret vow, I dared not see you until I came to-night to say 
farewell." 

" Where are you going, William ? " 

" That Heaven and accident only can decide. The money 
which he whom we both lament bequeathed me was, months 
ago, transmitted to America, and there I sail to claim it." 

"I need protection, William. That hardened wretch he 
who robbed me of my husband rode past my window yester- 
day." 

" He will never repeat the offence," returned Long William, 
calmly. " But time hurries forward, and upon a few minutes, 
with me, life and death may depend. Should the promised in- 
fant be a boy, give him this, as a dear memento," and he took a 
gun from beneath his great-coat, and laid it on the table. " Tell 
him that a cross is filed deeply in the barrel that sped " 

" Whom, in the name of Heaven ? " exclaimed the lady, 
in alarm. 

" The slayer of his father ! And now, farewell for ever ! " 

He fell upon his knees, caught the lady's hand in his, and 
covered it with kisses. A low, shrill whistle was heard beneath 
the window. 

" It is the signal. May Heaven bless and comfort you ! 
Lady, farewell, for ever ! " 

Before the words were heard distinctly, he vanished as he 
entered. All knew that the homicide of George Pemberton was 
Liaume Vaddagh, and, in a wild community, 

" With whom revenge is virtue, " 

his memory is still handed down as one who did " the state 
some seryice." He sought the backwoods of the Illinois, led a 
hunter's life, and died in an Indian wigwam. 

It is only necessary to add, that the family of the unscrupu- 
lous duellist have been extinct for several years, while the de- 
scendant of the victimized bridegroom is prosperous in worldly 
circumstances. 

The circumstances under which I witnessed this fatal en- 
counter were purely accidental. I had been stopping at the same 

inn where poor R was passing his honeymoon, and had 

often admired a couple, whom Nature, it would seem, had created 
for each other. The evening when the wicked deed took place, 

for Pemberton's friend gave the false signal, and R was 

shot before he raised his pistol, I was in my bed-room, making 



APPENDIX. 393 

a trifling change in my toilet, preparatory to an excursion along 
the cliffs, when, without the customary knock upon the door, in 
rushed the chambermaid, 

" Sir ! sir ! " she exclaimed in a voice of wild alarm ; " run 
down stairs, for God's sake ! They 're going to shoot the hand- 
some gentleman ! " 

Before I could ask a question, or comprehend what the fright- 
ened girl meant, pop went a pistol in the garden. I jumped to 
the window, it overlooked the bowling-green, and there, 
upheld by the gardener and a boy, I saw a gentlemen in the 
agonies of death. Half undressed, I hurried down stairs, and 
saw the two men mount their horses and ride coolly from the 
yard, and on reaching the scene of action found that with poor 
R suffering was at an end and life was extinct. 

Thirty years after the said event, I was marching a wing of 
the d through Johnstown, where we were to halt for the 
night, when I received a visit from the squire, to invite me to 
dinner, and offer me a bed. Both were willingly accepted ; for 
the village hostelrie was ill-kept and sadly overcrowded. On in- 
quiry, I found that the gentleman to whose hospitality I was 

about to be indebted was the son of poor R , whom I had 

seen shot at East Port ; and, as the reminiscence might be un- 
pleasant, I kept it to myself. I was most kindly entertained, and 
after supper in those days a favorite meal in Ireland was 
conducted by a gray-haired attendant to my sleeping-chamber. 

" Have you been long in the family ? " I inquired. 

" I have lived in Johnstown under three generations." 

"Then you remember some family changes in your time, 
John ? " 

" Ah, many," said the old man ; " some for the better, and 
others for the worse." 

" You lived with the father of Mr. R ? " 

" I lived with the best master and the handsomest man that 
ever fell in a wicked duel." 

" I saw him shot." 

The old man started, crossed himself devoutly, and poured 
out a supplication for mercy to the departed. " May I ask your 
name, sir ? " 

I told it. 

" I remember it well. You were the young officer who held 
the poor master in your arms, when you sent the gardener and 
his boy to fetch the doctors." 



394 APPENDIX. 

.. 

" I am that person, and would have acted as your master's 
second, could I have reached the bowling-green in time. But 
they made short work of it." 

" Ah, they did, indeed," said the old man, " but the vengeance 
of the Almighty has pursued them hard." 

" Did he who killed your master come to an untimely end ? " 
I demanded. 

" Come into the next room, and I will tell you, sir." 

He lifted the candles from the table, and led me into an ad- 
joining apartment. It seemed a sort of private room or study. 
There were a couple of book-cases, whose shelves were tolerably 
filled, a collection of stuffed birds, and a glass press above the 
mantel-piece, to which, when he had placed the lights on the 
marble slab, he selected and applied a key, and from two pegs 
within lifted down an antiquated weapon. I took the gun and 
examined it carefully. In its day it was, no doubt, held in high 
estimation. The pans and touch-holes were bushed with gold, 
and the mountings of the stock were elaborately finished, the 
finishings being silver. But the barrels were shortened by a 
foot. 

" Why, John, these barrels have been razeed. How short they 
are ! " 

" They were found long enough to do the work of ven- 
geance ! " returned the old man, dryly. " See ye, sir, this 
cross ? " 

" Yes ; the file has deeply indented it.' 

" Through that barrel a summons to eternity was carried to a 
ruthless heart. May God be gracious to your soul, Liaume Vad- 
dagh ! You took your time to do your work, and did it well." 

The old man replaced the weapon on its pegs, locked the 
glass case, conducted me to my room, bade me " Good night," 
and left me to sleep, perchance to dream. 



THE END. 



IETURN CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT 

O 202 Main Library 



OAN PERIOD 1 
HOME USE 


2 


3 


i 


5 


6 



ALL BOOKS MAY BE RECALLED AFTER 7 DAYS 



\-yev loans rr.?v i?c i 

Renewals and recharges may be i.iade 4 days prior to uue date 

DUE AS STAMPED BELOW 



LS8RARY tlftP r 



>CT 



CIRCULATION D 



PT. 



ILA 



\ 



i 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY 
>, 60m, 1 783 BERKELEY, CA 94720 



U \ 









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 



.